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Analytical Electron Microscopy of Minerals

  • G. W. Lorimer
  • G. Cliff

Abstract

A multitude of analytical techniques which incorporate an electron optical column in the probe-forming and/or image-forming system have been developed during the last twenty years. These include the surface-sensitive technique of Auger electron spectroscopy, thermionic emission microscopy and photoelectron microscopy; the analysis of “bulk” specimens by electron probe microanalysis and the analysis of “thin” specimens by X-ray or electron spectrometry. Auger electron spectroscopy has been developed into a powerful tool for the chemical analysis of surface layers (Chang, 1973). It is particularly sensitive to the light elements C, H and O and has a spatial resolution for analysis of a few microns. Thermionic emission microscopy and photoelectron microscopy are useful techniques for studying phase distributions at a resolution in the micron range (Wegmann, 1972; Kinsman and Aaronson, 1972) but they cannot be classified as techniques of quantitative chemical analysis. Electron probe microanalysis is established as a standard tool for the analysis of bulk specimens, and it has made a very important contribution to mineralogy. The spatial resolution for analysis is a few microns with limits of detection, typically, 10–50 ppm. Procedures for carrying out quantitative analyses are well established and have been discussed by numerous authors (see, for example, Andersen, 1973; Heinrich, 1967).

Keywords

Auger Electron Spectroscopy Thin Foil Bulk Specimen Thin Specimen Crystal Spectrometer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. W. Lorimer
  • G. Cliff

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