Advertisement

Distributed Hierarchical Neural Systems for Visual Memory in Human Cortex

Conference paper
Part of the Research and Perspectives in Alzheimer’s Disease book series (ALZHEIMER)

Summary

The visual cortex in human and nonhuman primates consists of multiple areas that are hierarchically organized into processing pathways. A ventral pathway in the occipitotemporal cortex is critical for the perception of object identity, and a dorsal pathway in the occipitoparietal cortex is critical for the perception of the spatial relations among objects, the perception of movement, and the direction of movements toward objects. The ventral object vision and dorsal spatial vision pathways have projections into different parts of the prefrontal cortex. Functional brain imaging studies of visual working memory for faces and spatial locations reveal activity throughout the ventral object vision and dorsal spatial vision pathways, respectively. Different prefrontal areas are associated with working memory for faces and for locations. Face working memory is selectively associated with regions in the inferior and mid-frontal cortex. Location working memory is selectively associated with a more dorsal and posterior region in the superior frontal sulcus. These prefrontal regions demonstrate sustained activity during working memory delays demonstrating the role these areas play in maintenance of an active representation of a visual working memory. Functional brain imaging studies of long-term episodic memory also demonstrate a mnemonic role for prefrontal areas. Encoding new long-term memories for faces was associated with activity in the right hippocampus and in the left prefrontal and inferior temporal cortex. Recognition of memorized faces, on the other hand, was not associated with hippocampal activity but was associated with increased activity in the right prefrontal and parietal cortex. This research shows that widely distributed neural systems are associated with working and episodic visual memory. Mnemonic functions involve the concerted activity of the multiple regions in the posterior extrastriate and prefrontal cortices.

Keywords

Work Memory Task Visual Working Memory Prefrontal Area Functional Brain Imaging Human Cortex 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baddeley A (1986) Working memory Oxford Univ Press New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Clark VP, Keil K, Maisog JM, Courtney SM, Ungerleider LG, Haxby JV (1996) Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of human visual cortex during face matching: A comparison with positron emission tomography (PET). Neurolmage, in pressGoogle Scholar
  3. Corbetta M, Miezin FM, Dobmeyer S, Shulman GL, Petersen SE (1991) Selective and divided attention during visual discriminations of shape, color, and speed: functional anatomy by positron emission tomography. J Neurosci 11: 2383 – 2402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Corbetta M, Miezin FM, Shulman GL, Petersen SE (1993) A PET study of visuospatial attention. J Neurosci 13: 1202 – 1226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Courtney SM, Ungerleider LG, Keil K, Haxby JV (1996) Object and spatial visual working memory activate separate neural systems in human cortex. Cereb Cortex 6: 39 – 49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Damasio H, Grabowski TJ, Tranel D, Hichwa RD, Damasio AR (1996) A neural basis for lexical retrieval. Nature 380: 499 – 505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Desimone R, Ungerleider LG (1989) Neural mechanisms of visual processing in monkeys. In: Good-glass H, Damasio AR (eds) Handbook of neuropsychology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 267 – 300Google Scholar
  8. D’Esposito M, Detre JA, Alsop DC, Shin RK, Atlas S, Grossman M (1995) The neural basis of the central executive system of working memory. Nature 378: 279 – 281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Felleman DJ, Van Essen DC (1991) Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex. Cereb Cortex 1: 1 – 47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fiez JA, Raife EA, Balota DA, Schwarz JP, Raichle ME, Petersen SE (1996) A positron emission tomography study of the short-term maintenance of verbal information. J Neurosci 16: 808 – 822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Fuster JM (1990) Behavioral electrophysiology of the prefrontal cortex of the primate. In: Uylings HMB, Van Eden JPC, De Bruin MA, Corner MA, Feenstra MGP (eds) Progress in brain research. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 313 – 323Google Scholar
  12. Goldman Rakic PS (1990) Cellular and circuit basis of working memory in prefrontal cortex of nonhuman primates. In: Uylings HBM, Eden CGV, Bruin JPCD, Corner MA, Feenstra MGP (eds) Progress in brain research. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 325 – 336Google Scholar
  13. Haxby JV, Grady CL, Horwitz B, Ungerleider LG, Mishkin M, Carson RE, Herscovitch P, Schapiro MB, Rapoport SI (1991) Dissociation of spatial and object visual processing pathways in human extrastriate cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 1621 – 1625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Haxby JV, Horwitz B, Ungerleider LG, Maisog JM, Pietrini P, Grady CL (1994a) The functional organization of human extrastriate cortex: a PET rCBF study of selective attention to faces and locations. J Neurosci 14: 6336 – 6353.Google Scholar
  15. Haxby JV, Ungerleider LG, Horwitz B, Maisog JM, Grady CL (1994b) Neural systems for encoding and retrieving new long-term visual memories: a PET-rCBF study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 35: 1813Google Scholar
  16. Haxby JV, Ungerleider LG, Horwitz B, Rapoport SI, Grady CL (1995) Hemispheric differences in neural systems for face working memory: a PET-rCBF study. Human Brain Map 3: 68 – 82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Horwitz B, Grady CL, Haxby JV, Ungerleider LG, Schapiro MB, Mishkin M, Rapoport SI (1992) Functional associations among human posterior extratriate brain regions during object and spatial vision. J Cog Neurosci 4: 311 – 322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jonides J, Smith EE, Koeppe RA, Awh E, Minoshima S, Mintun MA (1993) Spatial working memory in humans as revealed by PET. Nature 363: 623 – 625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McIntosh AR, Grady CL, Ungerleider LG, Haxby JV, Rapoport SI, Horwitz B (1994) Network analysis of cortical visual pathways. J Neurosci 14: 655 – 656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Nobre AC, Allison T. McCarthy G (1994) Word recognition in the human inferior temporal lobe. Nature 372: 260 – 263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Scoville WB, Milner B (1957) Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 20: 11 – 21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sereno MI, Dale AM, Reppas JB, Kwong KK, Belliveau JW, Brady TJ, Rosen BR, Tootell RB (1995) Borders of multiple visual areas in humans revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Science 268: 889 – 893PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Squire LR (1992) Memory and the hippocampus: A synthesis from findings with rats, monkeys and humans. Psychol Rev 99: 195 - 231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tootell RBH, Reppas JB, Kwong KK, Malach R, Born RT, Brady TJ, Rosen BR, Belliveau JW (1995) Functional analysis of human MT and related visual cortical areas using magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosci 15: 3215 – 3230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Tulving E, Kapur S, Craik FIM, Moscovitch M, Houle S (1994) Hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry in episodic memory: Positron emission tomography findings. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 2016 – 2020PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ungerleider LG, Haxby JV (1994) ‘What’ and ‘where’ in the human brain. Curr Opin Neurobiol 4: 157–165Google Scholar
  27. Ungerleider LG, Mishkin M (1982) Two cortical visual systems. In: Ingle DJ, Goodale MA, Mansfield RJW (eds) Analysis of visual behavior. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 549 – 586Google Scholar
  28. Watson JD, Meyers R, Frackowiak RSJ, Hajnal JV, Woods RP, Mazziotta JC, Shipp S, Zeki S (1993) Area V5 of the human brain: evidence from a combined study using positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Cereb Cortex 3: 79 – 94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wilson FA, Scalaidhe SP, Goldman-Rakic PS (1993) Dissociation of object and spatial processing domains in primate prefrontal cortex. Science 260: 1955 – 1958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zeki S, Watson JPG, Lueck CJ, Friston K, Kennard C, Frackowiak RSJ (1991) A direct demonstration of functional specialization in human visual cortex. J Neurosci 11: 641 – 649PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section on Functional Brain ImagingNIMHBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations