Advertisement

Abstract

Knowledge of the value of pyrethrum flowers as an insecticidal material was kept well hidden by the original discoverers and it was not until the nineteenth century that European populations became aware of the disinfesting value of a material known as „Persian Insect Powder“. There is a widely accepted legend which tells that an Armenian merchant named Djumtikov obtained the secret from tribesmen when journeying in the Caucasus Mountains and the story ends with a belief that it was Djumtikov’s son who first began manufacture on a commercial scale. Gnadinger (1936) quotes another story which relates that a German woman of Dubrovnik in Dalmatia threw away a withered bunch of pyrethrum flowers which had served as a floral decoration. At a later date, this woman observed that these were surrounded by dead insects, a fact she wisely related to some specific property of the flowers themselves. Whether this story is true or not, it is a fact that the commercial development of pyrethrum originated in Dalmatia.

Keywords

Caustic Soda Ally Compound Caustic Soda Solution SElL Method Petroleum Ether Solution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists: Methods of Analysis, 5th ed, Washington, p. 66, 1940; 6th ed. p. 76, 1945; 7th ed. p. 72, 1950.Google Scholar
  2. Beckley, V. A.: Pyrethrum Post 1, (3), 5 (1949); 2, (1), 23 (1950). — Beckley, V. A., C.B. Gnadinger and F. Ireland: Industr. Engng. Chem. (Industr.) 30, 835 (1938). — Beckley, V. A., and F. Mc Naughton: E. Afr. Agric. J. 2, 327 (1937). — Bray, G. T., S. H. Harper, K. A. Lord, F. Major and F. H. Tresadern: J. Soc. Chem. Ind. (Lond.) 66,275 (1947). — British Pharmaceutical Codex: London, Pharm. Soc. of Great Britain, p. 741, 1949. — Brown, N. C., R. F. Phipers and K. G. Singleton: ( In press ) 1954.Google Scholar
  3. Campbell, A., and W. Mitchell: J. Sci. Food Agric. 1, 137 (1950). — Colonial Products Advisory Bureau (Plant and Animal).-Report of the Standing Sub-Committee on Methods of Analysis of Vegetable Insecticides on the World-wide Collaborative Analysis of Pyrethrum Flowers, 1948–1949. London: Colonial Office 1950. — Crombie, L., M. Elliott, S. H. Harper and H. W. B. Reed: Nature (London) 162, 222 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fujitani, J.: Arch, exper. Path. u. Pharmakol. 61, 47 (1909).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gerhardstein, S.: Quoted by Colonial Products Advisory Bureau, 1950. — Gersdorff, W. A.: J. Econ. Ent. 40, 878 (1949). — Gillam, A. E., and T. F. West: J. Chem. Soc. 1942, 671; J. Soc. Chem. Ind. (Lond.) 68, 23 (1944). — Gnadinger, C. B.: Pyrethrum Flowers: Suppl., 2nd ed. Minneapolis: McLaughlin Gormley King Co. 1945. — Gnadinger, C. B., and C. S. Corl: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 51, 3054 (1929); 52, 680 (1930); Industr. Engng. Chem. (Industr.) 24, 901 (1932). — Graham, J. J. T., and F. B. La Forge: Soap, N. Y. 19, (11), 111 (1943). — Green, R. G., W. Pohl, F. H. Tresadern and T. F. West: J. Soc. Chem. Ind. (Lond.) 61, 173 (1942).Google Scholar
  6. Harper, S. H.: J. Chem. Soc. 1946,892; Pyrethrum Post 1, (3) 9 (1949); (4), 10 (1949). — Holaday, D. A.: Industr. Engng. Chem. (Anal.) 10, 5 (1938).Google Scholar
  7. Kelsey, D.: J. Assoc. Off. Agric. Chem. Wash. 35, 368 (1952); 86, 369 (1953).Google Scholar
  8. La Forge, F. B., and W. F. Barthel: J. Org. Chem. 9, 242 (1944); 10,106,114 (1945). — La Forge, F. B., and N. Green: J. Org. Chem. 17, 1635 (1952). — La Forge, F. B., and H. L. Haller: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 58,1777 (1936). — La Forge, F. B., and S. B. Soloway: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 69, 186, 2932 (1947). — Lord, K. A., J. Ward, J. A. Cornelius and M. W. Jarvis: J. Sci. Food Agric. 8, 419 (1952).Google Scholar
  9. Martin, J. T., and S. T. P. Brightwell: J. Soc. Chem. Ind. (Lond.) 65, 379 (1946). — Martin, J. T., and F. Tattersfield: Ann. Appl;. Biol. 21, 670, 682 (1934). — Mitchell, W.: Pyrethrum Post 1, (3), 7 (1949);(1) J. Sci. Food. Agric. 4, 246 (1953); (2) 4, 278 (1953). — Mitchell, W., and P. F. Barker: J. Sci. Food . Agric. 4, 282 (1953). — Mitchell, W., and F. H. Tresadern: J. Soc. Chem. Ind. (Lond.) 68, 221 (1949). — Mitchell, W., F. H. Tresadern and S. A. Wood: Analyst 73, 484 (1948).Google Scholar
  10. Potter, C., and K. A. Lord: Pyrethrum Post 8, (1), 12 (1953).Google Scholar
  11. Repert, J.: Ann. Falsif. Paris 27, 580 (1934); 28, 27 (1935).Google Scholar
  12. Schechter, M. S., N. Green and F. B. La Forge: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 71,3165 (1949). — Seil, H. A.: Soap, N. Y. 10, (5), 89 (1934); 23, (9), 131 (1947). — Shukis, A. J., D. Cristi and H. Wachs: Soap, N. Y. 27, (11), 124 (1951). — Staudinger, H., and H. Harder: Ann. Acad. Sci. fenn. 29, (18), 1 (1927). — Staudinger, H., and L. Ruzicka: Helv. Chim. Acta 7, 177, 201, 212, 236, 245, 377, 390, 406, 442, 448 (1924).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Tattersfield, F.: Ann. AppL. Biol. 18, 602 (1931). — Tattersfield, F., R. P. Hobson and C. T. Gimingham: J. Agric. Sci. 19, 266 (1929). — Textor, O.: Amer. J. Pharm. 53, 491 (1881).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ward, J.: Chem. and Ind. (Rev.) 1953, 586. — World Health Organisation: Insecticides Manual of Specifications for Insecticides and for spraying and dusting Apparatus, Geneva 1953. — Wilcoxon, F.: Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. 8, (3), 175 (1936).Google Scholar
  15. Yamamoto, R.: J. Tokyo Chem. Soc. 40, 126 (1919); J. Chem. Soc. Japan 44, 311, 1070 (1923).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag OHG. 1955

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. F. Phipers

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations