Defensive Mechanisms



Venom Gland Defensive Mechanism Monarch Butterfly Vertebrate Predator Bird Dropping 
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Further Reading

  1. Blum MS (1981) Chemical defences of arthropods. Academic Press, New York LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Bucheri W, Buckley EE (1971) Venomous animals and their venoms. Volume III Venomous invertebrates. Academic Press, New York LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Cloudsley-Thompson JL (1980) Tooth and claw. Defensive strategies in the animal world. Dent, London MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  4. Cott HB (1940) Adaptive coloration in animals. Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Edmunds M (1974) Defence in animals. Longman, Harlow EssexGoogle Scholar
  6. Eisner T (ed) (1960) Symposium 4 Chemical defensive mechanisms in arthropods. XI Internationaler Kongress für Entomologie, Wien. Verhandlungen III: 245–293Google Scholar
  7. Forsyth A, Miyata K (1984) Tropical nature. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Hinton HE (1955) Protective devices of endopterygote pupae. Trans Soc Brit Entomol 12:49–92Google Scholar
  9. Hinton HE (1973) Natural deception. In: Gregory RL, Gombrich EH (eds) Illusion in nature and art. Gerald Duckworth, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Pavan M (ed) (1960) Symposium 3. Insect chemistry. XI Internationaler Kongress für Entomologie, Wien, Verhandlungen III:1–243Google Scholar
  11. Pavan M, Dazzini MV (1971) Toxicology and pharmacology — Arthropoda. Chem Zool 6:365–409Google Scholar
  12. Richards OW, Davies RG (1977) Imms general text book of entomology. 10th ed. Chapman and Hall, London (2 vols)Google Scholar
  13. Ward P (1979) Colour for survival. Orbis Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Wickler W (1968) Mimicry in plants and animals. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London; McGraw-Hill, New York Toronto (World University Library)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology (Medawar Building), University CollegeUniversity of LondonLondonUK

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