Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.): Anther Culture and the Production of Haploids

  • Xu Zhi-Hong 
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 12)


Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most important world-wide cereal crops, and ranks fourth in cultivation area in the world, only after wheat, rice, and maize. Owing to its short growth duration and good adaptability, barley can be cultivated from 42° latitude south to 70° latitude north. Based on spike morphology, barley can be divided into two-rowed and six-rowed forms, the four-rowed cultivar being a modification of six-rowed one. Barley can also be classified into hulled and naked (hull-less) types, according to its kernels being with or without hulls, and to winter and spring types, according to its growing habit (Martin et al. 1976; Briggs 1978). Since 1980, annual production of barley in the world has been stable, in the range of 160–180 × 106 t. The area harvested, yield, and production worldwide and the leading countries for barley production in 1986 are listed in Table 1.


Hordeum Vulgare Anther Culture Callus Production Cold Pretreatment Albino Plant 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xu Zhi-Hong 
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Plant PhysiologyAcademia SinicaShanghaiChina

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