There are 20000 babies born with congenital heart defects each year in the United States (Overall, 1972). Of these defects 10% have a genetic etiology (Vernant etal., 1968; Doyle and Rutkowski, 1970; Emanuel, 1970; Campbell, 1973; Neill, 1973) and 10% may be of viral origin (Goerttler, 1970a), with rubella cardiopathies accounting for 2.8% (Jackson, 1968; Vernant etal., 1968). 80% of all congenital heart defects remain etiologically unexplained (Goerttler, 1970a). This vast majority of heart anomalies results from the interaction of many genes with environmental factors (Doyle and Rutkowski, 1970).


Chick Embryo Congenital Heart Defect Endocardial Cushion Atrioventricular Canal Heart Malformation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomas Pexieder
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut d’Histologie et d’Embryologie, Faculté de MédecineUniversité de LausanneLausanneSuisse/Switzerland

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