Whereas pitch-angle diffusion is customarily invoked as a loss mechanism for the radiation belts, diffusion in Φ is usually associated with creation of the belts. This is especially true of radial diffusion in which M and J are conserved, since particles then gain energy in the process of diffusing toward the earth from an external source (see below). Diffusion in Φ (radial diffusion) at constant M and J thus plays the dual role of injecting particles into the magnetospheric interior and accelerating the particles thereby injected to the energies observed.
KeywordsRadial Diffusion Radiation Belt Spectral Density Function Drift Frequency Sudden Impulse
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