Identification of Biotic Constituents

  • Alan Stanley Horowitz
  • Paul Edwin Potter


We have endeavored to provide a brief, elementary summary of the groups of fossils one is likely to encounter and recognize in thin sections at magnifications of 10 to 100 and to indicate where additional information is available. Our coverage includes 18 major fossil groups.


Shell Surface Shell Layer Coralline Alga Shell Wall Prismatic Layer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Microfacies References

  1. Agip Mineraria, 1959, Microfacies Italiana: S. Donato Milanese, AGIP Mineraria, 35 p., 145 pIs. Beautifully illustrated, generally two or three photomicrographs per plate; little text. Plates arranged by age (Carboniferous to Miocene). Biotic constituents, principally foraminifers and algae, commonly are identified to generic and specific levels and names are indexed. Pertinent bibliography.Google Scholar
  2. Bonet, Frederico, 1952, La facies Urgoniana del Cretácico Medio en la región de Tampico: Asoc. Mexicana Geólogos Petroleros Bol., v. 4, p. 153-262, 50 figs. Fifty photomicrographs (1 to 3 per page) illustrate the major facies and biotic constituents of this middle Cretaceous sequence.Google Scholar
  3. Bonet, Frederico, 1956, Zonificación microfaunistica de las calizas Cretacicas del este de Mexico: Asoc. Mexicana Geologos Petroleros Bol., v. 8, p. 389–488, 31 pIs., 4 figs., 3 tables (reprinted XXCongreso Geol. Internatl., 102 p.).Principally taxonomic discussion and description of foraminifers, tintinnines, and problematic fossils that were used to zone the late Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks of eastern Mexico. Mostly two figures per plate; excellent photomicrographs for such high magnification (commonly 100 to 500 power). Identifications largely to specific level. English abstract.Google Scholar
  4. Borza, Karol, 1969, Die Mikrofazies und Mikrofossilien des Oberjuras und der Unterkreide der Klippenzone der Westkarpaten: Bratislava, Slovenskej Akademie Vied, 124p., 88pls., 12 figs.Not seen.Google Scholar
  5. Bozorgnia, Fathollah, and Banafti, SALEH, 1964, Microfacies and microorganisms of the Paleozoic through Tertiary sediments of some parts of Iran: Teheran, National Iranian Oil Company, 22 p., 158 pIs.Brief stratigraphic text and appropriate references introduce excellent photomicrographs arranged by age (Precambrian to Oligocene); biotic debris of Cambrian to Oligocene age illustrated. Identifications, largely of foraminifers, are to generic and specific level.Google Scholar
  6. Carozzi, A. V., and Textoris, D. A., 1967, Paleozoic carbonate microfacies of the Eastern Stable Interior (U.S.A.): Leiden, E. J. Brill, 41 p., 100 pIs., 13 figs. (International Sedimentary Petrographical Series 11).General stratigraphic introduction and short bibliographies for individual Paleozoic systems (Ordovician through Permian). Two photomicrographs per plate. Full range of biotic debris illustrated; identifications to major fossil group. Brief environmental interpretations.Google Scholar
  7. Cita, M. B., 1965, Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary microfacies from the southern Alps (northern Italy): Leiden, E. J. Brill, 99 p., 117 pIs., 17 figs. (International Sedimentary Petrographical Series 8).Stratigraphic introduction, bibliography, and stratigraphically arranged plates. Biotics, principally foraminifers, algae and tintinnines, identified to genus and species. Two figures per plates; biotics indexed.Google Scholar
  8. Cuvillier, Jean, and Sacal, Vincent, 1956, Stratigraphic correlations by microfacies in Western Aquitaine, 2nd ed.: Leiden, E. J. Brill, 33 p., 100 pIs. (International Sedimentary Petrographical Series 2).Brief introduction and stratigraphically arranged plates mostly of Jurassic to Oligocene age. Emphasis on foraminifers but many other biotic groups illustrated. Identifications of foraminifers commonly to genus and species.Google Scholar
  9. Derin, B., and Reiss, Zeev, 1966, Jurassic microfacies in Israel: Tel Aviv, Israel Inst. Petroleum Spec. Pub., 43p., 320 photos, 2 tables.Brief stratigraphic introduction and list of pertinent references, including citations to comparable microfacies in other areas. Photomicrographs arranged twelve to a page; captions contain formation, age, locality, and brief comments on rock type and fossil debris present. Many identifications of foraminifers and algae to genus and species.Google Scholar
  10. Fabricius, F. H., 1966, Beckensedimentation und Riffbildung an der Wende Trias/Jura in den bayerisch-tiroler Kalkalpen: Leiden, E. J. Brill, 143 p., 27 pIs., 24 figs., 7 tables, 1 map. (International Sedimentary Petrographical Series 9).Petrographyintegratedwith regional stratigraphic setting. Plates illustrate fossil types, especially from reef facies; identifications commonly to genus and species. Long English abstract; plate captions in German and English.Google Scholar
  11. Ford, A. B., and Houbolt, J. J. H. C., 1963, The microfacies of the Cretaceous of western Venezuela (Las microfacies del Cretaceo de Venezuela Occidental): Leiden, E. J. Brill, 55 p., 55 pIs., 8 figs., 1 chart. (International Sedimentary Petrographical Series 6).Full range of illustrated microfacies includes nonfossiliferous rock types. Foraminifers identified to genus and species, other biotics identified only to major group. Stratigraphic introduction and bibliography.Google Scholar
  12. Glintzboeckel, Charles, and Rabate, J., 1964, Microfaunes et microfaciés du Permo-Carbonifere du Sud Tunisien: Leiden, E. J. Brill, 46 p., 108 pIs. (International Sedimentary Petrographical Series 7).Brief stratigraphic introduction and bibliography. Usually two figures per plate. Short plate. descriptions; fossils, principally foraminifers and algae, are identified to generic level.Google Scholar
  13. Grunau, H. R., 1959, Mikrofazies und Schichtung ausgewählter, jungmesozoischer, radiolaritführender Sedimentserien der Zentral-Alpen. Mit Berücksichtigung elektronenmikroskopischer und chemischer Untersuchungsmethoden: Leiden, E. J. Brill, 179 p., 90 figs. (International Sedimentary Petrographical Series 4).Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous radiolarian chert sequence in the central Alps described in detail. A few photomicrographs of radiolarians, tintinnines, nannocones, and some problematic microfossils.Google Scholar
  14. Hagn, Herbert, 1955, Fazies und Mikrofauna der Gesteine der bayerischen Alpen: Leiden, E. J. Brill, 29 p., 71 pIs., 8 tables. Brief introduction and bibliography. Plate explanations in German and English; wide variety of biotic and nonbiotic constituents illustrated. Foraminifers commonly identified to species.Google Scholar
  15. Hanzawa, Shoshiro, 1961, Facies and microorganisms of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments of Japan and her adjacent islands: Leiden, E. J. Brill, 117 p., 148 pIs., 6 figs., 2 tables, 4 stratigraphic charts (International Sedimentary Petrographical Series 5).Excellent integrated geologic introduction. Bibliography. Stratigraphically arranged plates, descriptions short, 2 figures to plate. Wide range of biotics illustrated with many identifications to genus and species.Google Scholar
  16. Khvorova, I. V., 1958, Atlas karbonatnykh porod srednego i verkhnego karbona russkoi platformy (Atlas of carbonate rocks of Middle and Upper Carboniferous of the Russian Plat-form): Moscow, Acad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Geol. Inst., 170 p., 67 pIs., 4 figs., 5 tables.Extensive introduction containing sections on methods of preparation and study, classification and nomenclature, general characters of studied sequence, and general descriptions of types of limestone and dolomite encountered. 397 figures arranged on 67 plates. Diverse biotic constituents figured and identified to major fossil group. Bibliography contains most of the important Russian monographs on carbonate rocks.Google Scholar
  17. Lefeld, Jerzy, 1968, Stratygrafia i paleogeografia dolnej Kredy Wierchowej Tatr (Stratigraphy and palaeogeography of the high-tatric Lower Cretaceous in the Tatra Mountains): Studia Geologica Polonica, v. 24, 116p., 18pls., 13 figs., 2 tables.Short section on systematic description of fossils. Eleven of plates illustrate principally tintinnines, foraminifers, algae, and someproblematic fossils. Identifications to species. Polish with long English resume; plate and figure captions in Polish and English.Google Scholar
  18. Lehmann, E. P., et al., 1967, Microfacies of Libya: Tripoli, Petroleum Exploration Society of Libya, 80 p., 37 pIs., 1 fig.Illustrations of Cambrian to Miocene subsurface rocks accompanied by description of mineralogy, texture, constituents, and interpretation. Identifications commonly to generic and specific level.Google Scholar
  19. Misik, Milan, 1966, Microfacies of the Mesozoic and Tertiary limestones of the west Carpathians (Mikrofacie vapencov mezozoika a tercieru zapadnych Karpat): Bratislava, Slovak Acad. Sci., 278 p., 101 pIs., 2 maps.Brief introductory text outlines structure and sedimentary environments of west Carpathians in Czechoslovakia. Plate descriptions and text in English and Czech. Full range of biotic debris illustrated with identifications commonly to genus and species. Figure captions contain environmental interpretations and references for biotic identifications. Long bibliography. Constituents indexed.Google Scholar
  20. Ota, Masamichi, 1968, The Akiyoshi Limestone Group: A geosynclinal organic reef complex: Akiyoshi-dai Sci. Mus. Bull. 5, 44 p., 31 pIs., 17 figs., 6 tables.Two photomicrographs per plate illustrate the full range of biotic debris (foraminifers, corals, bryozoans, brachiopods, algae) in a Permo-Carboniferous reef complex. Uses FOLK’s classification of limestones. Japanese; plate, figure, and table captions in English.Google Scholar
  21. Perconig, E., 1968, Microfacies of the Triassic and Jurassic sediments of Spain: Leiden, E. J. Brill, 63 p., 123 pIs., 11 figs. (International Sedimentary Petrographical Series 10).Compact stratigraphic summary, bibliography, and stratigraphically arranged plates. Full range of biotic debris illustrated and indexed.Google Scholar
  22. Radiocic, Rajka, 1960, Microfacies du Cretace et d u Paleogene des Dinarides externes de Yougoslavie: Titograd, Int. Rech. Geol. R. P. Crna Gora, Paleont. Dinarides Yougoslaves, ser. A, Micropaleont., v. 4, no. 1, 172p., 67pls., 1 fig., 1 table.Short stratigraphic introduction, pertinent bibliography of microfacies and microfaunal papers. Identifications to genus and species for a number of microfossil groups including foraminifers, algae, tintinnines, and faecal pellets. Text and plate descriptions in Slavic and French.Google Scholar
  23. Radiocic, Rajka, 1966, Microfacies du Jurassique des Dinarides externes de la Yougoslavie: Geologija Razprave in Porocila, v. 9, p. 5–377, 165 pIs., 11 tables.Brief introduction lists facies, stratigraphy, fossil ranges, and references. Two figures per plate each with short descriptions. Most photomicrographs illustrate algae and foraminifers usually to generic or specific level.Google Scholar
  24. Radwanski, Andrzej, 1968, Studium petrograficzne i sedymentologiczne Retyku Wierchowego Tatr (Petrographical and sedimentological studies of the high-tatric Rhaetic in the Tatra Mountains): Studia Geologica Polonica, v. 25, 146 p., 54 pIs., 6 figs., 9 tables. Petrographic study of Upper Triassic limestones. Commonly 2 to 6 photomicrographs per plate. Full range of biotic debris illustrated; identifications of algae and foraminifers commonly to genus and species. Polish with long English resume; captions of plates and figures in Polish and English.Google Scholar
  25. Reiss, Zeev, 1960, Lower Cretaceous microfacies and microfossils from Galilee: Bull. Res. Council Israel, Sec. G., Geo-Sciences, v. 10G, p.223–246.Short stratigraphic and environmental discussion, references, and brief descriptions of 107 photographs. Many generic identifications of foraminifers and algae.Google Scholar
  26. Rey, Marcel, and Nouet, G., 1958, Microfaciès de la region prerifaine et de la moyenne Moulouya (Maroc septentrional): Leiden, E. J. Brill, 41 pI., 97 pIs., 1 table (International Sedimentary Petrographical Series 3). Brief stratigraphic introduction and bibliography. Biotics, principally foraminifers, identified to genus and species.Google Scholar
  27. Sacal, Vincent, 1963, Microfaciès du Paléozoique Saharien: Paris, Cie. Franç;aise des Pétroles, Notes et Mém., no. 6, 30 p., 100 figs., 4 charts.Brief stratigraphic introduction and short bibliography. Full range of biotics beautifully illustrated; identifications mostly to major fossil groups.Google Scholar
  28. Sampo, M., 1969, Microfacies and microfossils of the Zagros area southwestern Iran: Leiden, E. J. Brill, 102 p., 105 pIs., 6 figs. (International Sedimentary Petrographical Series 12).Pre-Permian to Miocene microfacies in a 11,300 square mile area of Iran. Discussion of geology and stratigraphy followed by lists of microfacies and plates arranged in stratigraphic sequence. Author uses FOLK’s classification. Many identifications to species. Fossils indexed. bs 1 References CitedGoogle Scholar
  29. Adams, T. D., et al., 1967, Stratigraphic significance of some oligosteginid assemblages from Lurestan Province, northwest Iran: Micropaleontology, v. 13, p. 55–67,1 pl., 4 text-figs., 10 tables.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Alloiteau, James, 1952, Madreporaires post-Paléozoiques, in Piveteau, Jean, Traité de Paléontologie: Paris, Masson et Cie., v. 1, p. 539-684, 10 pIs., 130 figs.Google Scholar
  31. Alloiteau, James 1957, Contribution a la systematique des Madreporaires fossiles: Centre Nat. Rech. Sci., v. 1, 462 p., 6 pIs., 4 tables; v. 2, 20 pIs., 286 figs.Google Scholar
  32. Andres, Dietmar, 1969, Ostracoden aus dem mittleren Kambrium von Oland: Lethaia, v. 2, p. 165–180, 12 figs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Andrews, H. N., Jr., 1961, Studies in Paleobotany: New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 487 p.Google Scholar
  34. Arkell, W. J., et al., 1957, Cephalopoda Ammonoidea, in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part L Mollusca 4: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, 490 p., 558 figs.Google Scholar
  35. Armstrong, John, 1969, The crossed-bladed fabrics of the shells of Terrakea solida (Etheridge and Dun) and Streptorhynchus pelicanensis Fletcher: Palaeontology, v. 12, p.310–320, pIs. 57-60, 1 text-fig.Google Scholar
  36. Bather, F. A., 1923, The shell of Cornulites: GeoI. Mag., v. 60, p. 542–545, 1 fig.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bathurst, R. G. C., 1964, The replacement of aragonite by calcite in the molluscan shell wall, in Imbrie, John, and Newell, Norman, eds., Approaches to paleoecology: New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. 357–376, 4 pIs., 2 tables.Google Scholar
  38. Bathurst, R. G. C.,1966, Boring algae, micritic envelopes, and lithification of molluscan biosparites: GeoI. Jour., v. 5, p. 15–32.Google Scholar
  39. Beaver, H. H., et al., 1967, General characters Homalozoa-Crinozoa (except Crinoidea), in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part S Echinodermata 1: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, 650 p., 400 figs.Google Scholar
  40. Bloom, William, and Fawcett, D. W., 1968, A textbook of histology (9th edition): Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 858 p.Google Scholar
  41. Boardman, R. S., 1960, Trepostomatous Bryozoa of the Hamilton Group of New York State: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper340, 87 p., 22 pIs., 27 figs.Google Scholar
  42. Boardmamn, R. S., and Cheetham, A. H., 1969, Skeletal growth, intracolony variation, and evolution in Bryozoa: a review: Jour. Paleontology, v. 43, p. 205-233, pIs. 27-30, 8 textfigs.Google Scholar
  43. Boardmamn, R. S., and Towe, K. M., 1966, Crystal growth and lamellar development in some Recent cyclostome Bryozoa: Geol. Soc. America Program 1966 Ann. Meeting, November 14-16, San Francisco, California, p. 20 (reprinted in Abstracts for 1966: Geol. Soc. America Spec. Paper 101, p. 20).Google Scholar
  44. Boggild, O. B., 1930, The shell structure of the mollusks: Kgl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skrifter, Naturvidensk. og Mathern. Afd. (Acad. Roy. Sci. Lettre Danemark, Mem. ser. 9, v. 2, p. 230–359, 15 pIs., 10 figs.Google Scholar
  45. Bonet, Frederico, 1956, Zonificacion microfaunistica de las calizas Cretacicas del este de Mexico: Asoc. Mexicana Geologos Petroleros Bol., v. 8, p. 389–488, 31 pIs., 4 figs., 3 tables (reprinted XX Congreso Geol. Internatl., 102p.).Google Scholar
  46. Bryan, W. H., and Hill, Dorothy, 1940, Spherulitic crystallization as a mechanism of skeletal growth in the hexacorals: Royal Soc. Queensland Proc., v. 52, p. 78-91, 2 figs.Google Scholar
  47. Cain, J.D. B., 1968, Aspects of the depositional environment and palaeoecology of crinoidal limestone: Scottish Jour. Geology, v. 4, p. 191–208, 2 pIs., 5 figs., 1 table.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Camacho, H. H., 1966, Invertebrados fosiles: Buenos Aires, Eudeba Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires, 707 p.Google Scholar
  49. Campbell, A. S., 1954a, Radiolaria, in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part D: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, p. D11-D163, figs. 6–86.Google Scholar
  50. Campbell, 1954b, Tintinnina, in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part D: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas press, p. D166–D180, figs. 88-92.Google Scholar
  51. Carefoot, T. H., 1965, Magnetite in the radula of the Polyplacophora: Proc. Malacol. Soc. London, v. 36, p. 203–212, pI. 10, 1 fig., 5 tables.Google Scholar
  52. Carlstrom, Diego, 1963, A crystallographic study of vertebrate otoliths: BioI. Bull., v. 125, p.441–463, 5 figs., 1 table.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Cayeux, Lucien, 1916, Introduction a l’etude petrographique des roches sedimentaires: Mem. Ministere des Travaux Publics, Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 2 v., 524 p., 56 pIs., 80 figs.Google Scholar
  54. Cayeux, Lucien, 1935, Les roches sedimentaires de Franceroches carbonatees (calcaires et dolomites): Paris, Masson & Cie., 463 p., 26 pIs., 9 figs.Google Scholar
  55. Chave, K. E., 1954a, Aspects of the biogeochemistry of magnesium 1. Calcareous marine organisms: Jour. Geology, v. 62, p. 266–283, 16 figs., 3 tables.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Chave, K. E., 1954b, Aspects of the biogeochemistry of magnesium 2. Calcareous sediments and rocks: Jour. Geology, v. 62, p. 587–599, 4 figs., 9 tables.Google Scholar
  57. Chave, K. E. 1962, Factors influencing the mineralogy of carbonate sediments: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 7, p. 218–223, 2 figs., 7 tables.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Cheetam, A. H., et al., 1969, Wall structure and mineralogy of the cheilostome bryozoan Metrarabdotos: Jour. Paleontology, v. 43, p.129–135, pI. 26, 1 text-fig., 2 tables.Google Scholar
  59. Cogan, D. G., et al., 1958, Crystalline calcium sulfate (gypsum) in scleral plaques of a human eye: Jour. Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, v. 6, p. 142–145, 4 figs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Colom, Guillermo, 1948, Fossil tintinnids: loricated Infusoria of the order Oligotricha: Jour. Paleontology, v. 22, p. 233–263, pIs. 33-35, 14 figs., 1 table.Google Scholar
  61. Colom, Guillermo, 1955, Jurassic-Cretaceous pelagic sediments of the western Mediterranean zone and the Atlantic area: Micropaleontology, v. 1, p. 109–124, 5 pIs., 4 text-figs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Conkin, J. E., 1961, Mississippian smaller Foraminifera of Kentucky, southern Indiana, northern Tennessee, and southcentral Ohio: Bull. Am. Paleontology, v. 43, p. 129–368, pIs. 1727, 43 figs., 23 charts, 1 map, 60 tables.Google Scholar
  63. Cook, S. F., et al., 1962, Histological studies on fossil bone: Jour. Paleontology, v. 36, p. 483–494, pIs. 81-85.Google Scholar
  64. Cox, L. R., 1960, Gastropoda—General characteristics of Gastropoda, in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part I Mollusca 1: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, p. I84–169, figs. 51-88.Google Scholar
  65. Cox, L. R., et al., 1969, Bivalvia, in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part N Mollusca 6: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, 2 V., 952 p.Google Scholar
  66. Cuffey, R. J., 1967, Bryozoan Tabulipora carbonaria in Wreford Megacyclothem (Lower Permian) of Kansas: Univ. Kansas Paleont. Contrib. Bryozoa, art. 1, 96 p., 9 pIs., 33 figs., 17 tables.Google Scholar
  67. Cuffey, R. J., 1970, Bryozoan-environment interrelationships-an overview of bryozoan paleoecology and ecology: Pennsylvania State Univ. Earth and Mineral Sci. Bull., v. 39, p. 41–45, 48, 4 figs.Google Scholar
  68. Cullis, C. G., 1904, The mineralogical changes observed in the cores of the Funafuti borings, in The atoll of Funafuti: London, Royal Soc. London, Rept. Coral Reef Comm., p. 392–420, PI. F, figs. 24-69.Google Scholar
  69. Cummings, R. H., 1955, Nodosinella Brady, 1876, and associated upper Paleozoic genera: Micropaleontology, v. 1, p. 221–238, 1 pl., 10 textfigs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Dechaseaux, Colette, 1952, Classe des lamellibranches, in Piveteau, Jean, ed., Traite de Paleontologie: Paris, Masson et Cie., v. 2, p. 220–364, 215 figsGoogle Scholar
  71. Deflandre, Georges, 1936, Tintinnoidiens et Calpionelles. Comparaison entre les Tintinnoidiens, Infusoires loriques pelagiques des mers actuelles et les Calpionelles, microfossiles de l’epoque secondaire: Bull. Soc. Français Microsc., v. 5, p. 112–122, 42 figs.Google Scholar
  72. Deflandre, Georges 1952, Sous-embranchement des Actinopodes, in Piveteau, Jean, ed., Traite de Paleontologie: Paris, Masson et Cie., v. 1, p. 303–313, figs. 1-53.Google Scholar
  73. Dehorne, Yvonne, 1920, Les stromatoporoldes des terrains secondaires: Mem. pour servir a l’explication de la Carte geol. detaillee de la France, 170 p., 17 pls.Google Scholar
  74. Dennell, Ralph, 1960, Integument and exoskeleton, in Waterman, T. H., ed., The physiology of Crustacea: New York, Academic Press, v. 1, p. 449–472, 4 figs., 1 table.Google Scholar
  75. Donnay, Gabrielle, and Pawson, D. L., 1969, X-ray diffraction studies of echinoderm plates: Science, v. 166, p. 1147–1150, 2 figs., 1 table.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Duncan, Helen, 1957, Bryozoans, in Ladd, H. S., ed., Treatise on marine ecology and paleoecology: Geol. Society of America Mem. 67, v. 2. p. 783–79Google Scholar
  77. Durham, J. W., et al., 1966, Asterozoa-Echinozoa, in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part U Echinodermata 3: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, 695 p. 534 figs.Google Scholar
  78. Easton, W. H., 1960, Invertebrate paleontology: New York, Harper & Brothers, Publishers, 701 p.Google Scholar
  79. Elliott, G. F., 1958, Fossil microproblematica from the Middle East: Micropaleontology, v. 4, p. 419–428, 3 pls.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. —, G. F., 1960, Fossil calcareous algal floras of the Middle East with a note on a Cretaceous problematicum, Hensonella cylindrica gen. et sp. nov.: Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, v. 115, p. 217–232, pl. 8.Google Scholar
  81. Elliott, G. F., 1962, More microproblematica from the Middle East: Micropaleontology, v. 8, p. 29–44,6 pls., 1 table.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Erben, H. K., et al., 1969, Die frühontogenetische Entwicklung der Schalenstruktur ectocochleater Cephalopoden: Palaeontographica Abt. A, v. 132, p. 1–54,15 pls., 12 figs., 3 tables.Google Scholar
  83. Feray, D. E., et al., 1962, Biological, genetic, and utilitarian aspects of limestone classification, in Ham, W. E., ed., Classification of carbonate rocks: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Mem. 1, p. 20–32, 3 figs.Google Scholar
  84. Fischer, A. G., and Teichert, Curt, 1969, Cameral deposits in cephalopod shells: Univ. Kansas Paleont. Contr. Paper 37, 30 p., 4 pls., 8 figs.Google Scholar
  85. Fischer, A. G., et al., 1967, Electron micrographs of limestones and their nannofossils: Princeton, Princeton University Press, 141 p., 94 figs.Google Scholar
  86. Fisher, D. W., 1962, Small conoidal shells of uncertain affinities, in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part W: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, p. W98–W143, figs. 50-84.Google Scholar
  87. Fleischer, Michael, 1969, Occurrences of CaCO2H2O and its naming: Science, v. 166, p.1309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Flower, R. H., 1961, Part I Montoya and related colonial corals Part II Organisms attached to Montoya corals: New Mexico Bur. Mines & Min. Res. Mem. 7, 229 p., 52 pls., 10 text-figs., 1 table.Google Scholar
  89. Flugel, Erik, and FLUGEL-KAHler, Eventraud, 1968, Stromatoporoidea (Hydrozoa palaeozoica): Fossilium Catalogus I: Animalia, Pars 115-116, 681 p.Google Scholar
  90. Folk, R. L., 1965, Some aspects of recrystallization in ancient limestones, in Pray, L. C., and Murray, R. C., eds., Dolomitization and limestone diagenesis: Soc. Econ. Paleontologists and Mineralogists Spec. Pub. 13, p. 14–48, 14 figs., 7 taGoogle Scholar
  91. Friedman, G. M., 1964, Early diagenesis and lithification in carbonate sediments: Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 34, p. 777–813, 53 figs.Google Scholar
  92. Fuchtbauer, Hans, ed., 1969, Lithification of carbonate sediments, 1 and 2: Sedimentology (Special Issues), v. 12, p. 1–323.Google Scholar
  93. Galloway, J. J., 1957, Structure and classification of Stromatoporoidea: Bull. Am. Paleontology, v. 37, no. 164, p. 341–480, pls. 31-37, 1 table.Google Scholar
  94. Garrett, Peter, 1970, Phanerozoic stromatolites: noncompetitive ecologic restriction by grazing and burrowing animals: Science, v. 169, p. 171–173, 1 fig.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Gauri, K. L., and Boucot, A. J., 1968, Shell structure and classification of Pentameracea M’Coy, 1844: Palaeontographica, Abt. A, v. 131, p. 79–135, pls. 6-23,31 text-figs., 2 tables.Google Scholar
  96. Gauri, K. L., and Boucot, A. J., 1970, Cryptothyrella (Brachiopoda) from the Brassfield Limestone (Lower Silurian) of Ohio and Kentucky: Jour. Paleontology, v. 44, p. 125–132, pls. 29-31, 2 text-figs.Google Scholar
  97. Gavish, Eliezer, and Friedman, G. M., 1969, Progressive diagenesis in Quaternary to Late Tertiary carbonate sediments: sequence and time scale: Jour. Sed. Petrology, v 39, p. 980–1006, 32 figs.Google Scholar
  98. Glaessner, M. F., 1963, Major trends in the evolution of the Foraminifera, in Koenigswald, G. H. R., et al., eds., Evolutionary trends in Foraminifera: Amsterdam, Elsevier Publishing Company, p. 9–24, 1 table.Google Scholar
  99. Goll, R. M., 1968, Classification and phylogeny of Cenozoic Trissocyclidae (Radiolaria) in the Pacific and Caribbean Basins Part I: Jour. Paleontology, v. 42, p. 1409–1432, pls. 173-176, 9 text-figs.Google Scholar
  100. Goll, R. M. 1969, Classification and phylogeny of Cenozoic Trissocyclidae (Radiolaria) in the Pacific and Caribbean basins Part II: Jour. Paleontology, v. 43, p. 322-339, pIs. 55-60, 2 text-figs.Google Scholar
  101. Graham, D. K., 1970, Scottish Carboniferous Lingulacea: Geol. Survey Great Britain Bull. 31, p. 139–184, pls. 14-20, 10 figs.Google Scholar
  102. Greguss, PAL, 1967, Fossil gymnosperm woods in Hungary from the Permian to the Pliocene: Budapest, Akademiai Kiadó, 136 p., 86 pls., 14 maps.Google Scholar
  103. Gross, Walter, 1967, Uber Thelodontier-Schuppen: Palaeontographica, Abt. A, v.127,P.1-67, 7 pIs., 15 figs.Google Scholar
  104. Ham, A. W., 1969, Histology (6th edition): Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1037 p.Google Scholar
  105. Hxntzschel, Walter, et al., 1968, Coprolites an annotated bibliography: Geol. Soc. America Mem. 108, 132 p., 11 pls., 6 figs., 3 tables.Google Scholar
  106. Harrington, H. J., 1959, General description of Trilobita, in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part 0 Arthropoda 1: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, p. 038–0117, figs. 27-85.Google Scholar
  107. Henningsmoen, Gunnar, 1965, On certain features of Palaeocope ostracodes: Geologiska Fóreningens i Stockholm Fórhandlingar, v. 86, p. 329–394, 16 figs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hill, Dorothy, 1956, Rugosa, in Moore, R. C., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part F Coelenterata: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, p. F233–F324, figs. 165-219.Google Scholar
  109. —, 1965, Archaeocyatha from Antarctica and a review of the phylum: Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1955-1958, Sci. Repts. 10, Geology 3, 151 p., 12 pls., 25 figs.Google Scholar
  110. Hofker, Jan, 1962, Studien an planktonischen Foraminiferen: Neues Jahrb. Geol. PaHiont. Abh., v. 114, p. 81–134, 85 figs.Google Scholar
  111. —, 1967, Hat die feinere Wandstruktur der Foraminiferen supragenerische Bedeutung?: PaHionto Zeitsch., v. 41, p. 194–198, pls. 19–21.Google Scholar
  112. Howell, B. F., 1962, Worms, in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part W Miscellanea: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, p. W144–W177, figs. 85-108.Google Scholar
  113. Hudson, R. G. S., 1956, Tethyan Jurassic hydroids of the family Milleporidödae: Jour. Paleontology, v. 30, p. 714–730, pls. 75-77, 6 text-figs.Google Scholar
  114. —, 1958, Actostroma gen. nov., a Jurassic stromatoporoid from Maktesh Hathira, Israel: Palaeontology, v. 1, p. 87–98, pls. 15-17, 7 text-figs.Google Scholar
  115. Hudson, R. G. S., 1959, A revision of the Jurassic stromatoporoids A ctinostromina, A strostylopsis, and Trupetostromaria Germovsek: Palaeontology, v. 2, p. 28-38, pls. 4-6.Google Scholar
  116. —, R. G. S., 1960, The Tethyan Jurassic stromatoporoids Stromatoporina, Dehornella, and A stroporina: Palaeontology, v. 2, p. 180–199, pls. 24-28, 6 text-figs.Google Scholar
  117. Jaanusson, Valdar, 1966, Fossil brachiopods with probable aragonitic shells: Geol. Fören. Stockholm Föv. 88, p. 279–281, 1 fig.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Jeletzky, J. A., 1966, Comparative morphology, phylogeny, and classification of fossil coleoidea: Univ. Kansas Paleont. Contr. Mollusca, art. 7, 162 p., 25 pls., 15 figs.Google Scholar
  119. Jensen, J. A., 1966, Dinosaur eggs from the Upper Cretaceous North Horn Formation of central Utah: Brigham Young Univ. Geology Studies, v. 13, p. 55–67, 4 pls., 2 text-figs.Google Scholar
  120. Johnson, J. H., 1943, Geologic importance of calcareous algae with annotated bibliography: Colorado School Mines Quart., v. 38, no. 1, 102 p., 23 figs., 2 tables.Google Scholar
  121. Johnson, J. H., 1951, An introduction to the study of organic limestones: Colorado School Mines Quart., v. 46, no. 2, 185 p., 104 pls., 1 fig., 19 tables.Google Scholar
  122. Johnson, J. H., 1957, Bibliography of fossil algae: 1942-1955: Colorado School Mines Quart., v. 52, no. 2, 92p.Google Scholar
  123. Johnson, J. H., 1961, Limestone-building algae and algal limestones: Golden, Colorado School of Mines, 297 p., 139 pls., 14 tables.Google Scholar
  124. Johnson, J. H., 1967, Bibliography of fossil algae, algal limestones, and the geological work of algae, 1956–1965: Colorado School Mines Quart., v. 62, no. 4, 148 p.Google Scholar
  125. Kato, Makoto, 1963, Fine skeletal structures in Rugosa: Jour. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ., ser. 4., Geology and Mineralogy, v. 11, p. 571–630, 3 pls., 19 text-figs.Google Scholar
  126. Kato, Makoto, 1968, Note on the fine skeletal structures in Scleractinia and in Tabulata: Jour. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ., ser. 4, Geology and Mineralogy, v. 14, p. 51–56, 1 fig.Google Scholar
  127. Kennedy, W. J., and Taylor, J. D., 1968, Aragonite in rudists: Proc. Geol. Soc. London, no. 1645, p. 325–331, 3 figs.Google Scholar
  128. Kennedy, W. J., et al., 1969, Environmental and biological controls on bivalve shell mineralogy: Biol. Rev., v. 44, p. 499–530, 4 pls., 13 figs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Kielan, Zofia, 1954, Les trilobites mesodevoniens des Montes de Sainte-Croix: Palaeontologia Polonica, no. 6, 50 p., 7 pls., 35 figs.Google Scholar
  130. Knapp, W. D., 1969, Declinida, a new order of Late Paleozoic inadunate crinoids: Jour. Paleontology, v. 43, p. 340–391, pls. 61, 62,50 textfigs.Google Scholar
  131. Knight, J. B., et al., 1960, Mollusca 1, in R. C. Moore, ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part I: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, 351 p., 216 figs.Google Scholar
  132. Krans, T. F., 1965, Etudes morphologiques de quelques Spiriferes devoniens de la Chaine Cantabrique (Espagne): Leidse Geol. Medeleel., v. 33, p. 71–148, 16 pls., 71 figs.Google Scholar
  133. Land, L. S., 1967, Diagenesis of skeletal carbonate: Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 37, p. 914–930, 15 figs., 5 tables.Google Scholar
  134. Laporte, L. F., 1962, Paleoecology of the Cottonwood Limestone (Permian), northern Midcontinent: Geol. Society America Bull., v. 73, p. 521–544, 4 pls., 5 figs., 4 tables.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Laubenfels, M. W. De, 1955, Porifera, in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part E: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, E21–E122, figs. 14-89.Google Scholar
  136. Lecompte, Marius, 1951, Les stromatoporoides du Devonian moyen superieur du bassin de Dinant: Mem. Inst. roy. Sci. nat. Belgique, v. 116, p. 1–215, pls. 1–35.Google Scholar
  137. Lecompte, Marius, 1952, Les stromatoporoldes du Devonian moyen et superieur du bassin de Dinant: Mem. Inst. roy. Sci. nat. Belgique, v. 117, p. 216–359, pls. 36-70.Google Scholar
  138. Lecompte, Marius, 1956, Stromatoporoidea, in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part F Coelenterata: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, p. F107-F144, figs. 86-114.Google Scholar
  139. Levinson, S. A., 1961, Identification of fossil ostracodes in thin section, in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part Q Arthropoda 3: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, p. Q70–Q73, fig. 31.Google Scholar
  140. Lindstrom, Maurits, 1964, Conodonts: Amsterdam, Elsevier Publishing Company, 196 p., 64 figs., 5 tables.Google Scholar
  141. Loeblich, A. R., Jr., and Tappan, Helen, 1964, Sarcodina chiefly “Thecamoidians” and Foraminiferida, in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part C Protista 2: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, 2 v., 900 p., 653 figs.Google Scholar
  142. Loeblich, A. R., Tappan, Helen, 1966, Annotated index and bibliography of the calcareous nannoplankton: Phycologia, v. 5, p. 81–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Loeblich, A. R., Tappan, Helen, 1968, Annotated index to the genera, subgenera and suprageneric taxa of the ciliate Order Tintinnida: Jour. Protozoology, v. 15, p.185–192.Google Scholar
  144. Lowenstam, H. A., 1962, Magnetite in denticle capping in Recent chitons (Polyplacophora): Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 73, p. 435-438, 1 pI.Google Scholar
  145. Lowenstam, H. A., 1963, Biologic problems relating to the composition and diagenesis of sediments, in Donelly, T. W., ed., The earth sciences: Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, p. 137–195, 4 pIs., 14 figs., 1 table.Google Scholar
  146. Lowenstam, H. A., 1967, Lepidocrocite, an apatite mineral, and magnetite in teeth of chitons (Polyplacophora): Science, v. 156, p. 1373-1375,3 figs.Google Scholar
  147. Lowenstam, H. A., 1968, Weddellite in a marine gastropod and in Antarctic sediments: Science, v. 162, p. 1129–1130, 2 figs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Lowenstam, H. A., and Mcconnell, Duncan, 1968, Biologic precipitation of fluorite: Science, v. 162, p. 1496–1498, 1 fig.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Lucia, F. J., 1962, Diagenesis of a crinoidal sediment: Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 32, p. 848–865, 16 figs.Google Scholar
  150. Macclintock, Copeland, 1967, Shell structure of patelloid and bellerophontoid gastropods (Mollusca): Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist. Yale Univ., Bull. 22, 140 p., 32 pIs., 128 text-figs., 10 tables.Google Scholar
  151. Majewske, O. P., 1969, Recognition of invertebrate fossil fragments in rocks and thin sections: Leiden, E. J. Brill, 101 p., 106 pIs., 8 tables (International Sedimentary Petrographical Series 13).Google Scholar
  152. Maslov, V. P., 1937, Atlas karbonatnykh porod chast' I Porodoobraziushchie organizmy (Atlas de roches Carbonatees Part I Organismes formant les roches): Moskva, Vsesouznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel’skii Institut Mineral’nogo Syr’ya, 54 p., 55 pIs.Google Scholar
  153. Maslov, V. P., 1956, Iskopaemye isvestkovye vodorosli SSSR (Fossil calcareous algae of the USSR): Acad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Trudy Instituta GeoI. Nauk, no. 160, 301 p., 86 pIs., 136 figs., 9 tables, 4 charts.Google Scholar
  154. Maslov, V. P., et al., 1963, Vodorosli (Algae), in Orlov, Yu. A., Osnovy paleontologii: Moskva Akad. Nauk SSSR, v. 14, p. 19–312, 22 pIs.Google Scholar
  155. Matthews, R. K., 1966, Genesis of Recent lime mud in southern Honduras: Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 36, p. 428–454, 8 figs., 5 tables.Google Scholar
  156. Melik, J. C., 1966, Hingement and contact margin structure of palaeocopid ostracodes from some Middle Devonian formations of Michigan, southwestern Ontario, and western New York: Univ. Michigan Contr. Mus. Paleontology, v. 20, p. 195–269, 24 pls., 4 figs.Google Scholar
  157. Moore, R. C., and Jeffords, R. M., 1968, Classification and nomenclature of fossil crinoids based on studies of dissociated parts of their columns: Univ. Kansas Paleont. Contr. Echinodermata, art. 9, 86p., 28 pls., 6 figs., 4 tables.Google Scholar
  158. Moore, R. C. et al., 1952, Invertebrate fossils: New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 766 p.Google Scholar
  159. Müller, A. H., 1957-1968, Lehrbuch der PaHiozoologie: Jena, Gustav Fischer Verlag, 3 v.Google Scholar
  160. Müller, K. J., 1964, Ostracoda (Bradorina) mit phosphatischen Gehausen aus dem Oberkambrium von Schweden: Neues Jahrb. Geol. Palaont. Abh., v. 121, p. 1–46, 5 pls., 2 figs., 3 tables.Google Scholar
  161. Müller, K. J. and Mosher, L. C., 1969, Reports of post-Triassic conodonts: Geol. Soc. America Abstracts with Programs for 1969, part 6, p. 33.Google Scholar
  162. Mutvei, Harry, 1967, On the microscopic shell structure in some Jurassic ammonoids: Neues Jahrb. Geol. Palaont. Abh., v. 129, p. 157–166, pl. 14, 4 text-figs.Google Scholar
  163. Nemejc, Frantisek, 1959, Paleobotanika: Praha, Nakladalelstvl Ceskoslovenske Akademie Ved, v. 1, 402 p., 32 pls., 174 figs.Google Scholar
  164. Nissen, HANS-UDEhans-ude, 1969, Crystal orientation and plate structure in echinoid skeletal units: Science, v. 166, p. 1150–1152, 4 figs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Norling, Eric, 1968, On Liassic nodosariid Foraminifera and their wall structures: Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, ser. C, no. 623, Årsbok 61, no. 8, 75p., 9pls., 12 text-figs., 5 tables.Google Scholar
  166. Nye, O. B., 1969, Aspects of microstructure in post-Paleozoic Cyclostomata: Atti Soc. It. Sc. Nat. e Museo Civ. St. Nat. Milano: v. 108, p. 111–114.Google Scholar
  167. Oberling, J. J., 1964, Observations on some structural features of the pelecypod shell: Naturf. Gesell. Bern Mitt., n. ser., v. 20, p. 163, 5 pls., 3 figs., 1 table.Google Scholar
  168. Okulitch, V. J., 1955, Archaeocyatha, in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part E: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, E1–E20, figs. 1-13.Google Scholar
  169. Orlov, Yu. A., ed., 1958-1964, Osnovy paleontologii (Fundamentals of paleontology): Moscow, Akad. Nauk SSSR, 15 v.Google Scholar
  170. Orme, G. R., and Brown, W W. M., 1963, Diagenetic limestone fabrics in the Avonian limestones of Derbyshire and North Wales: Yorkshire Geol. Soc. Proc., v. 34, p. 51–66, pls. 713, 1 fig.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Palmer, A. R., 1964, An unusual Lower Cambrian trilobite fauna from Nevada: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 483-F, p. F1–F13, 3 pls., 2 figs.Google Scholar
  172. Peck, R. E., 1934, The North American trochiliscids, Paleozoic Charophyta: Jour. Paleontology, v. 8., p. 83–119, pls. 9-13, 2 figs.Google Scholar
  173. Peck, R. E., 1957, North American Mesozoic Charophyta: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 294-A, 44 p., 8 pls., 7 figs.Google Scholar
  174. Peterson, N. M. A., 1966, Calcite: Rates of dissolution in a vertical profile in the central Pacific: Science, v. 154, p. 1542–1544, 2 figs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Peyer, Bernhard, 1968, Comparative odontology: Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 347 p., 88 pls. and 8 color pIs., 220 figs.Google Scholar
  176. Pia, Julius, 1926, Pflanzen als Gesteinsbildner: Berlin, Gebrüder Borntraeger, 355 p., 166 textfigs.Google Scholar
  177. Pietzner, Horst, et al., 1968, Zur chemischen Zusammensetzung und Mikromorphologie der Conodonten: Palaeontographica Abt. A, v. 128, p. 115–152, pls. 18-27, 10 figs., 8 tables.Google Scholar
  178. Piveteau, Jean, ed., 1952-1969, Traite de Paleontologie: Paris, Masson et Cie., 7 v.Google Scholar
  179. Playford, P. E., and Cockbain, A. E., 1969, Algal stromatolites: deepwater forms in the Devonian of Western Australia: Science, v. 165, p. 1008–1010, 2 figs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Pokorný, Vladimir, 1958, Grundzüge der zoologischen MikropäHiontologie: Berlin, VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, v. 1, 582 p., 549 figs. (English translation by au]K. A. ALLEN and J. W. NEALE, 1963, Principles of zoological micropaleontology: Oxford, Pergamon Press, 652 p.).Google Scholar
  181. Pray, L. C., and Murray, R. C., eds., 1965, Dolomitizatiori and limestone diagenesis a symposium: Soc. Econ. Paleontologists and Mineralogists Spec. Pub. 13, 180 p.Google Scholar
  182. Purdy, E. G., 1968, Carbonate diagenesis: an environmental survey: Geologica Romana, v. 7, p. 183–228, 6 pls., 10 figs.Google Scholar
  183. Raup, D. M., 1961, The geometry of coiling in gastropods: Natl. Acad. Sci. Proc., v. 47, p. 602–609, 4 figs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Raup, D. M., 1966a, The endoskeleton, in Boolootian, R. A., Physiology of Echinodermata: New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. 379–395, 6 figs., 1 table.Google Scholar
  185. Raup, D. M., 1966b, Geometric analysis of shell coiling: general problems: Jour. Paleontology, v. 40, p. 1178–1190, 10 text-figs.Google Scholar
  186. Raup, D. M., 1967, Geometric analysis of shell coiling: coiling in ammonoids: Jour. Paleontology, v. 41, p. 43–65, 19 text-figs.Google Scholar
  187. Reiss, Zeev, 1963a, Reclassification of perforate Foraminifera: Israel Geol. Survey Bull. 35, 111 p., 8 pls.Google Scholar
  188. Reiss, Zeev, 1963b, Comments on wall structure of foraminifera: Micropaleontology, v. 9, p. 50–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Reitlinger, E. A., 1950, Foraminifery srednekammenougol’nikh otlozhenii tsentral’noi chasti Russkoi platformy (isklyuchaya semeistvo Fusulinidae) [Foraminifera of the middle Carboniferous deposits of the central part of the Russian platform (including the family Fusulinidae) J: Akad. Nauk SSSR, Trudy Inst. Geol. Nauk., no. 126 (Geol. Ser. no. 47), 126 p., 22 pls., 15 text-figs.Google Scholar
  190. Reitlinger, E. A., 1958, K voprosu sistematiki i filogenil nadsemeistva Endothyridea (On the question of the systematics and phylogeny of the superfamily Endothyridea): Voprosu Mikropaleontologil Akad. Nauk SSSR, no. 2, p. 53–73, 4 figs.Google Scholar
  191. Remane, Jurgen, 1963, Les Calpionelles dans les couches de passage Jurassique-Cretace de la fosse vocontienne: Univ. Grenoble lab. geologie fac. sci. Travaux, v. 39, p. 25–82, pls. 16, 18 figs.Google Scholar
  192. Remane, Jurgen, 1964, Untersuchungen zur Systematik und Stratigraphie der Calpionellen in den J uraKreide-Grenzschichten des vocontischen Troges: Palaeontographica, Bd. 123, Abt. A, p. 157, 6 pls., 18 figs.Google Scholar
  193. Revelle, Roger, and Fairbridge, Rhodes, 1957, Carbonates and carbon dioxide, in Hedgpeth, J. W., ed., Treatise on marine ecology and paleoecology: Geol. Soc. America Mem. 67, v.i., p. 239–296, 8 figs., 8 tables.Google Scholar
  194. Richards, A. G., 1951, The integument of arthropods: Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 411 p., 65 figs.Google Scholar
  195. Rigby, J. K., 1958, Two new upper Paleozoic hydrozoans: Jour. Paleontology, v. 32, p. 583–586, pl. 86, 3 text-figs.Google Scholar
  196. Ross, J.P., 1967, Fossil problematica from Upper Ordovician, Ohio: Jour. Paleontology, v. 41, p. 37–42, pls. 4-8, 2 text-figs.Google Scholar
  197. Rucker, J. B., 1967, Carbonate mineralogy of Recent cheilostome Bryozoa: Geol. Soc. America Program 1967 Ann. Meeting, November 20-22, New Orleans, Louisiana, p. 191–192 (reprinted in Abstracts for 1967: Geol. Soc. America Spec. Paper 115, p. 192).Google Scholar
  198. Rucker, J. B., 1969, Skeletal mineralogy of cheilostome Bryozoa: Atti Soc. It. Sc. Nat. e Museo Civ. St. Nat. Milano, v. 108, p. 101–110, 2 figs., 1 table.Google Scholar
  199. St. Jean, Joseph, Jr., 1967, Maculate tissue in Stromatoporoidea: Micropaleontology, v. 13, p. 419–444, pls. 1-6, 1 text-fig.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Sass, D. B., 1967, Electron microscopy, punctae, and the brachiopod genus Syringothyris Winchell, 1863: Jour. Paleontology, v. 41, p. 1242–1246, pls. 167-169.Google Scholar
  201. Schenk, H. G., 1934, Literature on the shell structure of pelecypods: Mus. roy. Hist. nat. Belgique Bull., v. 10, no. 34, 20 p.Google Scholar
  202. Schmalz, R. F., 1965, Brucite in carbonate secreted by the red alga Goniolithon sp. : Science, v. 149, p. 993–996, 2 figs., 1 table.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Schmidt, W. J., 1924, Die Bausteine des Tierkorpers in polarisiertem Lichte: Bonn, Verlag von Frederich Cohen, 528 p., 230 figs.Google Scholar
  204. Schmidt, W. J., 1951, Die Unterscheidung der Rohren von Scaphopoda, Vermetidae und Serpulidae mittels mikroskopischer Methoden: Mikroskopie, v. 6, p. 373–381, 14 figs.Google Scholar
  205. Schmidt, W. J., 1955, Die tertiären Würmer Osterreichs: Osterreichs Akad. Wissenschaften Mathematischnaturwissenschaftliche Klasse Denkschriften v. 109, no. 7, 121 p., 8 pls., 2 tables.Google Scholar
  206. Schopf, T. J. M., 1969a, Paleoecology of ectoprocts (bryozoans): Jour. Paleontology, v. 43, p. 234–244, 5 text-figs., 1 table.Google Scholar
  207. Schopf, T. J. M., 1969b, Generalizations regarding the phylum Ectoprocta in the deep-sea (200-6000m): Atti Soc. It. Sc. Nat. e Museo Civ. St. Nat. Milano, v. 108, p. 152–154.Google Scholar
  208. Schouppe, Alexander Von, and Stacul, PAUL, 1966, Morphogenese und Bau des Skelettes der Pterocorallia: Palaeontographica, Supplement-Band 11, 186 p., 6 pIs., 132 figs., 8 tables.Google Scholar
  209. Schroeder, J. H., et al., 1969, Primary protodolomite in echinoid skeletons: Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 80, p. 1613–1616, 3 figs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Schwab, K. W., 1965, Microstructure of some Middle Ordovician conodonts: Jour. Paleontology, v. 39, p. 590–593, pls. 69, 70, 3 text-figs.Google Scholar
  211. Schwab, K. W., 1966, Microstructure of some fossil and recent scolecodonts: Jour. Paleontology, v. 40, p. 416–423, pls. 53, 54, 3 text-figs., 1 table.Google Scholar
  212. Shimer, H. W., and Shrock, R. R., 1944, Index fossils of North America: New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 837 p., 303 pls., 5 text-figs.Google Scholar
  213. Shrock, R. R., and Twenhofel, W. H., 1953, Principles of invertebrate paleontology: New York, McGraw-HillBookCompany, Inc., 816p.Google Scholar
  214. Siever, Raymond, 1957, The silica budget in the sedimentary cycle: Amer. Mineralogist, v. 42, p. 821–841, 2 figs.Google Scholar
  215. Siever, Raymond 1962, Silica solubility, 0°-2000° C., and the diagenesis of siliceous sediments: Jour. Geology, v. 70, p. 127–150, 6 figs., 1 table.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Siever, Raymond and Scott, R. A., 1963, Organic geochemistry of silica, in Breger, Irving, ed., Organic geochemistry of silica: Oxford, Pergamon Press, p. 579–595, 6 figs.Google Scholar
  217. Sliter, W. V., 1968, Shell-material variation in the agglutinated foraminifer Trochammina pacifica CUSHMAN: Tulane Studies Geology, v. 6, p. 80-84, 1 fig.Google Scholar
  218. Smout, A. H., 1954, Lower Tertiary Foraminifera of the Qatar Peninsula: British Mus. (Nat. History), 96 p., 15 pls.Google Scholar
  219. Sochava, A. V., 1969, Yaitsa dinosavrov iz verchnego mel Gobi (Dinasaurian egg shells from the Upper Cretaceous deposits of the Gobi): Paleont. Zhur. 1969, no. 4, p. 76–88, pls. 11-12, 5 figs., 1 table.Google Scholar
  220. Sokolov, B. S., et al., 1962, Klass Anthozoa. Korallovye polipy, in Orlov, Yu. A., Osnovy paleontologii: Moskva, Akad. Nauk SSSR, v. 2, p. 192-430, 57 pIs.Google Scholar
  221. Sorby, H. C., 1879, Anniversary address of the president: Proc. Geol. Soc. London, v. 35, p. 56–95, 11 figs., 1 table.Google Scholar
  222. Spangenberg, D. B., and Beck, C. W., 1968, Calcium sulfate dihydrate statoliths in Aurelia: Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc., v. 87, p. 329–335, 3 figs., 2 tables.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Stanton, R. J., Jr., 1967, Radiosphaerid calcispheres in North America and remarks on calcisphere classification: Micropaleontology, v. 13, p. 465–472, 1 pI., 1 table.Google Scholar
  224. Stearn, C. W., 1966, The microstructure of stromatoporoids: Palaeontology, v. 9, p. 74–124, pIs. 14-19, 15 text-figs.Google Scholar
  225. Stormer, LEIF, 1930, Scandinavian Trinucleidae: Skrifter Utgitt av Det Norske VidenskapsAkademi Oslo I. Mat.-Naturv. Klasse, no. 4, 111 p., 14 pIs., 47 figs.Google Scholar
  226. Suter, D. J., and Wooley, S. E., 1968, Gallstone of unusual composition: calcite, aragonite, and vaterite: Science, v. 159, p. 1113–1114, 1 fig.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Swinchatt, J. P., 1969, Algal boring: a possible depth indicator in carbonate rocks and sediments: Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 80, p.1391–1396, 1 pl., 2 figs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Tappan, Helen, and Loeblich, A. R., Jr., 1968, Lorica composition of modern and fossil Tintinnida (Ciliate Protozoa), systematics, geologic distribution, and some new Tertiary taxa: Jour. Paleontology, v. 42, p. 1378–1394, pIs. 165-171, 1 text-fig.Google Scholar
  229. Tasch, Paul, and Shaffer, B. L., 1961, Study of scolecodonts by transmitted light: Micropaleontology, v. 7, p. 369–371, 1 pI.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Tavener-Smith, Ronald, 1969, Skeletal structure and growth in the Fenestellidae (Bryozoa): Palaeontology, v. 12, p. 281–309, pIs. 5256, 9 text-figs.Google Scholar
  231. Taylor, J. D., et al., 1969, The shell structure and mineralogy of the Bivalvia Introduction. Nuculacea-Trigonacea: British Mus. (Nat. History), Zoology, Supplement 3, 128 p., 29 pIs., 77 text-figs., 16 tables.Google Scholar
  232. Teichert, Curt, et al., 1964, Mollusca 3, in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part K: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, 519 p., 361 figs.Google Scholar
  233. Thompson, D’.A. W., 1942, On growth and form, 2nd ed.: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1116 p., 554 figs.Google Scholar
  234. Thompson, M. L., 1964, Fusulinacea, in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part C Protista 2: Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press, P.C358–C436 figs. 274-328A.Google Scholar
  235. Toomey, D. F., 1967, Additional occurrences and extension of stratigraphic range of the problematicalmicroorganism Nuia: Jour. Paleontology, v. 41, p. 1457-1460, pI. 185, 1 table.Google Scholar
  236. Toomey, D. F., 1969, The biota of the Pennsylvanian (Virgilian) Leavenworth Limestone, Midcontinent region. Part 2: Distribution of algae: Jour. Paleontology, v. 43, p. 1313–1330, pIs. 151154, 1 text-fig., 2 tables.Google Scholar
  237. Towe, K. M., 1967a, Wall structure and cementation in Haplophragmoides canariensis: Contr. Cushman Found. Foram. Research, v. 18, p. 147–151, pIs. 12, 13, 1 text-fig., 1 table.Google Scholar
  238. Towe, K. M., 1967b, Echinoderm calcite: single crystal or polycrystalline aggregate: Science, v. 157, p. 1048–1050, 8 figs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Towe, K. M., and Cifelli, Richard, 1967, Wall ultrastructure in the calcareous foraminifera: crystallographic aspects and a model for calcification: Jour. Paleontology, v. 41, p. 742–762, pIs. 87-99Google Scholar
  240. Towe, K. M., and Harper, C. W., JR., 1966, Pholidostrophiid brachiopods: origin of the nacreous Iuster: Science, v. 154, p. 153-155, 1 fig.Google Scholar
  241. Towe, K. M., and Rutzler, Klaus, 1968, Lepidocrocite iron mineralization in keratose sponge granules: Science, v. 162, p. 268–269, 3 figs., 1 table.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Travis, D. F., 1960, Matrix and mineral deposition in skeletal structures of the decapod Crustacea, in Sognnaes, R. F., Calcification in Biological Systems: Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci. Publ. 64, p. 57–116, 44 figs., 3 tables.Google Scholar
  243. Trejo H., Mario, 1960, La familia Nannoconidae y su alcance-estratigrafico en America (Protozoa, Incertae Saedis): Asoc. Mexicana Geölogos Petroleros Bol., v. 12, p. 259–314, 3 pIs., 15 figs., 11 tables.Google Scholar
  244. Utgaard, John, 1968a, A revision of North American genera of ceramoporoid bryozoans (Ectoprocta): Part I: Anolotichiidae: Jour. Paleontology, v. 42, p. 1033–1041, pIs. 129-132.Google Scholar
  245. Utgaard, John, 1968b, A revision of North America genera of ceramoporoid bryozoans (Ectoprocta): Part II; Crepipora, Ceramoporella, A canthoceramoporella, and Ceramophylla: Jour. Paleontology, v. 42, p. 1444–1455, pIs. 181-184.Google Scholar
  246. Vologdin, A. G., 1962, Tip Archaeocyatha, in Orlov, Yu. A., ed., Osnovy paleontologii: Moskva, Akad. Nauk SSSR, v. 2, p. 89–144, 9 pIs., 128 figs.Google Scholar
  247. Wall, David, and Dale, Barrie, 1968, Quaternary calcareous dinoflagellates (Calciodinellidae) and their natural affinities: Jour. Paleontology, v. 42, p. 1395–1408, pI. 172, 3 textfigs.Google Scholar
  248. Weber, J. N., and Kaufman, J. W., 1965, Brucite in the calcareous alga Goniolithon: Science, v. 149, p. 996–997, 1 fig.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Wells, J. W., 1956, Scleractinia, in MOORE, R. C., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part F Coelenterata: Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press, p. F328–F444, figs. 222-339.Google Scholar
  250. Westbroek, Peter, 1967, Morphological observations with systematic implications on some Paleozoic Rhynchonellida from Europe, with special emphasis on the Uncinulidae: Leidse Geol. MededeeI., v. 41, p. 1–82, 14 pIs., 81 figs.Google Scholar
  251. Weyl, P. K., 1967, The solution of carbonate materials in sea water: Exploration Production Research Division, Shell Oil Company, Pub. 428, p. 178-228.Google Scholar
  252. Willgallis, Alexander, 1969, Untersuchung des chemischen Aufbaus von mittelkambrischen Ostracodenschalen: Lethaia, v. 2, p.181-183, 1 fig.Google Scholar
  253. Williams, Alwyn, 1968, Evolution of the shell structure of articulate brachiopods: Palaeont. Assoc. Spec. Papers in Palaeontology No.2, 55 p., 24 pIs., 27 text-figs., 1 table.Google Scholar
  254. Williams, Alwyn and Rowell, A. J. 1965, Morphology, in Moore, R. C., ed., Treatise on invertebrate paleontology Part H Brachiopoda: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, p. H57–H138, figs. 59-138.Google Scholar
  255. Williams, Alwyn, and Wright, A. D., 1970, Shell structure of the Craniacea and other calcareous inarticulate brachiopods: Palaeonto Assoc. Spec. Papers in Palaeontology NO.7, 51 p., 15 pIs., 17 text-figs.Google Scholar
  256. Wilson, E. C., 1969, No new Ungdarella (Rhodophycophyta) in New Mexico: Jour. Paleontology, V. 43, p. 1245–1247, pI. 146, 1 text-fig.Google Scholar
  257. Winland, H. D., 1968, The role of high Mg calcite in the preservation of micritic envelopes and textural features of aragonite sediments: Jour. Sed. Petrology, V. 38, p. 1320–1325, 7 figs.Google Scholar
  258. Wise, S. W., Jr., 1970, Scleractinian coral exoskeletons: surface microarchitecture and attachment scar patterns: Science, V. 169, p. 978–980, 2 figs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Wood, Alan, 1949, The structure of the wall of the test in the Foraminifera; its value in classification: Quart. Jour. Geol. Society London, V. 104, p. 229–255, pIs. 13-15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Yavorsky, V. I.,1955, Stromatoporoidea Sovetskogo Souza. Chast 1: Vses. Nauchno-lssled. Geol. lnst., Trudy, n. ser., no. 8, p. 1–173, 89 pIs.Google Scholar
  261. Yavorsky, V. I., 1957, Stromatoporoidea Sovetskogo Souza. Chast 2: Vses. Nauchno-lssled. Geoi. lnst., Trudy, n. ser., no. 18, p. 1–168, 43 pIs.Google Scholar
  262. Yavorsky, V. I., 1961, Stromatoporoidea Sovetskogo Souza. Chast 3: Vses. Nauchno-lssled. Geol. lnst., Trudy, n. ser., no. 44, p. 1–144, 38 pIs.Google Scholar
  263. Yavorsky, V. I., 1963, Stromatoporoidea Sovetskogo Souza. Chast 4: Vses. Nauchno-lssled. Geol. lnst. Trudy, n. ser., no. 87, p. 1–160, 31 pIs.Google Scholar
  264. Yavorsky, V. I., 1963, Stromatoporoidea Sovetskogo Souza. Chast 5: Vses. Nauchno-lssled. Geol. lnst., Trudy, n. ser., no. 148, 56 p., 29 pIs., 1 fig.Google Scholar
  265. Zhuravleva, I. T., 1960, Arkheotsiaty sibirskoi platformy (Archeocyathids of the Siberian Platform): Moskva, Akademii Nauk SSSR, lnstitut GeologiI i Geofiziki Sibirskogo Otdeleniya Paleontologicheskii lnstitut, 344 p., 33 pIs., 147 figs., 26 tables.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Stanley Horowitz
    • 1
  • Paul Edwin Potter
    • 1
  1. 1.Indiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations