Advertisement

Head Size Determination and the Morphogenesis of Satellite Phage P4

  • Richard Goldstein
  • Judith Lengyel
  • Gail Pruss
  • Kathleen Barrett
  • Richard Calendar
  • Erich Six
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology / Ergebnisse der Mikrobiologie und Immunitätsforschung book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 68)

Abstract

Satellite phage P4 is a virus which can only make plaques on E. coli strains which carry P2 or a related helper prophage (Six, 1963; Six and Klug, 1973). P4 requires all the head and tail genes of its helper prophage for
successful lytic multiplication (Six, 1975). As expected from this genetic data, satellite and helper phages appear similar under the electron microscope (Fig. 1; Inman et al., 1971). However, the satellite phage head is smaller than the head of its helper, and contains a smaller genome (m.w. = 7 × 106 daltons, in contrast to 22 × 106 daltons for the P2 helper genome; Inman and Bertani, 1969; Inman et al., 1971). The P2 and P4 genomes are not homologous, since they show ≦ 1% cross-hybridization (Lindqvist, 1974). The small P4 head is never found in cells infected by the helper phage P2 alone. Thus, satellite phage P4 carries the potential for specific head size determination (Gibbs et al., 1973).

Keywords

Head Size Phage Particle Major Capsid Protein Helper Phage Phage Head 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bancroft, J. B., Hiebert, E.: Formation of an infectious nucleoprotein from protein and nucleic acid isolated from a small spherical virus. Virology 32, 354–356 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrett, K., Barclay, S., Calendar, R., Lindqvist, B. H., Six, E. W.: Reciprocal transactivation in a two chromosome phage system. In: Mechanisms of virus disease (C. Fred Fox, ed.). Academic Press 1974, in pressGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrett, K., Calendar, R.: Expression of the satellite phage P4 genome. (1975) In preparationGoogle Scholar
  4. Bertani, L. E.: Abortive induction of bacteriophage P2. Virology 36, 87–103 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bertani, L. E., Bertani, G.: Preparation and characterization of temperate non-inducible bacteriophage P2. J. gen. Virol. 6, 201–212 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bijlenga, R. K. L., Scraba, D., Kellenberger, E.: Studies on the morphopoiesis of the head of T-even phage. IX. τ-particles: their morphology, kinetics of appearance and possible precursor function. Virology 56, 250–267 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Caspar, D. L. D., Klug, A.: Physical principles in the construction of regular viruses. Cold Spr. Harb. Symp. quant. Biol. 27, 1–24 (1962)Google Scholar
  8. Edgar, R. S., Wood, W. B., Jr.: Morphogenesis of bacteriophage T4 in extracts of mutant-infected cells. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 55, 498–505 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gibbs, W., Goldstein, R. N., Wiener, R., Lindqvist, B., Calendar, R.: Satellite bacteriophage P4: characterization of mutants in two essential genes. Virology 53, 24–39 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hohn, T., Hohn, B.: Activity of a head-like structure for in vitro packaging of λ phage DNA. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 71, 2372–2376 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Inman, R. B., Bertani, G.: Heat denaturation of P2 bacteriophage DNA: compositional heterogeneity. J. molec. Biol. 44, 533–549 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Inman, R. B., Schnös, M., Simon, L. D., Six, E. W., Walker, D. H.: Some morphological properties of P4 bacteriophage and P4 DNA. Virology 44, 67–72 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kaiser, A.D., Masuda, T.: In vitro assembly of bacteriophage À heads. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 70, 260–264 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kellenberger, E., Ryter, A., Sechaud, J.: Electron microscope study of DNA-containing plasma. II. Vegetative and mature phage DNA as compared with normal bacterial nucleosides in different physiological states. J. biophys. biochem. Cytol. 4, 671–678 (1958)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. King, J., Laemmli, U.: Bacteriophage T4 tail assembly: structural proteins and their genetic identification. J. molec. Biol. 75, 315–338 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Laemmli, U. K.: Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature (Lond.) 227, 680–689 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Laemmli, U.K., Favre, M.: Maturation of the head of bacteriophage T4. I. DNA packaging events. J. molec. Biol. 80, 575–599 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lengyel, J. A.: A study of bacteriophage P2 gene products and head morphogenesis. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley (1972)Google Scholar
  19. Lengyel, J., Goldstein, R., Marsh, M., Calendar, R.: Structure and synthesis of the bacteriophage P2 tail. Virology (1974). In pressGoogle Scholar
  20. Lengyel, J. A., Goldstein, R. N., Marsh, M., Sunshine, M. G., Calendar, R.: Bacteriophage P2 head morphogenesis: cleavage of the major capsid protein. Virology 53, 1–23 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lindahl, G.: Genetic map of bacteriophage P2. Virology 39, 839–860 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lindahl, G.: Bacteriophage P2: replication of the chromosome requires a protein which acts only on the genome that coded for it. Virology 42, 522–533 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lindahl, G.: On the control of transcription in bacteriophage P2. Virology 46, 620–633 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lindahl, G.: Characterization of bacteriophage P2 conditional-lethal mutants. Molec. gen. Genet. 128, 249–260 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lindqvist, B.: Expression of phage transcription in P2 lysogens infected with helper-dependent coliphage P4. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 71, 2752–2755 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lindqvist, B. H., Bøvre, K.: Asymmetric transcription of the coliphage P2 genome during infection. Virology 49, 690–699 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Luftig, R. B., Lundh, N. P.: Bacteriophage T4 morphogenesis: isolation, partial characterization and fate of gene 21-defective Tau-particles. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 70, 1636–1640 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Luftig, R., Wood, W. B., Jr., Okinaka, R.: Bacteriophage T4 head morphogenesis. On the nature of gene 49-defective heads and their role as intermediates. J. molec. Biol. 57, 555–573 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Murray, K., Murray, N. E.: Terminal nucleotide sequences of DNA from temperate coliphages. Nature (Lond.) New Biol. 243, 134–139 (1973)Google Scholar
  30. Padmanabhan, R., Wu, R., Calendar, R.: Base-sequence of the cohesive ends of bacteriophage P2. J. biol. Chem. (1974). In pressGoogle Scholar
  31. Pruss, G., Goldstein, R. N., Calendar, R.: In vitro packaging of satellite phage P4 DNA. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 71, 2367–2371 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Richards, K. E., Williams, R. C., Calendar, R.: Mode of DNA packing within bacteriophage heads. J. molec. Biol. 78, 255–259 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Six, E. W.: A defective phage depending on phage P2. Bacteriol. Proc., p. 138 (1963)Google Scholar
  34. Six, E. W.: Dependence of bacteriophage P4 on genes of its helper phage, P2. Virology (1975). In pressGoogle Scholar
  35. Six, E. W., Klug, C.: Bacteriophage P4: a satellite virus depending on a helper such as P2. Virology 51, 327–344 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Six, E. W., Linqvist, B. H.: Multiplication of bacteriophage P4 in the absence of replication of DNA of its helper. Virology 43, 8–15 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sunshine, M. B., Thorn, M., Gibbs, W., Calendar, R., Kelly, B.: P2-phage amber mutants: characterization by use of a polarity suppressor. Virology 46, 691–702 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Thomas, R., Bertani, L. E.: On the control of the replication of temperate bacteriophages superinfecting immune hosts. Virology 24, 241–253 (1964)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wang, J. C., Martin, K. V., Calendar, R.: On the sequence similarity of the cohesive ends of coliphage P4, P2 and 186 deoxyribonucleic acid. Biochemistry (Wash.) 12, 2119–2123 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Goldstein
    • 1
  • Judith Lengyel
    • 2
  • Gail Pruss
  • Kathleen Barrett
  • Richard Calendar
    • 3
  • Erich Six
    • 4
  1. 1.Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular GeneticsHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Biology DivisionMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  3. 3.Molecular Biology Dept.University of CaliforniaBerkelyUSA
  4. 4.Microbiology Dept.University of Iowa Medical CenterIowa CityUSA

Personalised recommendations