Vertebral Surgery

  • Ralph B. Cloward


As traffic casualties increase in number, injuries to the spine become more complex and present a great challenge to the surgeon. The spine, from all approaches, is surrounded by important structures. Since exposure of the operative site is often limited, these operations should be performed only by well-trained surgeons who are skilled in the use of the highly specialized instruments now available for spinal surgery. Due to the flexibility of the spine, surgical instruments used to excise bone were in the past limited to a biting rongeur or a hammer and chisel. Now the air drill, rotating at 100,000 rpm and having minimal torque, is used to sculpt the spinal column.


Cervical Spine Spinal Fusion Cervical Spondylosis Fibula Graft Odontoid Fracture 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralph B. Cloward

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