Deviation of Japanese Vertical Datum and Reference Surface with Respect to the Global Geoid

  • Yuki Kuroishi
Conference paper
Part of the International Association of Geodesy Symposia book series (IAG SYMPOSIA, volume 120)


The deviation of the Japanese vertical reference surface from the geoid is discussed. The analysis method is based on Rapp (1994); GPS-derived geoid heights at benchmarks (BMs) are compared with the geoid undulations calculated from a global geopotential model, EGM96. The Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) conducted GPS observation at some 800 BMs throughout Japan and determined the ellipsoidal heights with reference to a nationwide continuous GPS array of Japan. The published normal orthometric heights at BMs were adjusted in 1969/71 with local corrections for ground subsidence afterwards. Since the Japanese islands are located in an island and arc region, we have to be careful in handling the orthometric heights because of the existence of vertical crustal movements during the leveling and GPS observation periods. The mean differences in areas of about 1.5 degree width in both longitude and latitude show geographically gradual variations of the peak to peak amplitude of around 60 cm. With evaluation of height changes estimated from preliminary adjustment results of the latest leveling survey in the period from 1987 to 1995, the p-p amplitude is slightly reduced to 50 cm. When the area of approximately 300 km by 300 km around the vertical datum station is considered, the mean deviation is derived as 14 cm and 18 cm below the EGM96 geoid with and without height change corrections, respectively.


Geopotential Model Geoid Model Vertical Data Geoid Undulation Orthometric Height 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Boucher C., Altamimi Z. (1991): ITRF89 and other realizations of the IERS Terrestrial Reference System for 1989. IERS Technical Note 6Google Scholar
  2. Kuroda J., Takabatake J., Matsushima M., Fukuda Y. (1997): Integration of Gravimetric Geoid and GPS/leveling Survey by Least Square Collocation. Journal of the Geographical Survey Institute, Vol. 87, pp. 1–3 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  3. Kuroishi Y. (1998): Improvement of Japanese geoid with 1D-FFT method and its comparison with altimetry-derived geoid. Abstracts, 2nd Joint Meeting of the International Gravity Commission and the International Geoid Commission, p. 82Google Scholar
  4. Lemoine F. G., Smith D., Smith R., Kunz L., Pavlis E., Pavlis N., Klosko S., Chinn M., Torrence M., Williamson R., Cox C., Rachlin K., Wang Y., Kenyon S., Salman R., Trimmer R., Rapp R., Nerem S. (1997): The development of the NASA GSFC and DMA joint geopotential model. IAG Symposia, Vol. 117, Segawa et al. (ed.), Gravity, Geoid and Marine Geodesy, Springer, pp. 461–469Google Scholar
  5. Moritz H. (1980): Geodetic Reference System 1980. Bulletin Géodésique, Vole 54, pp. 395–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Poutanen M., Vermeer M., Makinen J. (1996): The permanent tide in GPS positioning. Journal of Geodesy, Vole 70, pp. 499–504Google Scholar
  7. Rapp R. G. (1994): Separation between reference surfaces of selected vertical datums. Bulletin Géodésique, Vol. 69, pp. 26–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Smith, D. A., Milbert D. G. (1997): Evaluation of Preliminary Models of the Geopotential in the United States. International Geoid Service Bulletin no.6, D.I.I.A.R. Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy, pp. 7–32Google Scholar
  9. Smith, W.H.F., Wessel P. (1990): Gridding with continuous curvature splines in tension. Geophysics, Vol. 55, pp. 293–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Wessel P., Smith, W.H.F. (1991): Free software helps map and display data. EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys. U., Vol. 72, pp. 441, 445–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuki Kuroishi
    • 1
  1. 1.Space Geodetic LaboratoryGeographical Survey InstituteIbarakiJapan

Personalised recommendations