Community Facilities and Sectorisation

  • R. K. Freudenberg
Part of the Psychiatrie der Gegenwart book series (GEGENWART, volume 3)


Institutions for the mentally ill were originally created because psychiatric patients, particularly those with persisting disabilities and inadequacies of personality, could not cope and tended to come to harm in the community at large. An increasing number found their way into prisonsor workhouses of deplorable standards. This in turn led to greater antagonism in the community against the unfortunate sufferers from mental disorders. Institutions were assumed to provide better care for them and it was not sufficiently realised what sort of effects the transplantation of people, often into remote country areas, far distant from their original residencies would have.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Goffman, A.: Asylums. Essay on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates. New York: Doubleday 1961.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mcatee, O.B., Zircles, G.A.: The evaluation of a state hospital into a human service centre. Hosp. Community Psychiat. 25, 383–401 (1974).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cochran, B.: Conference reports. (1). The future role of the state hospital. (11). The chaning mental hospital outgoing alternatives. (111). Where is my home? The closing of the state hospitals. Hosp. Community Psychiat. 25, 383–101 (1974).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wing, J.K., Brown, G.W.: Institutionalism and schizophrenia. Cambridge: University Press 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barton, R.: Institutional neurosis. Bristol: Wright 1966.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Freudenberg, R.K.: Das Anstalts-Syndrom und seine Überwindung. Nervenarzt, 165 172 (1962). 7. Freudenberg, R.K., Bennett, D.H., May, A.R.: The relative importance of physical and com-munity methods in the treatment of schizophrenia. Congress Report ii International Congress of Psychiatry, 1957.Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    Sabskin, M.: Theoretical models in community and social psychiatry (eds: Roberts, L.M., Halleck, S.L., Loeb, M.B. ). Madison: University of Winconsin Press 1966.Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    Hunter, P., Macalpine, I.: 300 years of psychiatry. Oxford: University Press 1964.Google Scholar
  9. a. DHSS: Statistical report series No. 4.5.6. London: HMSO 1970–1971.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Community mental health centre. An analysis of existing models. Joint information service of the American Psychiatric Association and the National Association of Mental Health. Congress Catalog Card No. 64–8013 (1964).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Greenberg, I.M.: Community mental health and the state hospital. Soc. Psychiat. 9, 77–84 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tripartite report mental health services after unification. London: B.M.A. 1972.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    The role of the community physician. Lancet 1974II, 30.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Caplan, G.: Principles of preventive psychiatry. London: Tavistock Publications 1964.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bindman, J., Spiegel, A.D. (eds.): Perspectives in community mental health. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co. 1969.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stein, Z., Süsser, M.: Bereavement as a precipitate event in mental illness, psychiatric epidemiology. Published for Nuffield Prov. Hospital Trust, p. 327–333. Oxford: University Press 1970.Google Scholar
  17. 16a.
    a. Lindeman, E.: The meaning of crisis in individual and family living. Teachers College record 57, 310–315 (1956).Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Bennett, D.H.: Principles underlying a new rehabilitation workshop in evaluating a community psychiatric service (eds. Wing, J.K., Hailey, A.M. ). Published by Nuffield Prov. Hospital Trust by Oxford: University Press 1972.Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    DHSS: Annual Report. London: HMSO 1973.Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    Sheridan, M.D.: The developmental progress of infants and young children. London: HMSO 1969.Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    Brazelton, T.B.: Neonatal behavioural assessment scale. Clinics in developmental med. Philadelphia: Heinemann, Lippincott, T.B., Co. 1974.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Kempe, C.H., Helfer, R.C.: Helping the battered child and his family. Philadelphia, Ferante: T.B. Lippincot Co. 1972.Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    Children in danger. Lancet, 19741, 1090.Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    Szuseck, S.A., Berlin, I.V.: The joys and sorrows of parenthood. The group for advancement of psychiatry. New York: Charles Scriber 1973.Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    Barton, H.H., Barton, S.S.: Children and their parents in brief therapy. New York: Behavioural publications 1972.Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    Dix, Carol: Parents can learn. New Society 29, 484–485 (1974).Google Scholar
  27. 25a.
    Charing, G., Clark, G., Harrison, J., Radford, J., Riches, G.: Blackfriars settlement, 44/47 Nelson Square. London: Southwark 1973.Google Scholar
  28. 26.
    Brown, G.W., Sklain, F., Harris, T.O., Birley, J.L.T.: Life events and psychiatric disorders. Part 1. Psychol. Med. 3, 24–87 (1973).—Nature of causal links, Part 11. Psychol. Med. 3, 159–176 (1973).Google Scholar
  29. 27.
    Phillips, L.: Causes of human failure. New York, London: Academic Press 1968.Google Scholar
  30. 28.
    Volunteers: Social services directory, p. 89. Bedford: Square Press 1973.Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    Steward, R.: The reality of management. London: Heineman 1967.Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    Herzberg, F.: Motivation to work. New York: John Wiley 1967.Google Scholar
  33. 31.
    Herzberg, F.: Work and the nature of man. London: Staples 1968.Google Scholar
  34. 32.
    Morbidity statistics in general practice. Second National Study, 1970–71. Studies on medical and population subjects., No. 26. London: HMSO 1974.Google Scholar
  35. 33.
    Present state and future needs of general practice. Report of the Royal College of General Practitioners, London, 1970.Google Scholar
  36. 34.
    Shepherd, M., Cooper, B., Brown, A.C., Kallen, G.W.: Psychiatric illness in general practice. Oxford: University Press 1966.Google Scholar
  37. 35.
    DHSS: The organisation of group practice. London: HMSO 1971.Google Scholar
  38. 36.
    Health and the growing dilemma. New York: McKinsey Comp. Inc. 1974.Google Scholar
  39. 37.
    Report of the committee on local authority personal and allied social services. Seebohm report. London: HMSO 1968. 38. Goldberg, M.E., Neill, J.E.: Social work in general practice. London: George Allen, Unwin 1972.Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    Greenberg, E.M.: Evaluating the community psychiatric service. Mem. Fund., 44, 246. Milbank 1966.Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    Sainsbury, P., Grad De Alarcon, J.: Evaluating a service in Sussex in roots of evaluation. WING, J.K., Heifner, A. Published for the Nuffield Prov. Hosp. Trust, p. 239–255. Oxford: University Press 1973.Google Scholar
  42. 41.
    Wilkie, J.R.: Day hospital and day centre in an English county. Proc. royal Soc. Med. 67, 677–680 (1974).Google Scholar
  43. 42.
    Policy for action: A Symposium on the planning of a comprehensive district psychiatric service. For Nuffield Prov. Hospital Trust. Oxford: University Press 1973.Google Scholar
  44. 43.
    Providing a comprehensive district psychiatric service London: HMSO 1974.Google Scholar
  45. 44.
    APTE, R.F.: Halfway houses. Occasional pages on social administration. No. 27. London: Bell 1968.Google Scholar
  46. 45.
    Early, D.T.: Bristol Industrial Therapy Housing Association: a contribution to domestic resettlement. Brit. med. J. 1973 III, 491–94.Google Scholar
  47. 46.
    Wing, J.K., Bennett, D.H., Denham, J.: Industrial rehabilitation of long stay schizophrenic patients. MRC Memo No. 42. London: HMSO 1964.Google Scholar
  48. 47.
    Greer, C., Wing, J.K.: Schizophrenia at home. National Schizophrenia Fellowship, Surbiton. Surrey 1974.Google Scholar
  49. 48.
    Brothwood, J.: The organisation and development of services for the aged with special reference to the mentally ill. Recent developments in psycho-geriatric care. Ashford, Kent: RMPA 1971.Google Scholar
  50. 49.
    Whitehead, J.A., Manikar, G.: Geriatric psychiatry Lancet 19741, 1213.Google Scholar
  51. 50.
    Whitehead, J.A.: Psychiatric disorders in old age. A handbook for the clinical team. Harvey Miller & Metcalf 1974.Google Scholar
  52. 51.
    Sir Martin Roth: Evaluating services for the elderly. The principle of providing a service for psychogeriatric patients., p. 215–238 in Roots of evaluation. Published for Nuffield Prov. Hosp. Trust. Oxford: University Press 1973.Google Scholar
  53. 52.
    Gleisner, J., Hewitt, K., Mann, S.: Reasons for admission in evaluating a community psychiatric service, ed. Wing, J.K., Hailey, A.M., p. 199–221. Oxford: University Press 1972.Google Scholar
  54. 53.
    Freudenberg, R.K.: A new pattern of day and in-patient care (in preparation, 1974).Google Scholar
  55. 54.
    List of DHSS promoted research and development 1972/73. Portfolio for health 2. For Nuffield Prov. Hospital Trust. Oxford: University Press 1973.Google Scholar
  56. 55.
    DHSS: Psychiatric case registers. Proceedings of the Conference on Psychiatric Case Registers. London: HMSO 1974.Google Scholar
  57. 56.
    DHSS: Hospital services for the mentally ill. H.M. (71), 97. London: HMSO 1971.Google Scholar
  58. 57.
    DHSS: Report of the central health services council committee on the function of the district general hospital. London: HMSO 1969.Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    DHSS: Psychogeriatric assessment units. H.M. (70) 11. London: HMSO 1970.Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    DHSS: Service for mental illness related to old age H.M. (72) 71. London: HMSO 1972.Google Scholar
  61. 60.
    DHSS: Better services for the mentally handicapped. London: HMSO 1974.Google Scholar
  62. 61.
    Minimum Minimum standards in hospitals for the mentally D.S. D. 86/72, DHSS, 1972.Google Scholar
  63. 62.
    Varah Chad.: The samaritans in the 1970’s. London: Constable 1973.Google Scholar
  64. 63.
    Treatment of mentally disordered offenders. Interim report of butler committee. London: DHSS 1974.Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    Regional security units. Report of departmental working party. London: DHSS 1974.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. K. Freudenberg

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations