Myocardial and Endocardial Pacing Systems — An Appraisal

  • M. Bilitch


There are two surgical approaches for permanent ventricular cardiac stimulation. The objective in both is the placement of an electrode (cathode) or electrodes (cathode and anode) in a position to effect myocardial stimulation with a minimal quantity of pulsed electrical energy over a long term (Fig. 1).


Lead Placement Lead Fracture Transvenous Approach Endocardial Lead Strength Duration Curve 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin-Heidelberg 1975

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  • M. Bilitch

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