Research and Development Policy

  • Yehuda Shevah
  • Myriam Waldman
Part of the Environmental Series book series (ESE)


Wastewater is considered a sanitary and health issue dealt with normally by local and health authorities. The degree of treatment is usually dictated by these authorities who lay down the criteria for treatment and discharge of effluents to water bodies, according to quality standards and the diluting effect of the estuaries and other recipient water bodies. Current standards in Israel are for a biological treatment which reduces the BOD level to 20 mg 1-1 and TSS to 30 mg 1-1 In addition, the local authorities are required to dispose of the effluents in a manner not harmful to the recipient water body. Treating wastewater to this standard is very costly and the Israeli Government has to assist local governments by providing grants and soft loans amounting to more than US$150 million yr-1 In Israel the situation is further complicated because, due to water scarcity, wastewater is highly regarded as potential water that can be treated and recycled, while considering the associated problem of environmental impact and cumulative pollution processes. Thus, the treatment and safe disposal of treated effluents is combined with a policy for reclamation and reuse of effluents as an integral part of the available water resources.


Sewage Effluent Wastewater Reuse Stabilization Pond Million Cubic Meter Domestic Effluent 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yehuda Shevah
  • Myriam Waldman

There are no affiliations available

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