Alterations in Cell Cycle Control During Tumor Progression: Effects on Apoptosis and the Response to Therapeutic Agents
It has long been apparent that alterations in the control of the cell cycle accompany the development of tumorigenicity. The mere observation that cell growth continues in tumors whereas normal cells for the most part cease dividing and retain a diploid amount of DNA suggests that the controls regulating the normal cell cycle have failed to function in the tumor cell. In recent years the biochemical mechanisms underlying the transitions through the cell cycle have begun to be identified, and some of the gene products that are mutated in cancer cells have been shown to interact directly with these genes in control of the cell cycle. These mutated genes, as well as the cell cycle regulators, have been shown to affect whether cells undergo programmed cell death and to influence how cells respond to DNA-damaging agents that are frequently used therapeutically. Thus the genetic changes in the cell that affect cell cycle progression also have a bearing on the therapeutic outcome. While the description of the changes affecting the G0 to G1 to S phase transition is currently better understand as regards malignancy, the G2/M to phase transition also has important implications for therapy.
KeywordsCell Cycle Control Malignant Mesothelioma Nitrogen Mustard Familial Melanoma Affect Cell Cycle Progression
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