Analytical Electron Microscopy of Minerals

  • G. W. Lorimer
  • G. Cliff

Abstract

A multitude of analytical techniques which incorporate an electron optical column in the probe-forming and/or image-forming system have been developed during the last twenty years. These include the surface-sensitive technique of Auger electron spectroscopy, thermionic emission microscopy and photoelectron microscopy; the analysis of “bulk” specimens by electron probe microanalysis and the analysis of “thin” specimens by X-ray or electron spectrometry. Auger electron spectroscopy has been developed into a powerful tool for the chemical analysis of surface layers (Chang, 1973). It is particularly sensitive to the light elements C, H and O and has a spatial resolution for analysis of a few microns. Thermionic emission microscopy and photoelectron microscopy are useful techniques for studying phase distributions at a resolution in the micron range (Wegmann, 1972; Kinsman and Aaronson, 1972) but they cannot be classified as techniques of quantitative chemical analysis. Electron probe microanalysis is established as a standard tool for the analysis of bulk specimens, and it has made a very important contribution to mineralogy. The spatial resolution for analysis is a few microns with limits of detection, typically, 10–50 ppm. Procedures for carrying out quantitative analyses are well established and have been discussed by numerous authors (see, for example, Andersen, 1973; Heinrich, 1967).

Keywords

Tungsten Fluores Tate Auger Lanthanum 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. W. Lorimer
  • G. Cliff

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