Endocrine Evalution of Male Fertility Disorders

  • B. Lunenfeld
  • M. Glezerman
Part of the Handbuch der Urologie / Encyclopedia of Urology book series (HDBUROL, volume 16)


Normal reproductive processes of males depend endocrinologically on the the presence of a normal responsive hypothalamus, pituitary gland, testes, and accessory glands. These must be controlled by a balanced and coordinated function of gonadotropin-releasing hormones, gonadotropic hormones, and testicular hormones and metabolites. The axis between hypothalamus and target organ, the testes, is semiautonomous as its function is controlled by various feedback mechanisms. However, dysfunction of other endocrine axes (adrenal, thyroid, etc.) may influence its function and may interrupt the delicate interaction between different components. Furthermore, extrinsic stimuli influence this system via cortical pathways. Any disruption in the delicately coordinated interaction between the integrated components of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testes axis, which must operate within precise quantitative limits and accurate temporal sequences, may lead to testicular dysfunction. Either the spermatogenic or the steroidogenic compartment or both may be affected.


Testosterone Level Leydig Cell Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Male Infertility Luteinizing Hormone Level 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Lunenfeld
  • M. Glezerman

There are no affiliations available

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