Whereas pitch-angle diffusion is customarily invoked as a loss mechanism for the radiation belts, diffusion in Φ is usually associated with creation of the belts. This is especially true of radial diffusion in which M and J are conserved, since particles then gain energy in the process of diffusing toward the earth from an external source (see below). Diffusion in Φ (radial diffusion) at constant M and J thus plays the dual role of injecting particles into the magnetospheric interior and accelerating the particles thereby injected to the energies observed.
KeywordsConvection Helium Coherence Flare Assure
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