Anatomical Features of the Inner Ear in Submammalian Vertebrates

  • Irwin L. Baird
Part of the Handbook of Sensory Physiology book series (SENSORY, volume 5 / 1)


Retzius (1881, 1884) reviewed earlier literature and reported the first extensive studies of the anatomy of the internal ear in lower vertebrates representing diverse taxonomic assemblages. Despite the limitations of techniques then available, the general accuracy, attention to detail, and superb illustrations that characterized those reports have made them classics in the field, and they are still widely cited as sole or primary anatomical source material in aural studies. During the ensuing fifty years, technical advances in light microscopic techniques were applied to circumscribed problems concerning the ear in lower vertebrates, but major interest centered about transmission mechanisms in those animals and on the labyrinth in mammals. A second major reference source appeared at the end of that period when de Burlet (1934) summarized many of the previous studies and added significant new information on the periotic (perilymphatic) labyrinth. Since the appearance of the de Burlet publication, Werner (1960) has offered a broad comparative anatomical coverage of the ear, but the most recent reviews related to submammalian auditory anatomy limit their coverage to specific taxonomic assemblages and/or incorporate anatomical information within a treatment of hearing (van Bergeijk, 1967; Schwartzkopff, 1968; Baird, 1970a; Lowenstein, 1971; Lavolga, 1971; Smith and Takasaka, 1971).


Hair Cell Basilar Membrane Tectorial Membrane Otic Capsule Basilar Papilla 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag, Berlin · Heidelberg 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irwin L. Baird
    • 1
  1. 1.HersheyUSA

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