Classification of Stratified Copper and Lead-Zinc Deposits and the Regularities of Their Distribution
Confined to variegated carbonate-terrigenous formations, sedimentary copper deposits are subdivided into shallow-marine (Mansfeld), lagoon-deltaic (Dzhezkazgan, Udokan) and lacustrine-alluvial (Priuralye, the Colorado Plateau). Enclosed in grey carbonate formations, sedimentary lead-zinc deposits are confined to shallow-marine carbonate sediments (Mirgalimsay) and coastal-marine terrigenous — carbonate deposits (Sumsar, Uch-Kulach). The transgressive or regressive development of the paleobasin determines one or other type of the age migration of ore-bearing deposits and zoning of mineralization. The confinement of sedimentary copper and lead-zinc deposits to marginal parts of platforms, avlakogens, foredeeps and miogeosynclines is characteristic.
Igneous-sedimentary copper and lead-zinc are formed due to subfluvial, more rarely terrestrial acid and basic volcanic activity and in the distance of them.
Copper deposits are formed in connection: 1) with subfluvial acid and basic dacite and other formations; pyrite deposits of the South Urals, the North Caucasus; 2) with terrestrial basic and acid volcanism (paragenesis of basalt liparite and variegated formations; the Upper Lake and White Pine in the USA, the Minusinsk depression in the USSR).
Lead-zinc deposits are formed: 1) near the focuses of volcanic activity (liparite, andesite — dacite — liparite and other formations; the Ore Altay); 2) in a lateral (or some chronological) distance of the focuses of volcanic activity (siliceous — terrigenous — carbonate and other formations; Zhairem (Atasuy) etc. in Kazakhstan, Filischay in Aserbaijan, Rammelsberg and Meggen in Western Germany).
KeywordsZinc Migration Sulphide Depression Siliceous
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