• W. Paulus


Das klinische Bild der Hirntumoren wird geprägt durch Hirndruckzeichen wie morgendliches Erbrechen, Kopfschmerzen, Visusstörung, Stauungspapille und psychoorganisches Syndrom. Dazu können je nach Lokalisation des Tumors neurologische Herdsymptome treten, z.B. Hemiparese, Aphasie, Ataxie oder hormonale Störungen. Intrakranielle Gliome und Meningeome gehen in 50–75% der Fälle mit herdbetonten oder generalisierten Krampfanfällen einher. Je maligner der Tumor, desto kürzer ist meist die Anamnese. 3–10% der Hirntumoren sind symptomlos und werden autoptisch diagnostiziert.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adamson T E, Wiestler O D, Kleihues P, Yasargil M G (1990) Correlation of clinical and pathological features in surgically treated craniopharyngiomas. J Neurosurg 73: 12–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen J C, Miller D C, Budzilovich G N, Epstein F J (1991) Brain and spinal cord hemorrhage in long-term survivors of malignant pediatric brain tumors: a possible late effect of therapy. Neurology 41: 148–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnold P M, Oldershaw J B, McDonald L W, Langer B G (1990) Myxomatous cyst of the brachial plexus. J Neurosurg 73: 782–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Awad I A, Robinson J R Jr, Mohanty S, Estes M L (1993) Mixed vascular malformations of the brain: clinical and pathogenetic considerations. Neurosurgery 33: 179–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Banerjee A K, Sharma B S, Vashista R K, Kak V K (1992) Intracranial olfactory neuroblastoma: evidence for olfactory epithelial origin. J Clin Pathol 45: 299–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker I, Roggendorf W (1989) Monoclonal antibody analysis of major histocompatibility complex expression in human meningiomas. J Neuroimmunol 25: 161–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Biegel J A, Zhou J Y, Rorke L B, Stenstrom C, Wainwright L M, Fogelgren B (1999) Germ-line and acquired mutations of INI1 in atypical teratoid and rhabdoid tumors. Cancer Res 59: 74–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bigner S H (1992) Cerebrospinal fluid cytology: current status and diagnostic applications. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 51: 235–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bigner D D, McLendon R E, Bruner J M (Hrs) (1998) Russell amp; Rubinstein’s pathology of tumors of the nervous system, 6th edn. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Bilzer T, Reifenberger G, Wechsler W (1989) Chemical induction of brain tumors in rats by nitrosoureas: molecular biology and neuropathology. Neurotoxicol Teratol 11: 551–556Google Scholar
  11. Brat D J, Scheithauer B W, Staugaitis S M etal. (1998) Third ventricular chordoid glioma: a distinct clinicopathologic entity. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 57: 283–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brat D J, James C D, Jedlicka A E etal. (1999) Molecular genetic alterations in radiation-induced astrocytomas. Am J Pathol 154: 1431–1438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brat D J, Giannini C, Scheithauer B W, Burger P C (2000) Primary melanocytic neoplasms of the central nervous systems. Am J Surg Pathol 23: 745–754Google Scholar
  14. Brat D J, Hirose Y, Cohen K J, Feuerstein B G, Burger P C (2000) Astroblastoma: clinicopathologic features and chromosomal abnormalities defined by comparative genomic hybridization. Brain Pathol 10: 342–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brat D J, Scheithauer B W, Eberhart C G, Burger P C (2001) Extraventricular neurocytomas. Pathologic features and clinical outcome. Am J Surg Pathol 25: 1252–1260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Budka H, Pilz P, Guseo A (1975) Primary leptomeningeal Sarcomatosis. Clinicopathological report of six cases. J Neurol 211: 77–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Caccamo D V, Herman M M, Urich H, Rubinstein LJ (1989) Focal neuronal gigantism and cerebral cortical thickening after therapeutic irradiation of the central nervous system. Arch Pathol Lab Med 113: 880–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cairncross J G, Ueki K, Zlatescu M C etal. (1998) Specific genetic predictors of chemotherapeutic response and survival in patients with anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 90: 1473–1479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Carney J A (1990) Psammomatous melanotic schwannoma. A distinctive, heritable tumor with special associations, including cardiac myxoma and the Cushing syndrome. Am J Surg Pathol 14: 206–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Casadei G P, Komori T, Scheithauer B W etal. (1993) Intracranial parenchymal schwannoma. A clinicopathological and neuroimaging study of nine cases. J Neurosurg 79: 217–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Casadei G P, Scheithauer B W, Hirose T, Manfrini M, Van Houton C, Wood M B (1995) Cellular schwannoma. A clinicopathologic, DNA flow cytometric, and proliferation marker study of 70 patients. Cancer 75: 1109–1119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Casey M, Vaughan C J, He J etal. (2000) Mutations in the protein kinase A R1 alpha regulatory sub unit cause familial cardiac myxomas and Carney complex. J Clin Invest 106: R31–R38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cerda-Nicolas M, Kepes J J (1993) Gliofibromas (including malignant forms), and gliosarcomas. A comparative study and review of the literature. Acta Neuropathol 85: 349–361Google Scholar
  24. Coons S W, Johnson P C (1993) Regional heterogeneity in the proliferative activity of human gliomas as measured by the Ki-67 labeling index. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 52: 609–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Couch V, Lindor N M, Karnes P S, Michels V V (2000) von Hippel-Lindau disease. Mayo Clin Proc 75: 265–272Google Scholar
  26. Daumas-Duport C, Scheithauer B W, Chodkiewicz J P, Laws E R Jr, Vedrenne C ( 1988 a) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: a surgically curable tumor of young patients with intractable partial seizures. Report of thirty-nine cases. Neurosurgery 23: 545–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Daumas-Duport C, Scheithauer B, O’Fallon J, Kelly P ( 1988 b) Grading of astrocytomas. A simple and reproducible method. Cancer 62: 2152–2165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Daumas-Duport C, Varlet P, Bacha S, Beuvon F, Cervera- Pierot P, Chodkiewicz J P (1999) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: nonspecific histological forms - a study of 40 cases. J Neurooncol 41: 267–280Google Scholar
  29. Del Bigio M R, Jay V, Drake J M (1992) Prepontine cyst lined by respiratory epithelium with squamous metaplasia: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. Acta Neuropathol 83: 564–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Deonna T, Ziegler A L (2000) Hypothalamic hamartoma, precocious puberty and gelastic seizures: a special model of „epileptic“ developmental disorder. Epileptic Disord 2: 33–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Diepholder H M, Schwechheimer K, Mohadjer M, Knoth R, Volk B (1991) A clinicopathologic and immunomorpho- logic study of 13 cases of ganglioglioma. Cancer 68: 2192–2201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dix A R, Brooks W H, Roszman T L, Morford L A (1999) Immune defects observed in patients with primary malignant brain tumors. J Neuroimmunol 100: 216–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ducatman B S, Scheithauer B W (1984) Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors with divergent differentiation. Cancer 54: 1049–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ebert C, von Haken M, Meyer-Puttlitz B etal. (1999) Molecular genetic analysis of ependymal tumors. NF2 mutations and chromosome 22q loss occur preferentially in intramedullary spinal ependymomas. Am J Pathol 155: 627–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Emory T S, Scheithauer B W, Hirose T, Wood M, Onofrio B M, Jenkins R B (1995) Intraneural perineurioma. A clonal neoplasm associated with abnormalities of chromosome 22. Am J Clin Pathol 103: 696–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Engel U, Gottschalk S, Niehaus L, Lehmann R, May C, Vogel S, Janisch W (2000) Cystic lesions of the pineal region- MRI and pathology. Neuroradiology 42: 399–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Enzinger F M, Weiss S W (1995) Soft tissue tumors, 3rd edn. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  38. Fewings P E, Battersby R D, Timperley W R (2000) Long-term follow up of progesterone receptor status in benign meningioma: a prognostic indicator of recurrence? J Neurosurg 92: 401–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Firlik K S, Martinez A J, Lunsford L D (1999) Use of cytological preparations for the intraoperative diagnosis of stereotactically obtained brain biopsies: a 19-year experience and survey of neuropathologists. J Neurosurg 91: 454–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Forsyth P A, Shaw E G, Scheithauer B W etal. (1993) Supratentorial pilocytic astrocytomas. A clinicopathologic, prognostic, and flow cytometric study of 51 patients. Cancer 72: 1335–1342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Franke F E, Schachenmayr W, Osborn M, Altmannsberger M (1991) Unexpected immunoreactivities of intermediate filament antibodies in human brain and brain tumors. Am J Pathol 139: 67–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Friede R L (1989) Meningeal cysts. In: Friede R L (ed) Developmental neuropathology, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 209–230Google Scholar
  43. Gambini C, Rongioletti F, Rebora A (2000) Proliferation of eccrine sweat ducts associated with heterotopic neural tissue (nasal glioma). Am J Dermatopathol 22: 179–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Geddes J F, Thorn M, Robinson S F, Revesz T (1996) Granular cell change in astrocytic tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 20: 55–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Geddes J F, Jansen G H, Robinson S F, Gomori E, Holton J L, Monson J P, Besser G M, Revesz T (2000) ‘Gangliocytomas’ of the pituitary: a heterogeneous group of lesions with differing histogenesis. Am J Surg Pathol 24: 607–613Google Scholar
  46. Geppert M, Ostertag C B, Seitz G, Kiessling M (1990) Glucocorticoid therapy obscures the diagnosis of cerebral lymphoma. Acta Neuropathol 80: 629–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Giangaspero F, Rigobello L, Badiali M etal. (1992) Large-cell medulloblastoma. A distinct variant with highly aggressive behavior. Am J Surg Pathol 16: 687–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Giannini C, Scheithauer B W, Jenkins R B etal. (1997) Soft-tis- sue perineurioma. Evidence for an abnormality of chromosome 22, criteria for diagnosis, and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 21: 164–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Giannini C, Scheithauer B W, Burger P C, Brat D J, Wollan P C, Lach B, O’Neill B P (1999) Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: what do we really know about it? Cancer 85: 2033–2045PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Glantz M J, Burger P C, Herndon J E etal. (1991) Influence of the type of surgery on the histologic diagnosis in patients with anaplastic gliomas. Neurology 41: 1741–1744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gomez M R (1987) Neurocutaneous diseases: a practical approach. Butterworths, LondonGoogle Scholar
  52. Gottschalk J, Jautzke G, Paulus W, Goebel S, Cervos-Navarro J (1993) Immunomorphological differential diagnosis of choroid plexus tumor versus metastatic carcinoma. Cancer 72: 1343–1349Google Scholar
  53. Gultekin S H, Rosenfeld M R, Voltz R, Eichen J, Posner J B, Dalmau J (2000) Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis: neurological symptoms, immunological findings and tumour association in 50 patients. Brain 123: 1481–1494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gusella J F, Ramesh V, MacCollin M, Jacoby L B (1999) Merlin: the neurofibromatosis 2 tumor suppressor. Biochim Biophys Acta 1423: M29–M36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hamel W, Westphal M (2000) Growth factors in gliomas revisited. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 142: 113–137Google Scholar
  56. Hammond R R, Duggal N, Woulfe J M, Girvin J P (2000) Malignant transformation of a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. Case report. J Neurosurg 92: 722–725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hassoun J, Söylemezoglu F, Gambarelli D etal. (1993) Central neurocytoma: a synopsis of clinical and histological features. Brain Pathol 3: 297–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hayostek C J, Shaw E G, Scheithauer B etal. (1993) Astrocytomas of the cerebellum. A comparative clinicopathologic study of pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas. Cancer 72: 856–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Helseth A (1989) A population-based survey of neoplasms of the central nervous system in Norway. The Norwegian Cancer Registry, OsloGoogle Scholar
  60. Ho DM, Liu HC (1992) Primary intracranial germ cell tumor. Pathologic study of 51 patients. Cancer 70: 1577–1584Google Scholar
  61. Ho D M, Hsu C Y, Wong T T, Ting L T, Chiang H (2000) Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system: a comparative study with primitive neuroectodermal tumor/medulloblastoma. Acta Neuropathol 99: 482–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hsu D W, Efird J T, Hedley-Whyte E T (1998) MIB-1 (Ki-67) index and transforming growth factor-alpha ( TGF alpha) immunoreactivity are significant prognostic predictors for meningiomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 24: 441–452Google Scholar
  63. Huang H, Reis R, Yonekawa Y, Lopes J M, Kleihues P, Ohgaki H (1999) Identification in human brain tumors of DNA sequences specific for SV40 large T antigen. Brain Pathol 9: 33–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Jänisch W, Schreiber D, Gerlach H (1980) Tumoren des Zentralnervensystems bei Feten und Säuglingen. G. Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  65. Jänisch W, Lammel H, Staneczek W (1986) Zur Epidemiologie der Geschwülste des Zentralnervensystems in der DDR. Zentralbl Pathol 132: 145Google Scholar
  66. Jänisch W, Schreiber D, Güthert H (1988) Neuropathologie. Tumoren des Nervensystems. G. Fischer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  67. Jellinger K (1986) Vascular malformations of the central nervous system: a morphological overview. Neurosurg Rev 9: 177–216Google Scholar
  68. Jellinger K, Machacek E (1982) Rare intracranial tumours in infancy and childhood. In: Voth D, Gutjahr P, Langmaid C (eds) Tumours of the central nervous system in infancy and childhood. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 44–52Google Scholar
  69. Jellinger K, Paulus W (1992) Primary central nervous system lymphomas - an update. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 119: 7–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Johnson W G, Gomez M R (1991) Tuberous sclerosis and allied disorders: clinical, cellular and molecular studies. Ann NY Acad Sei 615: 1–397Google Scholar
  71. Jouvet A, Saint-Pierre G, Fauchon F etal. (2000) Pineal parenchymal tumors: a correlation of histological features with prognosis in 66 cases. Brain Pathol 10: 49–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kaiser R (1999) Paraneoplastische neurologische Syndrome. Nervenarzt 70: 688–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Katsetos C D, Herman M M, Frankfurter A etal. (1989) Cerebellar desmoplastic medulloblastomas. A further immuno-histochemical characterization of the reticulin-free pale islands. Arch Pathol Lab Med 113: 1019–1029Google Scholar
  74. Kepes JJ (1982) Meningiomas. Biology, pathology, and differential diagnosis. Masson, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  75. Kepes JJ, Rubinstein LJ, Eng LF (1979) Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: a distinctive meningocerebral glioma of young subjects with relatively favorable prognosis. Cancer 44: 1839–1852Google Scholar
  76. Kirla R, Salminen E, Huhtala S etal. (2000) Prognostic value of the expression of tumor suppressor genes p53, p21, pl6 and prb, and Ki-67 labelling in high grade astrocytomas treated with radiotherapy. J Neurooncol 46: 71–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kleihues P, Cavenee W K (2000) World health organization classification of tumours. Pathology and genetics. Tumours of the nervous system. IARC, LyonGoogle Scholar
  78. Kleihues P, Ohgaki H (2000) Phenotype vs genotype in the evolution of astrocytic brain tumors. Toxicol Pathol 28: 164–170Google Scholar
  79. Klein P, Rubinstein LJ (1989) Benign symptomatic glial cysts of the pineal gland: a report of seven cases and review of the literature. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 52: 991–995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Komori T, Scheithauer B W, Anthony D C etal. (1998) Papillary glioneuronal tumor: a new variant of mixed neuronal-glial neoplasm. Am J Surg Pathol 22: 1171–1183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Kraus J A, Wenghoefer M, Schmidt M C etal. (2000) Long- term survival of glioblastoma multiforme: importance of histopathological réévaluation. J Neurol 247: 455–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Krieger M D, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Levy M L, McComb J G (1997) Recurrence patterns and anaplastic change in a long-term study of pilocytic astrocytomas. Pediatr Neurosurg 27: 1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Krouwer H G J, Davis R L, Silver P, Prados M (1991) Gemistocytic astrocytomas: a reappraisal. J Neurosurg 74: 399–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Lach B, Scheithauer B W, Gregor A, Wick M R (1993) Colloid cyst of the third ventricle. A comparative immunohisto-chemical study of neuraxis cysts and choroid plexus epithelium. J Neurosurg 78: 101–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Lack E E (1997) Tumors of the Adrenal Gland and Extra- Adrenal Paraganglia. Atlas of Tumor Pathology. 3rd series, fascicle 19. AFIP, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  86. Langford LA, Barre GM (1997) Tanycytic ependymoma. Ul-trastruct Pathol 21: 135–142Google Scholar
  87. Lantos P L, VandenBerg S R, Kleihues P (1997) Tumours of the nervous system. In: Graham D I, Lantos P L (eds) Greenfield’s neuropathology, vol II. Arnold, London, pp 583–879Google Scholar
  88. Legler J M, Ries L A, Smith M A etal. (1999) Cancer surveillance series: brain and other central nervous system cancers: recent trends in incidence and mortality. J Natl Cancer Inst 91: 1382–1390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Lombardi D, Scheithauer BW, Meyer FB etal. (1991) Symptomatic sub ependymoma: a clinicopathological and flow cytometric study. J Neurosurg 75: 583–588Google Scholar
  90. Lopes M B, Altermatt H J, Scheithauer B W, Shepherd C W, VandenBerg S R (1996) Immunohistochemical characterization of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. Acta Neuropathol 91: 368–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Mackenzie I R (1999) Central neurocytoma: histologic atypia, proliferation potential, and clinical outcome. Cancer 85: 1606–1610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Mackenzie I R, Gilbert J J (1991) Cysts of the neuraxis of en- dodermal origin. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 54: 572–575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Mandybur T I, Nazek M (1990) Cerebral arteriovenous malformations. A detailed morphological and immunohistochemical study using actin. Arch Pathol Lab Med 114: 970–973Google Scholar
  94. McLean C A, Laidlaw J D, Brownbill D S B, Gonzales M F (1990) Recurrence of acoustic neurilemoma as a malignant spindle-cell neoplasm. J Neurosurg 73: 946–950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Meis J M, Martz K L, Nelson J S (1991) Mixed glioblastoma multiforme and sarcoma. A clinicopathologic study of 26 radiation therapy oncology group cases. Cancer 67: 2342–2349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Mena H, Ribas J L, Pezeshkpour G H, Cowan D N, Parisi J E (1991) Hemangiopericytoma of the central nervous system: a review of 94 cases. Hum Pathol 22: 84–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Min K W, Scheithauer B W (1997) Clear cell ependymoma: a mimic of oligodendroglioma: clinicopathologic and ultra- structural considerations. Am J Surg Pathol 21: 820–826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Mork S J, Rubinstein L J, Kepes J J (1988) Patterns of epithelial metaplasia in malignant gliomas. Papillary formations mimicking medulloepithelioma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 47: 93–100Google Scholar
  99. Moss T H, Nicoll J A R, Ironside J W (1997) Intra-operative Diagnosis of CNS Tumours. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  100. Muenchau A, Laas R (1997) Xanthogranuloma and xanthoma of the choroid plexus: evidence for different etiology and pathogenesis. Clin Neuropathol 16: 72–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Mukherjee J J, Islam N, Kaltsas G etal. (1997) Clinical, radiological and pathological features of patients with Rathke’s cleft cysts: tumors that may recur. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82: 2357–2362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Müller M B, Schmidt M C, Schmidt O etal. (1999) Molecular genetic analysis as a tool for evaluating stereotactic biopsies of glioma specimens. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 58: 40–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Nelen M R, Kremer H, Konings I B etal. (1999) Novel PTEN mutations in patients with Cowden disease: absence of clear genotype-phenotype correlations. Eur J Hum Genet 7: 267–273Google Scholar
  104. Ng H K, Poon W S (1998) Primary leptomeningeal astrocytoma. J Neurosurg 88: 586–589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Niida Y, Lawrence-Smith N, Banwell A etal. (1999) Analysis of both TSC1 and TSC2 for germline mutations in 126 unrelated patients with tuberous sclerosis. Hum Mutat 14: 412–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Nishioka (1993) Immunohistochemical study of granular cell tumors and granular pituicytes of the neurohypophysis. Endocr Pathol 4: 140–145Google Scholar
  107. Oehmichen M (1976) Cerebrospinal fluid cytology. An introduction and atlas. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  108. Oh D, Prayson R A (1999) Evaluation of epithelial and keratin markers in glioblastoma multiforme: an immunohistochemical study. Arch Pathol Lab Med 123: 917–920PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Ordonez N G, Mackay B (1999) Granular cell tumor: a review of the pathology and histogenesis. Ultrastruct Pathol 23: 207–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Parney I F, Farr-Jones M A, Chang L J, Petruk K C (2000) Human glioma immunobiology in vitro: implications for immunogene therapy. Neurosurgery 46: 1169–1177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Paulus W (1998) Brain extracellular matrix, adhesion molecules, and glioma invasion. In: Mikkelsen T, Bjerkvig R, Laerum O D, Rosenblum ML (eds) Brain tumor invasion: biological, clinical, and therapeutic considerations. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 301–322Google Scholar
  112. Paulus W, Jänisch W (1990) Clinicopathologic correlations in epithelial choroid plexus neoplasms: a study of 52 cases. Acta Neuropathol 80: 635–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Paulus W, Peiffer J (1989) Intratumoral histologic heterogeneity of gliomas. A quantitative study. Cancer 64: 442–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Paulus W, Jellinger K, Perneczky G (1991a) Intraspinal neuro thekeoma (nerve sheath myxoma). A report of two cases. Am J Clin Pathol 95: 511–516Google Scholar
  115. Paulus W, Slowik F, Jellinger K (1991b) Primary intracranial sarcomas: histopathological features of 19 cases. Histopathol 18: 395–402Google Scholar
  116. Paulus W, Schlote W, Perentes E etal. (1992) Desmoplastic supratentorial neuroepithelial tumours of infancy. Histopathology 21: 43–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Paulus W, Bayas A, Ott G, Roggendorf W (1994) Interphase cytogenetics of glioblastoma and gliosarcoma. Acta Neuropathol 88: 420–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Paulus W, Baur I, Beutler A S, Reeves SA (1996) Diffuse brain invasion of glioma cells requires β1 integrins. Lab Invest 75: 819–826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Paulus W, Honegger J, Keyvani K, Fahlbusch R (1999) Xanthogranuloma of the sellar region: a clinicopathological entity different from adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. Acta Neuropathol 97: 377–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Peiffer J (1987) Encephalomyelopathies associated with extracerebral malignant tumors. Pathol Res Pract 182: 585–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Perraud F, Yoshimura K, Louis B etal. (1992) The promoter of the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene directing SV40 T antigen expression induces malignant proliferation of ependymal cells in transgenic mice. Oncogene 7: 993–997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Perry A, Parisi J E, Kurtin P J (1997) Metastatic adenocarcinoma to the brain: An immunohistochemical approach. Hum Pathol 28: 938–943Google Scholar
  123. Perry A, Scheithauer B W, Stafford S L, Lohse C M, Wollan P C (1999) „Malignancy“ in meningiomas: a clinicopathologic study of 116 patients, with grading implications. Cancer 85: 2046–2056Google Scholar
  124. Pilkington G J (1997) The paradox of neoplastic glial cell invasion of the brain and apparent metastatic failure. Anticancer Res 17: 4103–4105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Plate K H (1999) Mechanisms of angiogenesis in the brain. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 58: 654–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Prayson R A, Estes M L (1996) MIB1 and p53 immunoreactivity in protoplasmic astrocytomas. Pathol Int 46: 862–866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Quinn B (1998) Synaptophysin staining in normal brain: importance for diagnosis of ganglioglioma. Am J Surg Pathol 22: 550–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Rasmussen S A, Friedman J M (2000) NF1 gene and neurofibromatosis 1. Am J Epidemiol 151: 33–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Reich P, Walther E U, Liebetrau M etal. (2000) Gliomatosis cerebri. Nervenarzt 71:481–484Google Scholar
  130. Reifenberger G, Weber T, Weber R G etal. (1999) Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle: immunohistochemical and molecular genetic characterization of a novel tumor entity. Brain Pathol 9: 617–626Google Scholar
  131. Reis R M, Hara A, Kleihues P, Ohgaki H (2001) Genetic evidence of the neoplastic nature of gemistocytes in astrocytomas. Acta Neuropathol 102: 422–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Reis R M, Konu-Lebleblicioglu D, Lopes J M, Kleihues P, Ohgaki H (2000) Genetic profile of gliosarcomas. Am J Pathol 156: 425–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Reyes-Mugica M, Chou P, Byrd S etal. (1993) Nevomelanocytic proliferations in the central nervous system of children. Cancer 72: 2277–2285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Rickert C H (1999) Neuropathology and prognosis of foetal brain tumors. Acta Neuropathol 98: 567–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Rickert C H, Simon R, Bergmann M, Dockhorn-Dworniczak B, Paulus W (2000) Comparative genomic hybridization in pineal germ cell tumors. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 59: 815–821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Rigamonti D, Johnson P C, Spetzler R F, Hadley M N, Drayer B P (1991) Cavernous malformations and capillary telangiectasia: a spectrum within a single pathological entity. Neurosurgery 28: 60–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Roach E S, Gomez M R, Northrup H (1998) Tuberous sclerosis complex consensus conference: revised clinical diagnostic criteria. J Child Neurol 13: 624–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Robinson S, Cohen A R (2000) Cowden disease and Lhermitte-Duclos disease: characterization of a new phakomatosis. Neurosurgery 46: 371–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Rorke L B (1983) The cerebellar medulloblastoma and its relationship to primitive neuroectodermal tumors. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 42: 1–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Rosenblum M K, Erlandson RA, Budzilovich GN (1992) The lipid-rich epithelioid glioblastoma. Am J Surg Pathol 15: 925–934Google Scholar
  141. Rubinstein L J (1985) Embryonal central neuroepithelial tumors and their differentiating potential. J Neurosurg 62: 795–805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Rubinstein L J (1986) Immunohistochemical signposts - not markers - in neural tumour differentiation. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 12: 523–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Rubinstein LJ, Herman MM (1989) The astroblastoma and its possible cytogenetic relationship to the tanycyte. An electron microscopic, immunohistochemical, tissue- and organ-culture study. Acta Neuropathol 78: 472–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Ruggieri M (1999) The different forms of neurofibromatosis. Childs Nerv Syst 15: 295–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Sarasa J L, Fortes J (1991) Ecchordosis physaliphora: an immunohistochemical study of two cases. Histopathology 18: 273–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Sawamura Y, Shirato H, de Tribolet N (eds) (1998) Intracranial germ cell tumors. Springer, WienGoogle Scholar
  147. Scheithauer B W, Woodruff J M, Erlandson R A (1999) Tumors of the peripheral nervous system. Atlas of tumor pathology. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington/DC Schiffer D (1996) Brain tumors. Biology, pathology and clinical references, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  148. Schiffer D, Cravioto H, Giordana M T etal. (1993) Is polar spongioblastoma a tumor entity? J Neurosurg 78: 587–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Schild S E, Scheithauer B W, Schömberg P J etal. (1993) Pineal parenchymal tumors. Clinical, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. Cancer 72: 870–880Google Scholar
  150. Senner V, Sturm A, Baur I, Schrell U H M, Distel L, Paulus W: CD24 promotes invasion of glioma cells in vivo (1999) J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 58: 795–802Google Scholar
  151. Shaw E G, Scheithauer B W, O’Fallon J R, Tazelaar H D, Davis D H (1992) Oligodendrogliomas: the Mayo experience. J Neurosurg 76: 428–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Silverman T A, Enzinger F M (1985) Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve: a clinicopathologic anaylsis of 26 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 9: 7–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Smith J S, Perry A, Borell T J etal. (2000) Alterations of chromosome arms lp and 19q as predictors of survival in oligodendrogliomas, astrocytomas, and mixed oligoastrocytomas. J Clin Oncol 18: 636–645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Sonneland P R L, Scheithauer B W, Onofrio B M (1985) Myxopapillary ependymoma. A clinicopathologic and immunocytochemical study of 77 cases. Cancer 56: 883–893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Soylemezoglu F, Soffer D, Onol B, Schwechheimer K, Kleihues P (1996) Lipomatous medulloblastoma in adults. A distinct clinicopathological entity. Am J Surg Pathol 20: 413–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Stevens A, Klöter I, Roggendorf W (1988) Inflammatory infiltrates and natural killer cell presence in human brain tumors. Cancer 61: 738–743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Sujansky E, Conradi S (1995) Outcome of Sturge-Weber syndrome in 52 adults. Am J Med Genet 57: 35–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Taratuto A L, Monges J, Lylyk P, Leiguarda R (1984) Superficial cerebral astrocytoma attached to dura. Report of six cases in infants. Cancer 54: 2505–2512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Teo J G, Gultekin S H, Bilsky M, Gutin P, Rosenblum M K (1999) A distinctive glioneuronal tumor of the adult cerebrum with neuropil-like (including „rosette“) islands: report of 4 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 23: 502–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Tihan T, Fisher P G, Kepner J L etal. (1999) Pediatric astrocytomas with monomorphous pilomyxoid features and a less favorable outcome. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 58: 1061–1068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Tomokane N, Iwaki T, Tateishi J, Iwaki A, Goldman J E (1991) Rosenthal fibers share epitopes with αB-crystallin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and ubiquitin, but not with vimentin. Am J Pathol 138: 875–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Van Dorpe J, Sciot R, De Vos R, Uyttebroeck A, Stas M, Van Damme B (1997) Neuromuscular choristoma (hamartoma) with smooth and striated muscle component: case report with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis. Am J Surg Pathol 21: 1090–1095PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. VandenBerg S R (1991) Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma: a clinicopathologic review of sixteen cases. Brain Tumor Pathol 8: 25–31Google Scholar
  164. Wharton S B, Chan K K, Hamilton F A, Anderson J R (1998) Expression of neuronal markers in oligodendrogliomas: an immunohistochemical study. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 24: 302–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Wiestler O D, von Siebenthal K, Schmitt H P, Feiden W, Kleihues P (1989) Distribution and immunoreactivity of cerebral micro-hamartomas in bilateral acoustic neurofibromatosis (neurofibromatosis 2). Acta Neuropathol 79: 137–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Yasargil MG, von Ammon K, von Deimling A etal. (1992) Central neurocytoma: histopathological variants and therapeutic approaches. J Neurosurg 76: 32–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Yoshida T, Kawano N, Oka H, Fujii K, Nakazato Y (2000) Clinical cure of glioblastoma. Two case reports. Neurol Med Chir 40: 224–229Google Scholar
  168. Zülch K J (1986) Brain tumors. Their biology and pathology, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Paulus

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations