Deposition of Anions and Cations Via Precipitation



In 1987, the average ion concentrations amounted to 6.1 µg/g for sulphate, 5.3 µg/g for nitrate, 1.05 µg/g for chloride, 0.03 µg/g for fluoride and 2.1 µg/g for ammonium. While the sulphate values decreased to 2.6 µg/g in 1991, no significant trends were observed for the other ions. The pronounced dependence of the amount of precipitation on the wind direction (cf. Fig. 7.5) suggests that the wet deposition is predominantly influenced by sources located between west and south-southwest. This is confirmed in Figs. 8.1 and 8.2 for the most important ions SO4 2-, NO3 -, Cl- and NH4 +. As is to be expected on the basis of Fig. 7.2, sulphate shows a behaviour similar to that of sulphur as determined by trace element analysis of the rainwater (Fig. 7.6). The contribution of the particulate phase is negligible in the case of sulphur (see Table 7.1). The sources for SO4 2- lie in the western parts of Germany with a certainly marked component due to the conurbation of Hamburg. The main emitters of SO2 are the power and district heating stations. A similar transport situation is valid for NO3 -. Here, the main source is the NOx-emitting motor traffic.


Wind Direction Trace Element Analysis Sulphur Dioxide Emission Important Trace Element Distinct Seasonal Variation 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GKSS Research Centre GeestchachtGeesthachtGermany

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