• Richard Ben Borgens
Part of the Advances in Anatomy Embryology and Cell Biology book series (ADVSANAT, volume 171)


Spinal cord injury is a devastating trauma to the body affecting between 10,000 and 12,000 Americans each year. The age of 19 is the most frequently occurring age at injury. Estimates of the chronically injured are harder to deduce; however, it is likely that 250,000–350,000 Americans are severely spinal injured. There are still no effective medical treatments to reverse the considerable behavioral loss that accompanies this type of injury. The standard of care is still decompressive surgery, spinal stabilization, and rehabilitation — treatments that have remained largely the same for over 40 years.


Spinal Cord Injury Axonal Regeneration Secondary Injury Decompressive Surgery Injured Nerve 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Ben Borgens
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Veterinary MedicinePurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.School of EngineeringPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

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