Influence of c-myc on the Progression of Human Breast Cancer

  • P. H. Watson
  • R. Singh
  • A. K. Hole
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 213/2)


The clinical management of breast cancer patients is guided by measures of tumor growth and metastatic potential (McGuire 1987). These clinical-pathological measures involve a number of parameters including the tumor size, histological type and grade, the presence of steroid receptors, and perhaps most importantly the status of the axillary lymph nodes (Simpson and Page 1992; Fisher 1992). The scope of this assessment is, however, significantly limited in patients with node-negative tumors and those with preinvasive lesions.


Breast Cancer Human Breast Cancer Natl Cancer Inst Human Breast Carcinoma Breast Cell Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adnane J, Gaudray P, Simon MP, Simony Lafontaine J, Jeanteur P, Theillet C (1989) Protooncogene amplification and human breast tumor phenotype. Oncogene 4: 1389–1395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aghib DF, Bishop JM (1991) A 3#x0027; truncation of myc caused by chromosomal translocation in a human Tcell leukemia is tumorigenic when tested in established rat fibroblasts. Oncogene 6: 2371–2375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aghib DF, Bishop JM, Ottolenghi S, Guerrasio A, Serra A, Saglio G (1990) A 3#x0027; truncation of myc caused by chromosomal translocation in a human Tcell leukemia increases mRNA stability. Oncogene 5: 707–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Akeson R, Bernards R (1990) N-myc down regulates neural cell adhesion molecule expession in ratneuroblastoma. Mol Cell Biol 10: 2012–2016PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ali III, Lidereau R, Callahan R (1989) Presence of two members of c-erbA receptor gene family (c-erbA beta and c-erbA2) in smallest region of somatic homozygosity on chromosome 3p21-p25 in human breast carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 81: 1815–1820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Behrens J, Lowrick O, Klein Hitpass L, Birchmeier W (1991) The E-cadherin promoter: functional analysis of a G. C-rich region and an epithelial cell-specific palindromic regulatory element. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 11495–11499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bello Fernandez C, Packham G, Cleveland JL (1993) The ornithine decarboxylase gene is a transcriptional target of c-Myc. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 7804–7808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benvensity N, Leder A, Kuo A, Leder P (1992) An embryonically expressed gene is a target for c-Myc regulation via the c-Myc binding sequence. Genes Dev 6: 2513–2523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bernards R, Dessain SK, Weinberg RA (1986) N-myc amplification causes down-modulation of MHC class I antigen expression in neuroblastoma. Cell 47: 667–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berns EM, Klijn JG, van Putten WL, van Staveren IL, Portengen H, Foekens JA (1992a) c-myc amplification is a better prognostic factor than HER2/neu amplification in primary breast cancer. Cancer Res 52: 1107–1113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Berns EM, Klijn JG, van Staveren IL, Portengen H, Noordegraaf E, Foekens JA (1992b) Prevalence of amplification of the oncogenes c-myc, HER2/neu, and int-2 in one thousand human breast tumours: correlation with steroid receptors. Eur J Cancer 28: 697–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berns EM, Klijn JG, Look MP, van Staveren IL, Portengen H, Foekens JA (1995) separate oncogene amplification for prediction of recurrent breast cancer: an analysis on 662 patients. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 36: 558 (abstr)Google Scholar
  13. Bieche I, Champeme MH, Matifas F, Hacene K, Callahan R, Lidereau R (1992) Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 7q and aggressive primary breast cancer. Lancet 339: 139–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bieche I, Champeme MH, Lidereau R (1994) A tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 1p32-pter controls the amplification of myc family genes in breast cancer. Cancer Res 54: 4274–4276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (1991) Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding complex with Myc. Science 251: 1211–1217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolufer P, Molina R, Ruiz A, Hernandez M, Vazquez C, Lluch A (1994) Estradiol receptors in combination with neu or myc oncogene amplifications might define new subtypes of breast cancer. Clin Chim Acta 229: 107–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Borg A, Baldetorp B, Ferno M, Olsson H, Sigurdsson H (1992) C-myc amplification is an independent prognostic factor in postmenopausal breast cancer. Int J Cancer 51: 687–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bos JL (1989) ras oncogenes in human cancer: a review. Cancer Res 49: 4682–4689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bradley MO, Kraynak AR, Storer RD, Gibbs JB (1986) Experimental metastasis in nude mice of NIH 3T3 cells containing various ras genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 5277–5281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brouillet JP, Theillet C, Maudelonde T, Defrenne A, Simony Lafontaine J, Sertour J, Pujol H, Jeanteur P, Rochefort H (1990) Cathepsin D assay in primary breast cancer and lymph nodes: relationship with c-myc, c-erb-B-2 and int-2 oncogene amplification and node invasiveness. Eur J Cancer 26: 437–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Callahan R (1992) p53 mutations, another breast cancer prognostic factor. J Natl Cancer Inst 84: 826–827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Castronovo V, Taraboletti G, Liotta LA, Sobel ME (1989) Modulation of laminin receptor expression by estrogen and progestins in human breast cancer cell lines. J Natl Cancer Inst 81: 781–788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clarke R, Thompson EW, Leonessa F, Lippman J, McGarvey M, Frandsen TL, Brunner N (1993) Hormone resistance, invasiveness, and metastatic potential in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 24: 227–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Daksis JI, Lu RY, Facchini LM, Marhin WW, Penn LJ (1994) myc induces cyclin D1 expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis and links mitogen-stimulated signal transduction to the cell cycle. Oncogene 9: 3635–3645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dang CV (1991) c-myc oncoprotein function. Biochim Biophys Acta 1072: 103–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Devilee P, Cornelisse CJ (1990) Genetics of human breast cancer. Cancer Surv 9: 605–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dhawan J, Farmer SR (1990) Regulation of alpha 1 (l)-collagen gene expression in response to cell adhesion in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. J Biol Chem 265: 9015–9021PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dickinson Laing TMA, Gibson AW, Johnson RN, Edwards DR (1995) Role of c-myc in regulation of gelatinase B expression. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 36: 97 (abstr)Google Scholar
  29. Dickson RB, Lippman ME (1987) Estrogenic regulation of growth and polypeptide growth factor secretion in human breast carcinoma. Endocri Inol Rev 8: 29–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dickson RB, Lippman ME (1992) Molecular determinants of growth, angiogenesis, and metastases in breast cancer. Semin Oncol 19: 286–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dubik D, Dembinski TC, Shiu RP (1987) Stimulation of c-myc oncogene expression associated with estrogen-induced proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 47: 6517–6521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dubik D, Shiu RP (1988) Transcriptional regulation of c-myc oncogene expression by estrogen in hormone-responsive human breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem 263: 12705–12708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dubik D, Shiu RP (1992) Mechanism of estrogen activation of c-myc oncogene expression. Oncogene 7: 1587–1594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Duffy MJ (1992) The role of proteolytic enzymes in cancer invasion and metastasis. Clin Exp Metastasis 10: 145–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Egan SE, Wright JA, Jarolim L, Yanagihara k, Bassin RH, Greenberg AH (1987) Transformation by oncogenes encoding protein kinases induces the metastatic phenotype. Science 238: 202–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Egan SE, Wright JA, Greenberg AH (1991) Molecular determinants of metastatic transformation. Environ Health Perspect 93: 91–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Eilers M, Schirm S, Bishop JM (1991) The myc protein activates transcription of the alpha-prothymosin gene. EMBO J 10: 133–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Erisman MD, Rothberg PG, Diehl RE, Morse CC, Spandorfer JM, Astrin SM. (1985) Deregulation of c-myc gene expression in human colon carcinoma is not accompanied by amplification or rearrangement of the gene. Mol Cell Biol 5: 1969–1976Google Scholar
  39. Escot C, Theillet C, Lidereau R, Spyratos F, Champeme MH, Gest J, Callahan R (1986) Genetic alteration of the c-myc protooncogene (MYC) in human primary breast carcinomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 4834–4838PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Escot C, Simony Lafontaine J, Maudelonde T, Puech C, Pujol H, Rochefort H (1993) Potential value of increased myc but not ERBB2 RNA levels as a marker of high-risk mastopathies [published erratum appears in Oncogene (7): 2023]. Oncogene 8: 969–974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Evan Gl, Wyllie AH, Gilbert CS, Littlewood TD, Land H, Brooks M, Waters CM, Penn LZ, Hancock DC (1992) Induction of apoptosis in fibroblasts by c-myc protein. Cell 69: 19–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Facchini LF, Chen S, Penn LJZ (1995) myc repression of gene transcription: one pathway or many? Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 36: 532 (abstr)Google Scholar
  43. Fisher B (1992) The evolution of paradigms for the management of breast cancer: a personal perspective. Cancer Res 52: 2371–2383Google Scholar
  44. Foekens JA, Schmitt M, Van Putten WL, Peters HA, Kramer MD, Janicke F, Klijn JG (1994) Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and prognosis in primary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 12: 1648–1658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Foulds LJ (1958) The natural history of cancer. J Chronic Disease 8: 2–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Frixen UH, Behrens J, Sachs M, Eberle G, Voss B, Warda A, Lochner D, Birchmeier W (1991) E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion prevents invasiveness of human carcinoma cells. J Cell Biol 113: 173–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gaffey MJ, Frierson HF Jr, Williams ME (1993) Chromosome 11q13, c-erbB-2, and c-myc amplification in invasive breast carcinoma: clinicopathologic correlations. Mod Pathol 6: 654–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Garcia I, Dietrich PY, Aapro M, Vauthier G, Vadas L, Engel E (1989) Genetic alterations of c-myc, c-erbB-2, and c-Ha-ras protooncogenes and clinical associations in human breast carcinomas. Cancer Res 49: 6675–6679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gaubatz S, Meichle A, Eilers M (1994) An E-box element localized in the first intron mediates regulation of the prothymosin alpha gene by c-myc. Mol Cell Biol 14: 3853–3862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gelmann EP, Thompson EW, Sommers CL (1992) Invasive and metastatic properties of MCF-7 cells and rasH-transfected MCF-7 cell lines. Int J Cancer 50: 665–669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gross N, Beretta C, Peruisseau G, Jackson D, Simmons D, Beck D (1994) CD44H expression by human neuroblastoma cells: relation to MYCN amplification and lineage differentiation. Cancer Res 54: 4238–4242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Guerin M, Barrois M, Terrier MJ, Spielmann M, Riou G (1988) Overexpression of either c-myc or c-erbB-2/neu proto-oncogenes in human breast carcinomas: correlation with poor prognosis. Oncogene Res 3: 21–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Halazonetis TD, Kandil AN (1991) Determination of the c-MYC DNA-binding site. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 6162–6166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hann SR, Eisenman RN (1984) Proteins encoded by the human c-myc oncogene: differential expression in neoplastic cells. Mol Cell Biol 4: 2486–2497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Harada Y, Katagiri T, Ito I, Akiyama F, Sakamoto G, Kasumi F, Nakamura Y, Emi M (1994) Genetic studies of 457 breast cancers Clinicopathologic parameters compared with genetic alterations. Cancer 74: 2281–2286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hehir DJ, McGreal G, Kirwan WO, Kealy W, Brady MP (1993) C-myc oncogene expression: a marker for females at risk of breast carcinoma. J Surg Oncol 54: 207–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Heikkila R, Schwab G, Wickstrom E, Loke SL, Pluznik DH, Watt R, Neckers LM (1987) A C-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibits entry into S phase but not progress from GO to G1. Nature 328: 445–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hennessy C, Henry JA, May FE, Westley BR, Angus B, Lennard TW (1991) Expression of the antimetastatic gene nm23 in human breast cancer: an association with good prognosis. J Natl Cancer Inst 83: 281–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Henry JA, Hennessy C, Levett DL, Lennard TW, WestleyBR, May FE (1993) int-2 amplification in breast cancer: association with decreased survival and realationship to amplification of c-erbB-2 and c-myc. Int J Cancer 53: 774–780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Howlett AR, Petersen OW, Steeg PS, Bissell MJ (1994) A novel function for the nm23-H1 gene: overexpression in human breast carcinoma cells leads to the formation of basement membrane and growth arrest. J Natl Cancer Inst 86: 1838–1844PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Inghirami G, Grignani F, Sternas L, Lombardi L, Knowles DM, Dalla Favera R (1990) Down-regulation of LFA-1 adhesion receptors by C-myc oncogene in human B lymphoblastoid cells. Science 250: 682–686PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Isola J, DeVries S, Chu L, Ghazvini S, Waldman F (1994) Analysis of changes in DNA sequence copy number by comparative genomic hybridization in archival paraffin-embedded tumor samples. Am J Pathol 145: 1301–1308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Jansen Durr P, Meichle A, Steiner P, Pagano M, Finke K, Botz J, Wessbecher J, Draetta G, Eilers M (1993) Differential modulation of cyclin gene expression by MYC. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 3685–3689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jones TR, Cole MD (1987) Rapid cytoplasmic turnover of c-myc mRNA: requirement of the 3’untranslated sequences. Mol Cell Biol 7: 4513–4521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kallioniemi OP, Kallioniemi A, Kurisu W, Thor A, Chen LC, Smith HS, Waldman FM, Pinkel D, Gray JW (1992) ERBB2 amplification in breast cancer analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 5321–5325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Karp JE, Broder S (1991) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and non-Hodgkins’ lymphomas. Cancer Res 51: 4743–4756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kerbel RS (1989) Towards aa understanding of the molecular basis of the metastatic phenotype. Invasion Metastasis 9: 329–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Klein G, Klein E (1986) Conditioned tumorigenicity of activated oncogenes. Cancer Res 46: 3211–3224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Knyazev PG, Imyanitov EN, Chernitsa OI, Nikiforova IF (1993) Loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 17p is associated with HER-2 amplification and lack of nodal involvement in breast cancer. Int J Cancer 53: 11–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kreipe H, Feist H, Fischer L, Felgner J, Heidorn K, Mettler L, Parwaresch R (1993) Amplification of c-myc but not of c-erbB-2 is associated with high proliferative capacity in breast cancer. Cancer Res 53: 1956–1961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. LeRoy X, Escot C, Brouillet JP, Theillet C, Maudelonde T, Simony Lafontaine J, Pujol H, Rochefort H (1991) Decrease of c-erbB-2 and c-myc RNA levels in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer. Oncogene 6: 431–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Leder A, Pattengale PK, Kuo A, Stewart TA, Leder P (1986) Consequences of widespread deregulation of the c-myc gene in transgenic mice: multiple neoplasms and normal development. Cell 45: 485–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Leone A, Flatow U, VanHoutte K, Steeg PS (1993) Transfection of human nm23-H1 into the human MDA-MB-435 breast carcinoma cell line: effects on tumor metastatic potential, colonization and enzymatic activity. Oncogene 8: 2325–2333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Li LH, Nerlov C, Prendergast G, MacGregor D, Ziff EB (1994) c-Myc represses transcription in vivo by a novel mechanism dependent on the initiator element and myc box II. EMBO J 13: 4070–4079PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Liotta LA (1988) Growth autonomy: the only requirement for metastasis? J Natl Cancer Inst 80: 300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Liotta LA, Stetler Stevenson WG (1991) Tumor invasion and metastasis: an imbalance of positive and negative regulation. Cancer Res 51: 5054s-5059sPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Little CD, Nau MM, Carney DN, Gazdar AF, Minna JD (1983) Amplification and expression of the c-myconcogene in human lung cancer cell lines. Nature 306: 194–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Luscher B, Eisenman RN (1990) New light on myc and Myb I. myc Genes Dev 4: 2025–2035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Luscher B, Eisenman RN (1992) Mitosis-specific phosphorylation of the nuclear oncoproteins myc and Myb. J Cell Biol 118: 775–784PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Luscher B, Kuenzel EA, Krebs EG, Eisenman RN (1989) myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II. EMBO J 8: 1111–1119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Machotka SV, Garrett CT, Schwartz AM, Callahan R (1989) Amplification of the proto-oncogenes int-2, c-erb B-2 and c-myc in human breast cancer. Clin Chim Acta 184: 207–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mai S, Jalava A (1994) c-Myc binds 5’flanking sequence motifs of the dihydrofolate reductase gene in cellular extracts: role in proliferation. Nucleic Acids Res 22: 2264–2273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mareel MM, Van Roy FM, De Baetselier P (1990) The invasive phenotypes. Cancer Metastasis Rev 9: 45–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mariani Costantini R, Escot C, Theillet C, Gentile A, Merlo G, Lidereau R, Callahan R (1988) In situ c-myc expression and genomic status of the c-myc locus in infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast. Cancer Res 48: 199–205Google Scholar
  85. McGuire WL (1987) Prognostic factors for recurrence and survival in human breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 10: 5–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. McGuire WL, Clark GM (1992) Prognostic factors and treatment decisions in axillary-node-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med 326: 1756–1761PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McGuire WL, Chamness GC, Fuqua SA (1991) Estrogen receptor variants in clinical breast cancer. Mol Endocrinol 5: 1571–1577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Meyers SL, O’Brien MT, Smith T, Dudley JP (1990) Analysis of the int-1, int-2, c-myc, and neuoncogenes in human breast carcinomas. Cancer Res 50: 5911–5918PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Miller TL, Huzel NJ, Davie JR, Murphy LC (1993) C-myc gene chromatin of estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 91: 83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Millon R, Nicora F, Muller D, Eber M, Klein Soyer C, Abecassis J (1989) Modulation of human breast cancer cell adhesion by estrogens and antiestrogens. Clin Exp Metastasis 7: 405–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Murphy LC (1990) Estrogen receptor variants in human breast cancer. Mol Cell Endocrinol 74: C83–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Musgrove EA, Hamilton JA, Lee CS, Sweeney KJ, Watts CK, Sutherland RL (1993) Growth factor, steroid, and steroid antagonist regulation of cyclin gene expression associated with changes in T-47D human breast cancer cell cycle progression. Mol Cell Biol 13: 3577–3587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Ochieng J, Basolo F, Albini A, Melchiori A, Watanabe H, Elliott J, Raz A, Parodi S, Russo J (1991) Increased invasive, chemotactic and locomotive abilities of c-Ha-ras-transformed human breast epithelial cells. Invasion Metastasis 11: 38–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Ottestad L, Andersen Tl, Nesland JM, Skrede M, Tveit KM, Nustad K, Borresen AL (1993) Amplification of c-erbB-2, int-2 and c-myc genes in node-negative breast-carcinomas. Relationship to prognosis. Acta Oncol 32: 289–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Paterson MC, Dietrich KD, Danyluk J, Paterson AH, Lees AW, Jamil N, Hanson J, Jenkins H, Krause BE, McBlain WA et al. (1991) Correlation between c-erbB-2 amplification and risk of recurrent disease in node-negative breast cancer. Cancer Res 51: 556–567PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Pavelic ZP, Pavelic K, Carter CP, Pavelic L (1992) Heterogeneity of c-myc expression in histologically similar infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 118: 16–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Peltenburg LT, Schrier PI (1994) Transcriptional suppression of HLA-B expression by c-Myc is mediated through the core promoter elements. Immunogenetics 40: 54–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Peltenburg LT, Dee R, Schrier PI (1993) Downregulation of HLA class I expression by c-myc in human melanoma is independent of enhancer A. Nucleic Acids Res 21: 1179–1185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pena A, Reddy CD, Wu S, Hickok NJ, Reddy EP, Yumet G, Soprano DR, Soprano KJ (1993) Regulation of human ornithine decarboxylase expression by the c-Myc. Max protein complex. J Biol Chem 268: 27277–27285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Penn LJ, Brooks MW, Laufer EM, Land H (1990a) Negative autoregulation of c-myc transcription. EMBO J 9: 1113–1121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Penn LJ, Brooks MW, Laufer EM, Littlewood TD, Morgenstern JP, Evan Gl, Lee WM, Land H (1990b) Domains of human c-myc protein required for autosuppression and cooperation with ras oncogenes are overlapping. Mol Cell Biol 10: 4961–4966Google Scholar
  102. Philip A, Schneider A, Vasrik I, Finke K, Xiong Y, Beach D, Alitalo K, Eilers M (1994) Repression of cyclin D1: a novel function of MYC. Mol Cell Biol 14: 4032–4043Google Scholar
  103. Postel EH, Berberich SJ, Flint SJ, Ferrone CA (1993) Human c-myc transcription factor PuF identified as nm23-H2 nucleoside diphosphate kinase, a candidate suppressor of tumor metastasis. Science 261: 478–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Prendergast GC, Cole MD (1989) Posttranscriptional regulation of cellular gene expression by the c-myc oncogene. Mol Cell Biol 9: 124–134Google Scholar
  105. Prendergast GC, Diamond LE, Dahl D, Cole MD (1990) The c-myc-regulated gene mr1 encodes plasminogen activatorr inhibitor 1. Mol Cell Biol 10: 1265–1269Google Scholar
  106. Reisman D, Elkind NB, Roy B, Beamon J, Rotter V (1993) c-Myc trans-activates the p53 promoter through a required downstream CACGTG motif. Cell Growth Differ 4: 57–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Rochefort H (1992) Cathepsin D in breast cancer: a tissue marker associated with metastasis. Eur J Cancer 28A: 1780–1783PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Roux Dosseto M, Romain S, Dussault N, Desideri C, Piana L, Bonnier P, Tubiana N, Martin PM (1992) c-myc gene amplification in selected node-negative breast cancer patients correlates with high rate of early relapse. Eur J Cancer 28A: 1600–1604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Royds JA, Stephenson TJ, Rees RC, Shorthouse AJ, Silcocks PB (1993) Nm23 protein expression inductal in situ and invasive human breast carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 85: 727–731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sawan A, Lascu I, Veron M, Anderson JJ, Wright C, Home CH, Angus B (1994) NDP-K/nm23 expression in human breast cancer in relation to relapse, survival, and opther prognostic factors: an immunohistochemical study. J Pathol 172: 27–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Scarpa A, Borgato L, Chilosi M, Capelli P, Menestrina F, Bonetti F, Zamboni G, Pizzolo G, Hirohashi S, Fiore Donati L (1991) Evidence of c-myc gene abnormalities in mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma of young adult age. Blood 78; 780–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Schoenenberger CA, Andres AC, Groner B, van der Valk M, LeMeur M, Gerlinger P (1988) Targeted c-myc gene expression in mammary glands of transgenic mice induces mammary tumors with constitutive milk protein gene transcription. EMBO J 7: 169–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Scorilas A, Yotis J, Gouriotis D, Keramopoulos A, Ampela K, Trangas T, Talieri M (1993) Cathepsin-D and c-erb-B2 have an additive prognostic value for breast cancer patients. Anticancer Res 13: 1895–1900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Seshadri R, Mathews C, Dobrovic A, Horsfall DJ (1989) The significance of oncogene amplification in primary breast cancer. Int J Cancer 43: 270–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Shapiro DN, Valentine MB, Rowe ST, Sinclair AE, Sublett JE, Roberts WM, Look AT (1993) Detection of N-myc gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Diagnostic utility for neuroblastoma. Am J Pathol 142: 1339–1346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Sheikh MS, Shao ZM, Chen JC, Ordonez JV, Fontana JA (1993) Retinoid modulation of c-myc and max gene expression in human breast carcinoma. Anticancer Res 13: 1387–1392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Shi YE, Torri J, Yieh L, Sobel ME, Yamada Y, Lippman ME, Dickson RB, Thompson EW (1993) Expression of 67kDa laminin receptor in human breast cancer cells: regulation by progestins. Clin Exp Metastasis 11: 251–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Shtivelman E, Bishop JM (1991) Expression of CD44 is represented in neuroblastoma cells. Mol Cell Biol 11: 5446–5452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Simpson JF, Page DL (1992) Prpgnostic value of histopathology in the breast. Semin Oncol 19: 254–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Soini Y, Mannermaa A, Winqvist R, Kamel D, Poikonen K, Kiviniemi H, Paakko P (1994) Application of fine-needle aspiration to the demonstration of ERBB2 and myc expression by in situ hybridization in breast carcinoma. J Histochem Cytochem 42: 795–803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Spandidos DA, Yiagnisis M, Papadimitriou K, Field JK (1989) ras, c-myc and c-erbB-2 oncoproteins in human breast cancer. Anticancer Res 9: 1385–1393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Spencer CA, Groudine M (1990) Transcription elongation and eukaryotic gene regulation. Oncogene 5: 777–785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Steeg PS, De la Rosa A, Flatow U, MacDonald NJ, Benedict M, Leone A (1993) Nm23 and breast cancer metastasis. Breast Cancer Res Treat 25: 175–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Studzinski GP, Brelvi ZS, Feldman SC, Watt RA (1986) Participation of c-myc protein in DNA synthesis of human cells. Science 234: 467–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Suen TC, Hung MC (1991) c-myc reverses neu-induced transformed morphology by transcriptional repression. Mol Cell Biol 11: 354–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Tandon AK, Clark GM, Chamness GC, Chirgwin JM, McGuire WL (1990) Cathepsin D and prognosis in breast cancer. N Engl J Med 322: 297–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tang RP, Kacinski B, Validire P, Beuvon F, Sastre X, Benoit P, dela Rochefordiere A, Mosseri V, Pouillart P, Scholl S (1990) Oncogene amplification correlates with dense lymphocyte infiltration in human breast cancers: a role for hematopoietic growth factor release by tumor cells? J Cell Biochem 44: 189–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Tavassoli M, Quirke P, Farzaneh F, Lock NJ, Mayne LV, Kirkham N (1989) c-erbB-2/c-erbA co-amplification indicative of lymph node metastasis and c-myc amplification of high tumor grade, in human breast carcinoma. Br J Cancer 60: 505–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Thompson EW, Katz D, Shima TB, Wakeling AE, Lippman ME, Dickson RB (1989) ICI 164, 384, a pure antagonist of estrogen-stimulated MCF-7 cell proliferation and invasiveness. Cancer Res 49: 6929–6934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Thompson EW, Lippman ME, Dickson RB (1991) Regulation of basement membrane invasiveness in human breast cancer model systems. Mol Cell Endocrinol 82: C203–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Thompson EW, Paik S, Brunner N, Sommers CL, Zugmaier G, Clarke R, Shima TB, Torri J, Donahue S, Lippman ME et al. (1992) Association of increased basement membrane invasiveness with absence of estrogen receptor and expression of vimentin in human breast cancer cell lines. J Cell Physiol 150: 534–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Thompson EW, Torri J, Sabol M, Sommers CL, Byers S, Valverius EM, Martin GR, Lippman ME, Stampfer MR, Dickson RB (1994) Oncogene-induced basement membrane invasiveness in human mammary epithelial cells. Clin Exp Metastasis 12: 181–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Tsuda H, Hirohashi S, Shimosato Y, Hirota T, Tsugane S, Yamamoto H, Miyajima N, Toyoshima K, Yamamoto T, Yokota J et al. (1989) Correlation between long-term survival in breast cancer patients and amplification of two putative oncogene-coamplification units: hst-1/int-2 and c-erbB-2/ear-1. Cancer Res 49: 3104–3108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Tsuda H, Hirohashi S, Hirota T, Shimosato Y (1991) Alterations in copy number of c-erbB-2 and c-myc proto-oncogenes in advanced stage of human breast cancer. Acta Pathol Jpn 41: 19–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. van den Brule FA, Engel J, Stetler-Stevenson WG, Liu FT, Sobel ME, Castronovo V (1992) Genes involved in tumor invasion and metastasis are differently modulated by estradiol and progestin in human breast-cancer cells. Int J Cancer 52: 653–657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Varley JM, Swallow JE, Brammar WJ, Whittaker JL, Walker RA (1987a) Alterations to either c-erbB- 2(neu) or c-myc proto-oncogenes in breast carcinomas correlate with poor short-term prognosis. Oncogene 1: 423–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Varley JM, Wainwright AM, Brammar WJ (1987b) An unusual alteration in c-myc in tissue from a primary breast carcinoma. Oncogene 1: 431–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Versteeg R, Noordermeer IA, Kruse Wolters M, Ruiter DJ, Schrier PI (1988) c-myc down-regulates class I HLA expression in human melanomas. EMBO J 7: 1023–1029Google Scholar
  139. Walker RA, Senior PV, Jones JL, Critchley DR, Varley JM (1989) An immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study of c-myc and c-erbB-2 expression in primary human breast carcinomas. J Pathol 158: 97–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wasfy G, Marhin W, Lu R, Daksis J, Penn LJZ (1995) Cloning and identification of myc regulated genes. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 36: 521 (abstr)Google Scholar
  141. Watson PH, Baral E (1991) Endocrine therapy of breast cancer: research trailing the clinical edge. Can J Oncol 1: 42–44Google Scholar
  142. Watson PH, Pon RT, Shiu RP (1991) Inhibition of c-myc expression by phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide identifies a critical role for c-myc in the growth of human breast cancer. Cancer Res 51: 3996–4000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Watson PH, Safneck JR, Le K, Dubik D, Shiu RP (1993) Relationship of c-myc amplification to progression or breast cancer from in situ to invasive tumor and lymph node metastasis. J Natl Cancer Inst 85: 902–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Watson PH, Snell L, Millns AK (1994) CD44 expression and estrogen receptor status in human breast cancer. American Association for Cancer Research Conference on Molecules Genetics of Tumor Progression, February 1994, Big Sky, Montana, Abstr no A-30Google Scholar
  145. Yang BS, Geddes TJ, Pogulis RJ, de Crombrugghe B, Freytag SO (1991) Transcriptional suppression of cellular gene expression by c-myc. Mol Cell Biol 11: 2291–2295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Zajac Kaye M, Gelmann EP, Levens D (1988) A point mutation in the c-myc locus of a Burkitt lymphoma abolishes binding of a nuclear protein. Science 240: 1776–1780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Zhou DJ, Ahuja H, Cline MJ (1989) Proto-oncogene abnormalities in human breast cancer: c-ERBB-2 amplification does not correlate with recurrence of disease. Oncogene 4: 105–108PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. H. Watson
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. Singh
    • 1
  • A. K. Hole
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

Personalised recommendations