Care and Handling of Sea Urchin Eggs, Embryos, and Adults (Principally North American Species)

  • R. Hinegardner


Sea urchins are found along almost all coastlines, usually on shallow, rocky bottom, although some species live in deep water or in sand or silt (Table 2A.1). Seen from above, sea urchins are round or somewhat heart-shaped; from the side, they are more or less flat. Scutillidae — here referred to as sand dollars — are very flat. All sea urchins have spines: very long and sometimes poisonous as on the Centveohinidae, short and blunt as on the limpet-like Colobooentrotus, or very small and numerous as on the sand dollar. Sexes are separate — except for rare hermaphrodites — but can seldom be distinguished by external characteristics. Exceptions are Lytechinus and Psammechinus, the male and female of which have slightly different gonopores.


North American Species Cortical Granule Vitelline Membrane Marine Biological Laboratory Sand Dollar 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1975

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  • R. Hinegardner

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