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Zusammenfassung

Mit dem zunehmenden Anteil älterer Menschen an der Gesamtbevölkerung nehmen auch diejenigen Erkrankungen an Häufigkeit zu, die eine deutliche Altersassoziation aufweisen. Dazu gehören kardiovaskuläre Erkrankungen, Neoplasien sowie unter den psychiatrischen Erkrankungen, v.a. depressive und demenzielle Syndrome. Aufgrund der Pflegebedürftigkeit demenzkranker Patienten in fortgeschrittenen Stadien können erhebliche Folgekosten entstehen. Etwa 50 - 60 % der demenziellen Erkrankungen der über 65jährigen werden klinisch der Alzheimer-Demenz zugeordnet. Die Prävalenzraten steigen mit dem Alter in der Periode zwischen 60 und 90 Jahren exponenziell an (Jorm et al. 1987). Die derzeitige demographische Entwicklung der Verschiebung der Alterspyramide zugunsten der Älteren wird in den kommenden Jahrzehnten zu einer dramatischen Zunahme der Häufigkeit dieser Erkrankung führen. Vaskuläre Demenzen (VD) und Frontotemporal-Lappen-Demenz (FTLD) kommen mit einer Häufigkeit von je 5-10% vor. Mischformen von Alzheimer-Demenz mit Parkinson-Erkrankung (Alzheimer-Demenz/„dementia with Lewy bodies“/DLB) liegen zu 15% vor, Mischformen von Alzheimer-Demenz mit vaskulärer Demenz zu 10%. Der Anteil anderer, häufig im Gegensatz zur früher als primär degenerativen Demenz bezeichneteten Alzheimer-Demenz, als sekundäre oder reversible Demenzen bezeichneten Erkrankungen, wird auf ca. 5% geschätzt. Angesichts der Dominanz der Alzheimer-Demenz und der vaskuläre Demenz unter den Demenzen wird hierauf der Schwerpunkt der folgenden Ausführungen gelegt.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Hock

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