Interpretation and Implementation of International Radiation Protection Standards for Cardiac Pacemakers in the USA

  • R. E. Cunningham


The cardiac pacemaker is the first prosthetic device powered by nuclear energy to achieve practical application in man. Nuclear batteries in pacemakers have the potential of providing significant benefits to patients by extending the operating life of the pacemaker well beyond that which can be achieved by the current generation of pacemakers powered by mercury batteries. Any use of radioactive materials, however, involves an implied risk of genetic or somatic effects through exposure to external radiation, or inhalation or ingestion of the radioactive material. In the case of nuclear pacemakers, the benefits are received by a relatively small group of patients while the general population is placed at some risk.


Cardiac Pacemaker Environmental Impact Statement Bearer Population Radiological Impact Pacemaker Patient 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin-Heidelberg 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. E. Cunningham

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