Validation of TOPEX/POSEIDON Measurements in the Southern Baltic Sea

  • Gunter Liebsch
  • Reinhard Dietrich
Conference paper
Part of the International Association of Geodesy Symposia book series (IAG SYMPOSIA, volume 120)


In the present investigation altimetric sea-level heights from TOPEX/POSEIDON are compared with measurements of 8 coastal tide gauges in the southern Baltic Sea. The zero points of the tide gauges were determined by GPS measurements and by precise spirit levellings. Therefore, the instantaneous sea level above the ellipsoid and above an equipotential surface of the earth gravity field can be estimated only by means of tide gauge measurements.

Because tide gauge and altimeter measurements refer not to the same location it is necessary to know the differences of the ellipsoidal sea-level heights. For this purpose

  • different geoid models, which were fitted to the GPS-levelling points, were used;

  • the instantaneous sea-level height above the geoid was extrapolated to the altimeter footprints by empirical functions.

The comparison includes data from more than 5 years (Cycle 1, September 1992 to Cycle 188, October 1997). The method described here can in principle be used for the calibration of altimeter measurements. Special attention is paid to the different error sources concerning the sea-level height determination by altimetry respectively tide gauge measurements.


Tide Gauge Geoid Model Space Technique Tide Gauge Station Recent Crustal Movement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aviso, (1996). Aviso user handbook: merged TOPEX/ POSEIDON products. AVI-NT-02-101-CN, 3. edition.Google Scholar
  2. Christensen E., Haines B., Keihm S., Morris C., Norman R., Purcell G., Williams B., Wilson B., Born G., Parke M.,Gill S.,Shum C.,Tapley B.,Kolenkiewicz R., Nerem R. (1994).: Calibration of TOPEX/POSEIDON at platform harvest. JGR, 99(C12): 24465-24485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fu L., Christensen E., Yamarone C., Lefeb vre M., Menard Y., Dorrer M., Escudier P. (1994).: TOPEX/ POSEIDON mission overview. JGR, 99(C12): 24369-24381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Llebsch G. (1997).: Aufbereitung und Nutzung von Pegelmessungen für geodätische und geodynamische Zielstellungen. Deutsche Geodätische Kommission, Reihe C, Heft Nr. 485.Google Scholar
  5. Llebsch G., Dietrich R. (1997).: Sea level variations measured by topex/poseidon and by tide gauges: a validation study in the southern baltic sea. In Forsberg, R., Feissel, M., Dietrich, R., editors, IAG Symposium 119: Geodesy on the Move, pages 138-143. Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  6. Menard Y., Jeansou E., Vincent P. (1994).: Calibration of the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeters at Lampedusa: Additional results at Harvest. JGR, 99(C12): 24487-24504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mltchum G. (1997).: A tide gauge network for altimeter calibration. In Neilan, R., Van~Scoy, P., Woodworm, P., editors, Workshop on methods for monitoring sea level, pages 45-55. IGS Central Bureau, JPL, Pasadena, California, USA.Google Scholar
  8. Morris C., Gill S. (1994).: Evaluation of the TOPEX/ POSEIDON altimeter system over the Great Lakes. JGR, 99(C12): 24527-24539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Nerem R. (1997).: The contribution of satellite altimetry to measurering long-trem sea-level changes. In Neilan, R., Van~Scoy, P., Woodworm, P., editors, Workshop on methods for monitoring sea level, pages 25-37. IGS Central Bureau, JPL, Pasadena, California, USA.Google Scholar
  10. White N., Coleman R., Curch J., Morgan P., Walker S. (1994).: A southern hemisphere verification for the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimeter mission. JGR, 99(C12): 24505-24516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gunter Liebsch
  • Reinhard Dietrich
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Planetare GeodäsieTechnische Universität DresdenDresdenGermany

Personalised recommendations