Advertisement

Kreislaufstörungen des ZNS

  • W. Roggendorf
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Die Kenntnis der normalen Anatomie der zentralnervösen Gefäße und ihrer Versorgung ist die Voraussetzung für die Deutung eines Nekrose- oder Blutungsbezirks. Bestimmte topographische Verteilungen erlauben vielfach auf den ersten Blick eine Aussage darüber, ob eine venöse Abflussstörung oder der Verschluss eines bestimmten Arterienastes vorlag, ob das Grenzgebiet von Arterien betroffen ist oder ob angesichts einer unsystematischen Verteilung eher an embolische Vorgänge zu denken ist. Beispiele für charakteristische Verteilungsmuster werden auf den anschließenden Schemata und Abbildungen geboten (Übersicht der normalen Anatomie bei Cervós-Navarro 1980 und Lang 1979.)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Abraham H, Lazar G (2000) Early microglial reaction following mild forebrain ischemia induced by common carotid artery occlusion in rats. Brain Res 862: 63–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Akima M, Nonaka H, Kagesawa M, Tanaka K (1986) A study on the microvasculature of the cerebral cortex. Fundamental architecture and its senile change in the frontal cortex. Lab Invest 55: 482–489Google Scholar
  3. Almaani W S, Awidi A (1982) Spontaneous intracranial bleeding in hemorrhagic diathesis. Surg Neurol 17: 137–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alrawi A, Trobe J D, Blaivas M, Müsch D C (1999) Brain biopsy in primary angiitis of the central nervous system. Neurology 53: 858–860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alvarez H, Burrows P, Comoy J, De Victor D, Durand P H et al. (1991) Contribution à Petude et au traitement des malformations artérioveineuses cérébrales de l’enfant. Riv Neurol 4: 399–492Google Scholar
  6. Amano S (1977) Vascular changes in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive rats: hyaline and fibrinoid degeneration. J Pathol 121: 119–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashwal S, Tomasi L, Schneider S, Perkin R, Thompson J (1992) Bacterial meningitis in children: pathophysiology and treatment. Neurology 42: 739–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Auer R N, Beneveniste H (1996) Hypoxia and related conditions. In: Graham D I, Lantos P L (ed) Greenfield’s neuropathology. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Baker A B, Jannone A (1959) Cerebrovascular disease. Neurology 9: 312–332; 391–396; 441–446Google Scholar
  10. Bamford J, Sandercock P, Dennis M, Burn J, Warlow C (1990) A prospective study of acute cerebrovascular disease in the community: the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project 1981–86. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 53: 16–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barnett H J M (1980) Progress towards stroke prevention: Robert Wartenberg lecture. Neurology 30: 1212–1225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bederson J B, Wiestier O D, Brüstle O, Roth P, Frick R, Yasargil M G (1991) Intracranial venous hypertension and the effects of venous outflow obstruction in a rat model of arteriovenous fistula. Neurosurgery 29: 341–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Block F, Peters M, Nolden-Koch M (2000) Expression of IL-6 in the ischemic penumbra. Neuroreport 11: 963–967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bodechtel G, Erbslöh F (1958) Die Veränderungen des Zent-ralnervensystems beim Diabetes mellitus. In: Scholz W (Hrsg) Nervensystem. Springer, Berlin Göttingen Heidelberg (Handbuch der speziellen pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie, Bd XIII/2b, S 1717–1739 )Google Scholar
  15. Bohmfalk G L, Story J L, Wissinger J P, Brown W E (1978) Bacterial intracranial aneurysm. J Neurosurg 48: 369–382Google Scholar
  16. Boiten J, Lodder J (1991) Lacunar infarcts: pathogenesis and validity of the clinical syndromes. Stroke 22: 1374–1378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Boller F, Boller M, Gilbert J (1977) Familial idiopathic cerebral calcifications. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 40: 280–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bradac G B, Kaernbach A, Bolk-Weischedel D, Finck G A (1981) Spontaneous dissecting aneurysm of cervical cerebral arteries. Neuroradiol 21: 149–154Google Scholar
  19. Bradac G B, Ferszt R, Schoerner S (1986) Brain edema around meningeomas; a morphological and NMR study. Neuroradiol 28: 304–311Google Scholar
  20. Bradbury M (1981) Lymphatics and the central nervous system. Trends Neurosci 4: 100–101Google Scholar
  21. Brightman M W (1977) Morphology of blood-brain interfaces. Exp Eye Res 25: 1–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brightman M W (1989) The anatomic basis of the blood- brain barrier. In: Neuweit E A (ed) Implications of the blood-brain barrier and its manipulation, vol 1. Plenum, New York, pp 53–83Google Scholar
  23. Broderick J P, Phillips S J, Whisnant J P, O’Fallon W M, Bergstralh E J (1989) Incidence rates of stroke in the eighties. Stroke 20: 577–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brott T, Thalinger K, Hertzberg V (1986) Hypertension as a risk factor for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 17: 1078–1083PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bullock R, Maxwell W L, Graham D I, Teasdale G M, Adams J H (1991) Glial swelling following human cerebral contusion: an ultrastructural study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 54: 427–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Caplan LR (1986) Miscellaneous cerebrovascular conditions. Semin Neurol 6: 267–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cervös-Navarro J (1980) Gefäßerkrankungen und Durchblutungsstörungen des Gehirns. In: Doerr W, Scifert G (Hrsg) Spezielle pathologische Anatomie, Bd 13/1. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, S 1–412Google Scholar
  28. Cervös-Navarro J, Ferszt R (1980) Brain edema, pathology, diagnosis and therapy. Raven, New York (Advances in Neurology 28 )Google Scholar
  29. Cervös-Navarro J, Ferszt R (1989) Klinische Neuropathologie. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  30. Cervös-Navarro J, Matakas F, Roggendorf W, Christman U (1978) The morphology of spastic intracerebral arterioles. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 4: 369–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Chabriat H, Vahedi K, Iba Zizen M T et al. (1995) Clinical spectrum of CADASIL: a study of 7 families. Lancet 346: 934–939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Challa V R, Moody D M, Bell M A (1992) The charcot-bou- chard aneurysm controversy. Impact of a new histologic technique. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 51: 264–271Google Scholar
  33. Chan P H, Fishman R A (1984) The role of arachidonic acid in vasogenic brain edema. Fred Proc 43: 210Google Scholar
  34. Chan P H, Schmidley W, Fishman R A, Longar S M (1984) Brain injury, edema and vascular permeability changes induced by oxygen-derived free radicals. Neurology 34: 315–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Chase H P, Marlow R A, Dabiere C S, Welch N N (1973) Hypoglycemia and brain development. Pediatrics 52: 513–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Chehrazi B B, Giri S, Joy R M (1989) Prostaglandins and vasoactive amines in cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke 20: 217–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Chopp M, Li Y, Dereski M O, Levine S R, Yoshida A, Garcia J (1991) Neuronal injury and expression of 72-kDa heatshock protein after forebrain ischemia in the rat. Acta Neuropathol 83: 66–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Chu C T, Gray L, Goldstein L B, Hulette C M (1998) Diagnosis of intracranial vasculitis: a multi-disciplinary approach. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 57: 30–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Coakham H B, Duchen L W, Scaravilli F (1979) Moya-Moya disease clinical and pathological report of a case with associated myopathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 42: 289–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Cole F M, Yates P O (1967) The occurrence and significance of intracerebral microaneurysms. J Pathol Bacteriol 93: 393–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cserr H F, Harling-Berg C J, Knopf P M (1992) Drainage of brain extracellular fluid into blood and deep cervical lymph and its immunological significance. Brain Pathol 2: 269–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. DeReuck J, Schaumburg H H (1972) Periventricular atherosclerotic leukoencephalopathy. Neurology 22: 1094–1097PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. DeReuck J, Van der Eecken H M (1978) Periventricular leukomalacia in adults. Arch Neurol 35: 517–521Google Scholar
  44. Dichgans J, Gottschaidt M, Voigt K (1972) Arteriovenöse Dura-Angiome am Sinus transversus. Klinische Symptome, charakteristische arterielle Versorgung und häufige venöse Abflußstörungen. Zentralbl Neurochir 33 /1: 1–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dichgans M, Mayer M, Uttner I et al. (1998) The phenotypic spectrum of CADASIL: clinical findings in 102 cases. Ann Neurol 44: 731–739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Dietrichs E, Dahl A, Nyberg-Hansen R et al. (1992) Cerebral blood flow findings in Moyamoya disease in adults. Acta Neurol Scand 85: 318–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Dirnagl U, Iadecola C, Moskowitz M A (1999) Pathobiology of ischaemic stroke. Trends Neurosci 22: 391–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Dubois E L (1976) The clinical picture of systemic lupus erythematosus. In: Dubois E L (ed) Lupus erythematosus, 2nd edn. Univ of South Calif Press, Los Angeles, pp 232–437Google Scholar
  49. Duvernoy H M (1978) Human brainstem vessels. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. Duvernoy H M, Delon S, Vannson J L (1981) Cortical blood vessels of the human brain. Brain Res Bull 7: 519–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Duvernoy H M, Dolon S, Vannson J L (1983) The vascularization of the human cerebellar cortex. Brain Res Bull 11: 419–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Einhäupl K M, Villringer A, Haberl R L M, (1990) Clinical spectrum of sinus venous thrombosis. In: Einhäupl K M, Cerebral sinus thromboses. Plenum, New York, p 149Google Scholar
  53. Erbslöh F (1954) Nosologische und klinische Besonderheiten der sog. Arteriitis temporalis. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 60: 702–706Google Scholar
  54. Feigin I, Prose P (1959) Hypertensive fibrinoid arteritis of the brain and gross cerebral hemorrhage. A form of hyalinosis. Arch Neurol 1: 112–124Google Scholar
  55. Feldman E (1994) Intracerebral hemorrhage. In: Fisher M (ed) Clinical atlas of cerebrovascular disorders. Wolfe, London, pp 11.1–11. 17Google Scholar
  56. Finney H L, Roberts T S, Anderson R E (1976) Giant intracranial aneurysm associated with Marfan’s syndrome. J Neurosurg 45: 342–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Fisher C M (1969) The arterial lesion underlying lacunes. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 12: 1–15Google Scholar
  58. Fisher C M (1971) Cerebral miliary aneurysms in hypertension. Am J Pathol 66: 313–330Google Scholar
  59. Fisher C M (1982) Lacunar strokes and infarcts. A review. Neurology 32: 871–876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Fisher C M (1989) Binswanger’s encephalopathy. A review. J Neurol 236: 65–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Fitch W, McDowall D G, Keaney N P, Pickerodt V W A (1977) Systemic vascular responses to increased intracranial pressure. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 40: 843–852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Forbus W D (1930) On the origin of miliary aneurysms of the superficial cerebral arteries. Bull Johns Hopk Hosp 47: 239–284Google Scholar
  63. Forfar J C (1979) A 7-year analysis of hemorrhage in patients on long-term anticoagulant treatment. Br Heart J 42: 128–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Franzen P, Sutinen S, Knorring J (1992) Giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica in a region of Finland: an epidemiologic, clinical and pathologic study, 1984-1988. J Rheumatol 19: 273–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Friede R L (1962) An enzyme histochemical study of cerebral arteriosclerosis. Acta Neuropathol 2: 58–72Google Scholar
  66. Friede R L, Schubinger O (1981) Direct drainage of extracranial arteries into the sagittal sinus associated with dementia. J Neurol 225: 1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Ganter S, Northoff H, Männel D, Gebicke-Härter P J (1992) Growth control of cultured microglia. J Neurosci 33: 218–230Google Scholar
  68. Garcia J H (1992) The evolution of brain infarcts. A review. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 51: 387–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Garcia J H, Kalimo H, Kamiyo Y, Trump B F (1977) Cellular events during partial cerebral ischemia. Virchows Arch B 25: 191–206Google Scholar
  70. Garcia J H, Lossinsky A S, Kauffman F C, Conger K A (1978) Neuronal ischemic injury: light microscopy, ultrastructure and biochemistry. Acta Neuropathol 43: 85–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Garcia J H, Liu K F, Ho K L (1995) Neuronal necrosis after middle cerebral artery occlusion in Wistar rats progresses at different time intervals in the caudoputamen and the cortex. Stroke 26: 636–642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Garraway W M, Whisnant J P, Drury I (1983) The continuing decline in the incidence of stroke. Mayo Clin Proc 58: 520–523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Ginsberg M D, Bogousslavsky J (eds) (1998) Cerebrovascular disease: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  74. Ginsberg M D, Sternau L L, Globus M Y T, Dietrich W D, Busto R (1992) Therapeutic modulation of brain temperature: Relevance to ischemic brain injury. Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev 4: 189–225Google Scholar
  75. Goldschneider H G, Lischewski R, Claus D, Streibl W, Weiblinger G (1980) Klinische, endokrinologische und compu- tertomographische Untersuchungen zur symmetrischen Stammganglienverkalkung (M. Fahr ). Arch Psychiat Nervenkr 228: 53–65Google Scholar
  76. Gonzalez-Gay M, Alonso M D, Agüero J J et al. (1992) Temporal arteritis in an northwestern area of Spain: study of 57 biopsy proven patients. J Rheumatol 19: 277–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Graeber M B, Streit W J (1990) Microglia: Immune network in the CNS. Brain Pathol 1: 2–5Google Scholar
  78. Guseo A, Boldizsar F, Geliert M (1975) “Elektronenoptische Untersuchungen bei striatodentaler Calcification” ( Fahr ). Acta Neuropathol 31: 305–313Google Scholar
  79. Hachinski V C (1987) Leukoaraiosis. Arch Neurol 44: 21–23Google Scholar
  80. Hajjar D P (1991) Viral pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Am J Pathol 139: 1195–1211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hakim A M, Hogan M J, Carpenter S (1992) Time course of cerebral blood flow and histological outcome after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Stroke 23: 1138–1144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hassler O (1965) Vascular changes in senile brains. A micro-angiographic study. Acta Neuropathol 5: 40–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hassler W, Thron A, Grote E (1989) Hemodynamics of spinal duralarteriovenous fistulas. An intraoperative study. J Neurosurg 70: 360–370Google Scholar
  84. Hazama F, Amano S, Haebara H, Yamori Y, Okamoto K (1976) Pathology and pathogenesis of cerebrovascular lesions in SHR. In: Cervös-Navarro J et al. (eds) The cerebral vessel wall. Raven, New York, pp 245–252Google Scholar
  85. Hazama F, Kataoka H, Yamada E, Kayembe K, Hashimoto N et al. (1986) Early changes of experimentally induced cerebral aneurysms in rats. Am J Pathol 124: 399–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Heyman A (1973) Oral contraception increased risk of the cerebral ischemia or thrombosis. Collaborative group for the study of stroke in young women. N Engl J Med 288: 871–878Google Scholar
  87. Hickey W F, Kimura H (1988) Perivascular microglial cells of the CNS are bone marrow-derived and present antigen in vivo. Science 239: 290–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Hoff H F (1973) Human intracranial atherosclerosis. Virchows Arch A 361: 97–108Google Scholar
  89. Horn M, Schlote W (1992) Delayed neuronal death and delayed neuronal recovery in the human brain following global ischemia. Acta Neuropathol 85: 79–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Horner F A, Meyers G J, Stumpf D A, Oseroff B J, Choi B H (1976) Malignant atrophic papulosis ( Kohlmeier-Degos disease) in childhood. Neurology 26: 317–321Google Scholar
  91. Hossmann K A (1994) Glutamate-mediated injury in focal cerebral ischemia: the excitotoxin hypothesis revised. Brain Pathol 4: 23–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hossmann K A, Kleihues P (1973) Reversibility of ischemic brain damage. Arch Neurol 29: 375–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Houser O W, Cambell J K, Sundt T S (1979) Arteriovenous malformation affecting the transverse dural venous sinusan acquired lesion. Mayo Clin Proc 54: 651–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Hughes J T, Schianchi P M (1978) Cerebral artery spasm. J Neurosurg 48: 515–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kapitel 6 Kreislaufstörungen des ZNS m 163 Iadecola C (1999) Mechanisms of cerebral ischemic damage. In: Walz W (ed) Cerebral ischemia. Molecular and cellular pathophysiology. Humana, Totowa/NJ, pp 3–32Google Scholar
  96. Iglesias-Rozas J R, Holdorff B, Steiner G (1974) Trastornos vasculares en la encefalopatía subcortical crónica progressiva de Binswangen Patología VII: 11–18Google Scholar
  97. Ikeda E, Hosoda Y (1993) Distribution of thrombotic lesions in the cerebral arteries in spontaneous occlusion of the circle of Willis. In: Cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease. Clin Neuropathol 12: 44–48Google Scholar
  98. Jacobs L, Heffner R R, Newman R P (1985) Selective paralysis of downward gaze caused by bilateral lesions of the mesencephalic periaqueductal gray matter. Neurology 35: 516–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Jellinger K (1977) Pathology of intracerebral hemorrhage. Zentralbl Neurochir 38: 29–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Jellinger K (1980) Morphologie und Pathogenese spinaler Durchblutungsstörungen. Nervenarzt 51: 65–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Jellinger K, Minauf M (1968) Angiodysgenetische nekrotisierende Myelopathie. Arch Psychiat Nervenkr 211: 377–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Jellinger K, Neumayer E (1964) Progressive subkortikale vaskuläre Enzephalopathie Binswangen Eine klinisch-neuro- pathologische Studie. Arch Psychiat Nervenkr 205: 523–555Google Scholar
  103. Jenkins L W, Povlishock J T, Becker D P, Miller D J, Sullivan H G (1979) Complete cerebral ischemia. Acta Neuropathol 48: 113–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Jones G T, Martin B J, Stehbens W E (1992) Endothelium and elastic tears in the afferent arteries of experimental arteriovenous fistulae in rabbits. Int J Exp Pathol 73: 405–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Jorgensen H S, Plesner, A M, Hübbe P, Larsen K (1992) Marked increase of stroke incidence in men between 1972 and 1990 in Frederiksberg, Denmark. Stroke 23: 1701–1704Google Scholar
  106. Jörgensen L, Torvik A (1969) Ischaemic cerebrovascular diseases in an autopsy series, part 1 and 2. J Neurol Sci 3: 490–509; 9: 285–320Google Scholar
  107. Joutel A, Dodick D D, Parisi J E, Cecillon M, Tournier-Lasserve E, Bousser M G (2000) De novo mutation in the Notch3 gene causing CADASIL. Ann Neurol 47: 388–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Kalimo H, Viitanen M, Amberia K et al. (1999) CADASIL: hereditary disease of arteries causing brain infarcts and dementia. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 25: 257–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Kannel W B, Dawber T R, Sorlie P, Wolf P A (1976) Components of blood pressure and risk of atherothrombotic brain infarction: the Framingham study. Stroke 7: 327–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Kato H, Walz W (2000) The initiation of the microglial response. Brain Pathol 10: 137–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Kawasaki H, Utsuyama M, Takahanshi H et al. (1989) Establishment of a monoclonal antibody against senile plaques and its application for immunohistological and immuno electron microscopical studies in the brain of the elderly. Acta Neuropathol 79: 44–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Kiessling M, Gass P (1994) Stimulus-transcription coupling in focal cerebral ischemia. Brain Pathol 4: 77–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Kim P, Sundt T M Jr, Vanhoutte P M (1989) Alterations of mechanical properties in canine basilar arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 71: 430–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Kimelberg H K (1992) Astrocytic edema in CNS trauma. J Neurotrauma 9 (Suppl 1): 71–81Google Scholar
  115. Köhler G K, Krankenhagen B, Westphal K (1977) Hirninfarkte unter der Einnahme von Ovulationshemmern. Fortsch Neurol Psychiat 45: 293–305Google Scholar
  116. Koenig E, Thron A, Schräder V, Dichgans J (1989) Spinal arteriovenous malformations and fistulae: clinical, neurora- diological and neurophysiological findings. J Neurol 236: 260–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Kondziolka D, Bernstein M, Resch L et al. (1987) Significance of hemorrhage into brain tumors: clinicopathological study. J Neurosurg 67: 852–857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Kono S, Oka K, Sueishi K (1990) Histopathologic and morphometric studies of leptomeningeal vessels in Moya- moya-disease. Stroke 21: 1044–1050PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Kreutzberg G W, Blakemore W F, Graeber M B (1996) Cellular pathology of the central nervous system. In: Graham D I, Lantos P L (eds) Greenfield’s neuropathology. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  120. Kuschinsky W (1987) Physiologie der Hirndurchblutung und des Hirnstoffwechsels. In: Hartmann A, Wassmann H (Hrsg) Hirninfarkt - Ätiologie, Diagnose, Prophylaxe und Therapie. Urban & Schwarzenberg, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  121. Kuwabara Y, Ichiya Y, Otsuka M, Masuda K, Ichimiya A et al. (1992) Cerebrovascular responsiveness to hypercapnia in Alzheimer’s dementia of the Binswanger type. Stroke 23: 594–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Lahl R (1966) Carotido-basiläre Anastomose (A. primitiva trigémina) in Kombination mit Anomalien des Circulus arteriosus cerebri. Psychiat Neurol (Basel) 151: 351–365Google Scholar
  123. Lang J (1979) Gehirn- und Augenschädel. In: Lang J, Wachsmuth W (Hrsg) Praktische Anatomie, Bd I/l/B. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  124. Lee J M, Zipfel G J, Choi D W (1999) The changing landscape of ischaemic brain injury mechanisms. Nature 399 (Suppl): A7–A14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Leu HJ (1976) Die unspezifische Aorto-Arteriitis (Takayasu-Erkrankung). Virchows Arch A 370: 239–250Google Scholar
  126. Linke R P, Nathrath W B J, Eulitz M (1986) Classification of amyloid syndromes from tissue sections using antibodies against various amyloid fibril proteins: report of 142 cases. In: Glenner G G (ed) Amyloidosis. Plenum, New York, pp 599–605Google Scholar
  127. Liu J, Bishop S P, Overbeck H W (1988) Morphometric evidence for non-pressure-related arterial wall thickening in hypertension. Circ Res 62: 1001–1010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Lorenz R, Vogelsang H G (1972) Thrombose der A. basilaris nach chiropraktischen Manipulationen an der Halswirbelsäule. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 97: 36–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Lüscher T F, Lie J T, Stanson A W, (1987) Arterial fibro- muscular dysplasia. Subject review. Mayo Clin Proc 62: 931–952Google Scholar
  130. Ma K C, Lundberg P O, Lilja A, Olsson Y (1992) Binswanger’s disease in the absence of chronic arterial hypertension. Acta Neuropathol 83: 434–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Macdonald R L, Weir B K A, Chen M H, Grace M A G (1991) Scanning electron microscopy of normal and vasospastic monkey cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells. Neurosurg 4: 544–549Google Scholar
  132. Mandybur T I (1977) Intracranial hemorrhage caused by metastatic tumors. Neurology 27: 650–655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Mandybur T I (1986) Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: the vascular pathology and complications. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 45: 79–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Marquardsen J (1978) The epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 67: 57–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Marquardsen J (1986) Epidemiology of strokes in Europe. In: Barnett H J M, Stein B M, Mohr J P, Yatsu F M (eds) Stroke, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 31–43Google Scholar
  136. Martin H, Noetzel H (1959) Die Gehirnbeteiligung bei genera-lisierter anarteriitis nodosa. Beitr Path Anat 121: 347–374Google Scholar
  137. Martinelli A, Martineiii P, Ippoliti M, Guiliani S, Coccagna G (1991) Sneddon syndrome presenting with hemicranic attacks: a case report. Acta Neurol Scand 83: 201–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Matakas F, Cervós-Navarro J, Roggendorf W, Christmann U, Sasaki S (1977) Spastic constriction of cerebral vessels after electric convulsive treatment. Arch Psychiat Nerven- kr 224: 1–9Google Scholar
  139. McCormick W F, Nofzinger J D (1965) Saccular intracranial aneurysm. J Neurosurg 22: 155–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Miller J R, Myers R E (1972) Neuropathology of systemic circulatory arrest in adult monkeys. Neurology 22: 888–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Mima T, Yanagisawa M, Shigeno T et al. (1989) Endothelium acts in feline and canine cerebral arteries from the adventitial side. Stroke 20: 1553–1556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Mizusawa H, Hirano A, Llena J F, Shintaku M (1988) Cerebro-vascular lesions in acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( AIDS ). Acta Neuropathol 76: 451–457Google Scholar
  143. Möhr J P, Caplan L R, Melski J W, (1978) The Harvard cooperative stroke registry. A prospective registry. Neurology 28: 754–762Google Scholar
  144. Molaie M, Collins G H (1987) Systemic noninflammatory vasculopathy with prominent CNS involvement. A case report. Angiology 38: 686–695Google Scholar
  145. Moossy O (1959) Development of cerebral atherosclerosis in various age groups. Neurology 9: 569–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Morawetz R B, Karp R B (1984) Evolution and resolution of intra cranial bacterial (mycotic) aneurysms. Neurosurgery 15: 43–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Morikawa E, Ginsberg M D, Dietrich W D et al. (1992) The significance of brain temperature in focal cerebral ischemia: histopathological consequences of middle cerebral artery occulusion in the rat. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 12: 380–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Moyer D J, Welsh F A, Zager E L (1992) Spontaneous cerebral hypothermia diminishes focal infarction in rat brain. Stroke 23: 1811–1816Google Scholar
  149. Müller H, Schramm J, Roggendorf W, Brock M (1982) Vascular malformations as a cause of spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 62: 297–305Google Scholar
  150. Munro J M, Cotran R S (1988) Biology of disease. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Lab Invest 58: 249–261Google Scholar
  151. Nakagawa Y, Cervös-Navarro J, Artigas J (1985) Tracer study on a paracellular route in experimental hydrocephalus. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 65: 247–254Google Scholar
  152. Nakano I, Hirano A, Tomonaga M (1992) Electronmicroscopic observation of amyloid deposits in the vascular walls of the choroid plexus in systemic amyloidosis. J Neurol Sciences 108: 48–54Google Scholar
  153. Nakumura M, Yamamoto H, Kikuchi Y, Ishihara Y, Sata T (1971) Cerebral atherosclerosis in Japanese. I. Age related to atherosclerosis. Stroke 2: 400–408Google Scholar
  154. Nasu T (1975) Takayasu’s truncoarteritis in Japan. Pathol Microbiol 43: 140–146Google Scholar
  155. Nicholls E S, Johansen H L (1983) Implications of changing trends in cerebrovascular and ischemic heart disease. Stroke 14: 153–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Norenberg M D (1998) Astrocytes in ischemic injury. In: Ginsberg M D, Bogousslavsky J (eds) Cerebrovascular disease: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Black- well Science, Oxford, pp 113–129Google Scholar
  157. Nowak T S Jr, Jacewicz M (1994) The heat shock/stress response in focal cerebral ischemia. Brain Pathol 4: 67–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Nowak T S Jr, Kiessling M (1999) Reprogramming of gene expression after ischemia. In: Walz W (ed) Cerebral ischemia. Humana, Totowa/NJGoogle Scholar
  159. Nyland H, Skre H (1977) Cerebral calcinosis with late onset encephalopathy unusual type of pseudo-pseudohypopara- thyreoidism. Acta Neurol Scand 56: 309–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. O’Connell B K, Towfighi J, Brennan R W et al. (1985) Dissecting aneurysms of head and neck. Neurology 35: 993–997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Oehmichen M (1978) Mononuclear phagocytes in the central-nervous system. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  162. Okeda R (1973) Morphometrische Vergleichsuntersuchungen an Hirnarterien bei Binswangerscher Encephalopathie und Hochdruckencephalopathie. Acta Neuropathol 26: 23–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Olney J W (1971) Glutamate-induced neuronal necrosis in the infant mouse hypothalamus. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 30: 75–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Pantelakis S (1954) Un type particulier d’angiopathie sénile du système nerveux central: l’angiopathie congophile. Monatsschr Psychiat Neurol 128: 219–256Google Scholar
  165. Paulus W, Roggendorf W, Kirchner T (1992) Ki-MlP as a marker for microglia and brain macrophages in routinely processed human tissues. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 84: 538–544Google Scholar
  166. Peerless S, Kassell N, Komatsu K, Hunter I (1979) Cerebral vasospasm. Acute proliferative vasculopathy; II. Morphology. In: Wilkins R (ed) Cerebral arterial spasm. Williams & Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  167. Peiffer J (1959) Zur kolloiden Degeneration der Hirnrinde bei progressiver Paralyse. Arch Psychiat Z Neurol 198: 659–672Google Scholar
  168. Peiffer J (1963) Symmetrische Pallidum- und Nigranekrosen nach unbemerkt gebliebenem Zwischenfall bei Barbiturat- narkose. Dtsch Z Nervenheilk 184: 586–606Google Scholar
  169. Peiffer J (1968) Durch Alterung der Hirngefäße bedingte Abbauprozesse. In: Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie. Fischer, Stuttgart, S 155–164Google Scholar
  170. Pilz P, Wallnöfer H, Klein J (1980) Thrombophlebitis der inneren Hirnvenen bei generalisiertem Lupus erythematodes. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 228: 31–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Pluta R, Lossinsky A S, Mossakowski M J, Faso L, Wisniewski H M (1991) Reassessment of a new model of complete cerebral ischemia. Acta Neuropathol 83: 1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Postler E, Lehr A, Schluesener H, Meyermann R (1997) Expression of the S-100 proteins MRP-8 and -14 in ischemic brain lesion. Glia 19: 27–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Powers W J (1991) Cerebral hemodynamics in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Ann Neurol 29: 231–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Ravens J R (1978) Vascular changes in the human senile brain. Adv Neurol 20: 487–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Ringelstein E B, Zeumer H, Schneider R (1985) Der Beitrag der zerebralen Computertomographie zur Differentialtypologie und Differentialtherapie des ischämischen Grosshirninfarktes. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 53: 315–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Risau W, Wolburg H (1990) Development of the blood-brain barrier. Trends Neurosci 13: 174–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Roggendorf W (1990) Histomorphology and ultrastructure of the cerebrovenous system. In: Einhäupl K, Cerebral sinus thrombosis. Plenum, New York, pp 3–14Google Scholar
  178. Roggendorf W, Cervös-Navarro J (1977) Ultrastructure of arterioles in the brain. Cell Tissue Res 178: 495–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Roggendorf W, Cervös-Navarro J (1982) Ultrastructural characteristics of spasm in intracerebral arterioles. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 45: 120–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Roggendorf W, Cervös-Navarro J (1984) Normal and pathologic ultrastructure of human cerebral venules. In: Kapp J P, Schmidek H H (eds) Cerebral venous system and its disorders. Grune & Stratton, Orlando, pp 37–60Google Scholar
  181. Roggendorf W, Künzig B (1992) Zur Verteilung der intermediären Filamente in intrakraniellen Gefäßen des Menschen. Acta Histochem Suppl 17: 99–106Google Scholar
  182. Roggendorf W, Cervös-Navarro J, Lazarro-Lacalle (1978) Ultrastructure of venules in the cat brain. Cell Tissue Res 192: 474Google Scholar
  183. Roggendorf W, Schrempf R, Opitz H, Cervös-Navarro J (1987) Characterization of intimai smooth muscle cells in intracerebral arterioles and arteries. In: Cervös-Navarro J, Ferszt R (eds) Stroke and microcirculation. Raven, New York, pp 123–128Google Scholar
  184. Roggendorf W, Opitz H, Schuppan D (1988) Altered expression of collagen type VI in brain vessels of patients with chronic hypertension. Acta Neuropathol 77: 55–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Roos R A C, Haan J, van Broeckhoven C (1991) Hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-dutch type: a congophilic angiopathy. An overview. Ann NY Acad Sci 640: 155–160Google Scholar
  186. Rothemund E, Frische M (1973) Klinisch-pathologische Studie zur Entstehung der intracerebralen Gefäßhyalinose bei Hypertonie. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 217: 195–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Rumpl E, Rumpl H (1979) Recurrent transient global amnesia in a case with cerebrovascular lesions and livedo reticularis ( Sneddon syndrome ). J Neurol 221: 127–131Google Scholar
  188. Sacco R L, Wolf B S, Kannel W B, McNamara P M (1982) Survival and recurrence following stroke. The Framingham study. Stroke 13: 290–295Google Scholar
  189. Sato M, Hashimoto H, Kosaka F (1990) Histological changes of neuronal damage in vegetative dogs induced by 18 minutes of complete global brain ischemia. Acta Neuropathol 80: 527–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Saygi S, Bolay H, Tekkok I H, Cila A, Zileli T (1990) Fibromuscular dysplasia of the basilar artery. Angiology 41: 658–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Schmitt H, Barz J (1978) Cerebral massive hemorrhage in congophilic angiopathy and its medicolegal significance. Forensic Sci Int 12: 187–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Schneider H (1980) Kreislaufstörungen und Gefäßprozesse des Rückenmarks. In: Doerr W, Scifert G, Uehlingen E (Hrsg) Spezielle pathologische Anatomie, Bd 13/1. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, S 511–650Google Scholar
  193. Scholz W, Hsü Y K (1938) Late damage from Roentgen irradiation of the human brain. Arch Neurol Psychiat 40: 928Google Scholar
  194. Scholz W, Nieto D (1938) Studien zur Pathologie der Hirngefäße. I. Fibrose und Hyalinose. Z Ges Neurol Psychiatr 162: 675–693Google Scholar
  195. Schröder R (1978) Chronomorphologie of brain death. Adv Neurosurg 5: 346–348Google Scholar
  196. Schröder R, Richard K E (1980) Time-interval between a brain lesion and the onset of brain death. A contribution to the inherent dynamics of malignant brain swelling. Neurosurgery 3: 183–188Google Scholar
  197. Schröder J M, Scilhaus B, Jorg J (1995) Identification of the characteristic vascular changes in a sural biopsy of a case with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy ( CADASIL ). Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 89: 116–121Google Scholar
  198. Schwab J M, Nguyen T D, Postler E, Meyermann R, Schluesener H J (2000) Selective accumulation of cyclooxygen- ase-1-expressing microglial cells/macrophages in lesions of human focal cerebral ischemia. Acta Neuropathol 99: 609–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Sekhar L N, Heros R C (1981) Origin, growth, and rupture of saccular aneurysms. A review. Neurosurgery 8: 248–260Google Scholar
  200. Shields W D, Ziter F A, Osborn A G, Allen J (1977) Fibromuscular dysplasia as a cause of stroke in infancy and childhood. Pediatrics 59: 899–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Siesjö B K (1988) Historical overview: calcium, ischemia, and death of brain cells. Ann NY Acad Sci 522: 638–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Sommer C, Kiessling M (1995) Selective c-jun expression in CA1 neurons of the gerbil hippocampus during and after acquisition of an ischemia-tolerant state. Brain Pathol 5: 135–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Sourander P, Walinder J (1977) Hereditary multi-infarct de-mentia. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 39: 247–254Google Scholar
  204. Starr D S, Lawrie G M, Morris G C (1981) Fibromuscular disease of carotid arteries. Long term results of graduated internal dilatation. Stroke 12: 196–199Google Scholar
  205. Stochdorph O (1966) Über Verteilungsmuster von venösen Kreislaufstörungen des Gehirns. Arch Psychiat Z Neurol 208: 285–298Google Scholar
  206. Stübgen P, Lötz B P (1991) Isolated angiitis of the central nervous system: involvement of penetrating vessels at the base of the brain. J Neurol 238: 235–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Tagami M, Nara Y, Kubota A, Sunaga T, Maezawa H et al. (1987) Ultrastructural characteristics of occluded perforating arteries in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Stroke 18: 733–740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Takebayashi S, Kaneko M (1983) Electron microscopic studies of ruptured arteries in hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 14: 28–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Tanabe Y, Sakata K, Yamada H, Ito T, Takada M (1978) Cerebral vasospasm and ultrastructural changes in cerebral arterial wall. J Neurosurg 49: 229–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Tani E, Yamagata S, Ito Y (1978) Intercellular granules and vesicles in prolonged cerebral vasospasm. J Neurosurg 48: 179–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Tanoi Y, Okeda R, Budka H (2000) Binswangens encephalopathy: serial sections and morphometry of the cerebral arteries. Acta Neuropathol 100: 347–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Täuber M G, Kennedy S L, Tureen J H, Lowenstein D H (1992) Experimental pneumococcal menigitis causes central nervous system pathology without inducing the 72-kd heat shock protein. Am J Pathol 141: 53–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Thilmann R, Xie Y, Kleihues P, Kiessling M (1986) Persistent inhibition of protein synthesis precedes delayed neuronal cell death in postischemic gerbil hippocampus. Acta Neuropathol 71: 88–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Thron A (1988) Vascular anatomy of the spinal cord. Neuro- radiological investigations and clinical syndromes. Springer, Wien New YorkGoogle Scholar
  215. Thron A, Wessel K, Linden D, Schroth G, Dichgans J (1986) Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis: neuroradiological evaluation and clinical findings. J Neurol 233: 283–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Thron A, Koenig E, Peiffer J, Rossberg C (1987) Dural vascular anomalies of the spine-an important cause of progressive radiculomyelopathy. In: Cervös-Navarro J, Ferszt R (eds) Stroke and micro-circulation. Raven, New York, pp 159–165Google Scholar
  217. Toole J F, Yuson C P, Janeway R, Johnston F, Davis C et al. (1978) Transient ischemic attacks: a prospective study of 225 patients. Neurology 28: 746–753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Torack R M (1978) The pathologic physiology of dementia. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  219. Tournier-Lasserve E, Joutel A, Melki J et al. (1993) Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy maps to chromosome 19 ql2. Nat Genet 3: 256–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Ule G, Kolkmann F W (1972) Pathologische Anatomie. In: Gänsehirt H (Hrsg) Der Hirnkreislauf. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 47–160Google Scholar
  221. Vogt C, Vogt O (1922) Erkrankungen der Großhirnrinde im Licht der Topistik, Pathoklise und Pathoarchitektonik. J Physiol Neurol (Lpz) 28: 1Google Scholar
  222. Warzok R, Oppermann A, Coulon G, Bourrin J C (1984) Rie- senzellangiitis des Gehirns. Zentralbl Allg Pathol 129: 251–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Wattendorff A R, Bots G T, Went L N, Endtz L J (1982) Familial cerebral amyloid angiopathy presenting as recurrent cerebral hemorrhage. J Neurol Sci 55: 121–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Wechsler W (1959) Beitrag zur Pathogenese cerebraler und spinaler Gewebsschäden bei Panarteriitis nodosa. Arch Psychiatr Z Neurol 198: 331–364Google Scholar
  225. Weller R O, Kida S, Zhang E T (1992) Pathways of fluid drainage from the brain-morphological aspects and immunological significance in rat and man. Brain Pathol 2: 277–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Westergaard E, van Deurs B, Brondsted H E (1977) Increased vesicular transfer of horseradish peroxidase across cerebral endothelium, evoked by acute hypertension. Acta Neuropathol 37: 141–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Westermann E M, Miles J M, Backonja M, Sundstrom W R (1992) Neuropathologic findings in multiinfarct dementia associated with anticardiolipin antibody. Arthritis Rheum 35: 1038–1041Google Scholar
  228. Whittle I R, Piper I R, Miller J D (1991) The contribution of arachidonic acid to the aetiology and pathophysiology of focal brain edema; studies using an infusion edema model. Acta Neurochir 113: 57–68Google Scholar
  229. Wiebers D O, Whisnant J P, Sundt T M, O’Fallon W M (1987) The significance of unruptured intracranial saccular aneurysm. J Neurosurg 66: 23–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Wiener J, Giacomelli F (1973) The cellular pathology of experimental hypertension. VII. Structure and permeability of the mesenteric vasculature in angiotensin-included hypertension. Am J Pathol 72: 221–240Google Scholar
  231. Wiener J, Spiro D, Lattes R G (1965) The cellular pathology of experimental hypertension. II. Arteriolar hyalinosis and fibrinoid change. Am J Pathol 47: 457–485Google Scholar
  232. Wintzen A R, de Jonge H, Loelinger E A, Bots G T (1984) The risk of intracerebral hemorrhage during oral anticoagulant treatment: a population study. Ann Neurol 16: 553–558Google Scholar
  233. Wissenschaftlicher Beirat der Bundesärztekammer (1982) Kriterien des Hirntodes. Dtsch Ärztebl 79: 45–55. Fort-schreibungen: Dtsch Ärztebl 83 (1987): 2940–2946; 88 (1991): 2855–2860; 94 (1997): 1032–1039. Ergänzungen ge-mäß Transplantationsgesetz: Dtsch Ärztebl 95 (1998): 1509–1516Google Scholar
  234. Wiszniewska M, Devuyst G, Bogousslavsky J (2000) What is the significance of leukoaraiosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke? Arch Neurol 57: 967–973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Wolf P A, Kannel W B, D’Agostino R B (1998) Epidemiology of stroke. In: Ginsberg MD, Bogousslavsky J (eds) Cerebrovascular disease: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  236. Yamanouchi H, Sugiura S, Tomonaga M (1989) Decrease in nerve fibres in cerebral white matter in progressive subcortical vascular encephalopathy of Binswanger type. J Neurol 236: 382–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Yao H, Sadoshima S, Kuwabara Y, Ichiya Y, Fujishima M (1990) Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with vascular dementia of the Binswanger type. Stroke 21: 1694–1699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Yoshida S, Inoh S, Asano T et al. (1983) Brain free fatty acids, and mortality in gerbils subjected to transient bilateral ischemia and effect of barbiturate anesthesia. J Neurochem 40: 1278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Zeiger B, Sepp N, Schmid K W (1992) Life history of cutaneous vascular lesions in Sneddon’s syndrome. Hum Pathol 23: 668–675Google Scholar
  240. Zeman W (1955) Veränderungen durch ionisierende Strahlen. In: Scholz W (Hrsg) Nervensystem. Springer, Berlin Göttingen Heidelberg (Handbuch der speziellen pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie, Bd 13/lb, S 340 )Google Scholar
  241. Zervas N T, Candia M, Candia G, Kido D, Pessin M S et al. (1979) Reduced incidence of cerebral ischemia following rupture of intracranial aneurysms. Surg Neurol 11: 339–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Zoppo G del, Ginis I, Hallenbeck J M, Iadecola C, Xinkang W, Feuerstein G Z (2000) Inflammation and stroke: putative role for cytokines, adhesion molecules and iNOS in brain response to ischemia. Brain Pathol 10: 95–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Zülch K J (1961) Die Pathogenese von Massenblutung und Erweichung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung klinischer Gesichtspunkte. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 7: 51–117Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Roggendorf

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations