The Cardiovascular Management of the Critically Ill Patient
Volume management is a major activity in the intensive care unit, because of the importance of blood volume as a determinant of venous return and cardiac output. The basic principles that I will discuss in this chapter can be summarized as there needs to be “enough but not too much” and “quantity must be differentiated from quality”. Cardiac output is dependent upon the interaction of two functions:circuit function (or venous return) and cardiac function [1,2]. I will begin by reviewing the basics for venous return.
KeywordsCardiac Output Venous Return Atrial Pressure Pleural Pressure Circuit Function
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