The bottom soil of water bodies such as reservoirs, ponds, and shallow lakes acts as the storage, regulation and buffer organ of the system. As an illustration, the quantities of several components in the bottom soil can be compared to the equivalent terms in the water. The range of concentrations in the water of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus of shallow lakes reservoirs and impoundments are in the order of 10-102, 0.1-101 and 10-2-10-1 ppm (parts per million) respectively. The equivalent concentrations in bottom soils are in the order of 104-105 ppm organic carbon, 103 ppm total nitrogen and 103 to 104 ppm of total phosphorus. Thus, the concentrations in the bottom soil are about 3 orders of magnitude higher than those in the water. The concentration of phosphorus in the soil may be up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than in the water. Total phosphorus concentration in the water of the Sea of Galilee, Israel, is in the order of 10-2 ppm, while that in the sediment is in the order of 103 ppm (about 0.3%). Putting this differently, the amount of C or N in 1 cm deep bottom soil layer is equivalent to that found in a water column of about 10 m or, in the case of P, in a water column 1000 m deep! Very similar data are relevant for the distribution of other components, such as heavy metals.
KeywordsRice Straw Sediment Trap Total Phosphorus Concentration Nutrient Balance Fish Pond
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Avnimelech Y (1984) Reactions in fish pond sediments as inferred from sediment cores data. In: Rosenthal H, Sarig S (eds) Research on aquaculture. European Mariculture Soc Apec Publ N° 8, Bredene, Belgium, pp 41–54Google Scholar
- Berner RA (1980) A rate model for organic matter decomposition during bacterial sulfate reduction in marine sediments. In: Biogeochemistry of organic matter at the sediment water interface, pp 35-44, CNRS Int. ColloqGoogle Scholar
- Dor I, Kalinsky I, Eren J, Dimentman C (1987) Deep wastewater reservoirs in Israel. I. Limnological changes following self-purification. Water Sci Technol 19(12)317–322Google Scholar
- Eren Y, Tsur R, Avnimelech Y (1977) Phosphorus fertilization of fish ponds in the Upper Galilee. Bamidgeh, Israel J Aquaculture 31:3–8Google Scholar
- Gunnison D, Brannon JM, Smith I, Burton GA (1980) Changes in respiration and anaerobic nutrient regeneration during the transition phase of reservoir development. In: Barica J, Mur LR (eds) Hypertrophic ecosystems. Dev Hydrobiol 2:151–158Google Scholar
- Reddy RC, Feijtel TC, Patrick WH (1986) Effects of redox conditions on microbial oxidation of organic matter. In: Chen Y, Avnimelech Y (eds) The role of organic matter in modern agriculture. Martinus Nijhoff PublGoogle Scholar
- Serruya C (1971) Lake Kinneret. Nutrient chemistry of the sediments. Limnol Oceanogr 16:510-521Google Scholar
- Serruya C (1978) Sediment chemistry. In: Serruya C (ed) Lake Kinneret W. Junk bv Publ. The Hague, pp 205-215Google Scholar