Differenzierung myeloischer und lymphatischer Zellen

  • Florian Länger
  • Hans Heinrich Kreipe
Part of the Molekulare Medizin book series (MOLMED)


Aufgrund der kurzen Lebensspanne vieler lymphatischer und myeloischer Zellen muss die Hämatopoese eine kontinuierlich hohe Produktion unterschiedlich differenzierter Blutzellen und gewebeständiger Zellen sicherstellen (1010 Erythrozyten/h, bzw. 4×l08 Granulozyten/h). Zusätzliche Anforderungen an die Hämatopoese sind eine exakte Regulation, um enge physiologische Grenzbereiche nicht zu über- oder unterschreiten, und eine rasche Anpassung an Situationen mit erhöhtem Zellverbrauch.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen RC, Armitage RJ, Conley ME et al. (1993) CD40 ligand gene defects responsible for X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome. Science 259:990–993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson G, Moore NC, Owen JJ, Jenkinson EJ (1996) Cellular interactions in thymocyte development. Annu Rev Immunol 14:73–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asao H, Okuyama C, Kumaki S et al. (2001) Cutting edge: the common gamma-chain is an indispensable subunit of the IL-21 receptor complex. J Immunol 167:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Avice MN, Demeure CE, Delespesse G, Rubio M, Armant M, Sarfati M (1998) IL-15 promotes IL-12 production by human monocytes via T cell-dependent contact and may contribute to IL-12-mediated IFN-γamma secretion by CD4+ T cells in the absence of TCR ligation. J Immunol 161:3408–3415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Basson MA, Bommhardt U, Cole MS, Tso JY, Zamoyska R (1998) CD3 ligation on immature thymocytes generates antagonist-like signals appropriate for CD8 lineage commitment, independently of T cell receptor specificity. J Exp Med 187:1249–1260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhatia M, Wang JC, Kapp U, Bonnet D, Dick JE (1997) Purification of primitive human hematopoietic cells capable of repopulating immune-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:5320–5325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhatia M, Bonnet D, Murdoch B, Gan OI, Dick JE (1998) A newly discovered class of human hematopoietic cells with SCID-repopulating activity. Nat Med 1998 4:1038–1045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bjornson CR, Rietze RL, Reynolds BA, Magli MC, Vescovi AL (1999) Turning brain into blood: a hematopoietic fate adopted by adult neural stem cells in vivo. Science 283: 534–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boehmer H von (1994) Positive selection of lymphocytes. Cell 28:219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boehmer H von, Fehling HJ (1997) Structure and function of the pre-T cell receptor. Annu Rev Immunol 15:433–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boehmer H von, Teh HS, Kisielow P (1989) The thymus selects the useful, neglects the useless and destroys the harmful. Immunol Today 10:57–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boekelten E, Melchers F, Rolink A (1995) The status of Ig loci rearrangements in single cells from different stages of B cell development. Int Immunol 7:1013–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Caíame KL (2001) Plasma cells finding new light at the end of B cell development. Nat Immunol 2:1103–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Casali P, Notkins AL (1989) CD5+ B lymphocytes, polyreactive antibodies and the human B-cell repertoire. Immunol Today 10:364–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Center DM, Kornfeld H, Cruikshank WW, (1996) Interleukin 16 and its function as a CD4 ligand. Immunol Today 17:476–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chabaud M, Fossiez F, Taupin JL, Miossec P (1998) Enhancing effect of IL-17 on IL-1-induced IL-6 and leukemia inhibitory factor production by rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes and its regulation by Th2 cytokines. J Immunol 161:409–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cornall RJ, Goodnow CC, Cyster JG (1995) The regulation of self-reactive B cells. Curr Opin Immunol 7:804–811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Deleuran B, Iversen L, Deleuran M et al. (1995) Interleukin 13 suppresses cytokine production and stimulates the production of 15-HETE in PBMC. A comparison between IL-4 and IL-13. Cytokine 7:319–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Denis KA, Treiman LJ, St Claire JI, Witte ON (1984) Longterm cultures of murine fetal liver retain very early B lymphoid phenotype. J Exp Med 160:1087–1101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dianarello CA (1997) Interleukin 1. Cytokin Growth Factor Rev 8:253–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Du X, Williams DA (1997) Interleukin-11: review of molecular, cell biology and clinical use. Blood 89:3897–3908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dudley EC, Petrie HT, Shah LM, Owen MJ, Hayday AC (1994) T cell receptor beta chain gene rearrangement and selection during thymocyte development in adult mice. Immunity 1:83–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dustin ML, Springer TA (1989) T-cell receptor cross-linking transiently stimulates adhesiveness through LFA-1. Nature 341:619–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ehlich A, Kueppers R (1995) Analysis of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in single B cells. Curr Opin Immunol 7:281–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Engelhardt M, Kumar R, Albaneil J, Pettengell R, Han W, Moore MA (1997) Telomerase regulation, cell cycle, and telomere stability in primitive hematopoietic cells. Blood 90:182–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Feist H, Zeidler R, Skrebsky T, Schmatloch S, Kreipe H (1998) Induction of telomerase activity in stimulated human lymphocytes precedes expression of topoisomerase II alpha. Ann Hematol 76:111–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fickenscher H, Hor S, Kupers H, Knappe A, Wittmann S, Sticht H (2002) The interleukin-10 family of cytokines. Trends Immunol 23:89–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fisher GH, Rosenberg FJ, Straus SE et al. (1995) Dominant interfering Fas gene mutations impair apoptosis in a human autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. Cell 81:935–946PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ford R, Tamayo A, Martin B et al. (1995) Identification of B-cell growth factors (interleukin-14; high molecular weight-B-cell growth factors) in effusion fluids from patients with aggressive B-cell lymphomas. Blood 86:283–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fort MM, Cheung J, Yen D et al. (2001) IL-25 induces IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and Th2-associated pathologies in vivo. Immunity 15:985–995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Francis K, Ramakrishna R, Holloway W, Palsson BO (1998) Two new pseudopod morphologies displayed by the human hematopoietic KG la progenitor cell line and by primary human CD34(+) cells. Blood 92:3616–3623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Frucht DM (2002) IL-23: a cytokine that acts on memory T cells. Sci STKE 114:23–27Google Scholar
  33. Gallagher G, Dickensheets H, Eskdale J et al. (2000) Cloning, expression and initial characterization of interleukin-19 (IL-19), a novel homologue of human interleukin-10 (IL-10). Genes Immunol 1:442–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Geddis AE, Linden HM, Kaushansky K (2002) Thrombopoietin: a pan-hematopoietic cytokine. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 13:61–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gillespie MT, Horwood NJ (1998) Interleukin-18: perspectives on the newest interleukin. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 9:109–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gleich GJ, Loegering DA (1984) Immunobiology of eosinophils. Annu Rev Immunol 2:429–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Grawunder U, Leu TM, Schatz DG et al. (1995) Down-regulation of RAG1 and RAG2 gene expression in preB cells after functional immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement. Immunity 3:601–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Griffiths GM (1995) The cell biology of CTL killing. Curr Opin Immunol 7:343–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hansel TT, De Vries IJ, Carballido JM et al. (1992) Induction and function of eosinophil intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and HLA-DR. J Immunol 149:2130–2136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Harrison DE, Astle CM, Lerner C (1988) Number and continous proliferative pattern of transplanted primitive immunohematopoetic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:822–826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hayflick L, Moorhead P (1961) The limited in vitro lifetime of human diploid cell strains. Exp Cell Res 25:585–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hilton DJ, Zhang JG, Metcalf D, Alexander WS, Nicola NA, Willson TA (1996) Cloning and characterization of a binding subunit of the interleukin 13 receptor that is also a component of the interleukin 4 receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:497–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hirano T (1998) Interleukin-6 and its receptor: ten years later. Intern Rev Immunol 16:249–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Holbrook ST, Ohls RK, Schibier KR, Yang YC, Christensen RD (1991) Effect of interleukin-9 on clonogenic maturation and cell-cycle status of fetal and adult hematopoietic progenitors. Blood 77:2129–2134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Ihle NJ (1995) Cytokine receptor signaling. Nature 377:591–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jacob J, Kelsoe G, Rajewsky K, Weiss U (1991) Intraclonal generation of antibody mutants in germinal centres. Nature 354:389–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jacobsen FW, Rusten LS, Jacobsen SE (1994) Direct synergistic effects of interleukin-7 on in vitro myelopoiesis of human CD34+ bone marrow progenitors. Blood 84:775–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Jacobsen K, Kravitz J, Kincade PW, Osmond DG (1996) Adhesion receptors on bone marrow stromal cells: in vivo expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by reticular cells and sinusoidal endothelium in normal and gamma-irradiated mice. Blood 87:73–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Jain J, Loh C, Rao A (1995) Transcriptional regulation of the IL-2 gene. Curr Opin Immunol 7:333–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jubinsky PT, Krijanovski OI, Nathan DG, Tavernier J, Sieff CA (1997) The beta chain of the interleukin-3 receptor functionally associates with the erythropoietin receptor. Blood 90:1867–1873PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kamogawa Y, Minasi LA, Carding SR, Bottomly K, Flavell RA (1993) The relationship of IL-4- and IFN gamma-producing T cells studied by lineage ablation of IL-4-producing cells. Cell 75:985–995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kang J, Coles M, Cado D, Raulet DH (1998) The developmental fate of T cells is critically influenced by TCR-γ:δ expression. Immunity 8:427–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kapasi ZF, Kosco-Vilbois MH, Shultz LD, Tew JG, Szakal AK (1994) Cellular origin of follicular dendritic cells. Adv Exp Med Biol 355:231–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaser A, Brandacher G, Steurer W et al. (2001) Interleukin-6 stimulates thrombopoiesis through thrombopoietin: role in inflammatory thrombocytosis. Blood 98:2720–5272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kaushansky K, Broudy VC, Lin N et al. (1995) Thrombopoietin, the Mp1 ligand, is essential for full megakaryocyte development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:3234–3238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kawaguchi M, Onuchic LF, Huang SK (2002) Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, but not p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase, is involved in signaling of a novel cytokine, ML-1 (IL-26). J Biol Chem 277: 15229–15232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Keller JR, Ortiz M, Ruscetti FW (1995) Steel factor (c-kit ligand) promotes the survival of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in the absence of cell division. Blood 86:1757–1764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Killeen N, Irving BA, Pippig S, Zingler K (1998) Signaling checkpoints during the development of T lymphocytes. Curr Opin Immunol 10:360–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kirito K, Nakajima K, Watanabe T et al. (2002) Identification of the human erythropoietin receptor region required for Statl and Stat3 activation. Blood 99:102–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kita H, Weiler DA, Abu-Ghazaleh R, Sanderson CJ, Gleich GJ (1992) Release of granule proteins from eosinophils cultured with IL-5. J Immunol 149:629–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kondo M, Scherer DC, Miyamoto T et al. (2000) Cell-fate conversion of lymphoid-committed progenitors by instructive actions of cytokines. Nature 407:383–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kooten C van, Banchereau J (1997) Functions of CD40 on B cells, dendritic cells and other cells. Curr Opin Immunol 9:330–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kotenko SV, Izotova LS, Mirochnitchenko OV et al. (2001) Identification, cloning, and characterization of a novel soluble receptor that binds IL-22 and neutralizes its activity. J Immunol 166:7096–7103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Koury MJ, Sawyer ST, Brandt SJ (2002) New insights into erythropoiesis. Curr Opin Hematol 9:93–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Labastie MC, Cortes F, Romeo PH, Dulac C, Peault B (1998) Molecular identity of hematopoietic precursor cells emerging in the human embryo. Blood 92:3624–3635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lai L, Chen F, McKenna S, Goldschneider (1998) Identification of an IL-7-associated pre-pro-B cell growth-stimulating factor (PPBSF). II. PPBSF is a covalently linked heterodimer of IL-7 and a Mr 30000 cofactor. J Immunol 160:2280–2286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lataillade JJ, Clay D, Bourin P et al. (2002) Stromal cell-derived factor 1 regulates primitive hematopoiesis by suppressing apoptosis and by promoting G(0)/G(1) transition in CD34(+) cells: evidence for an autocrine/paracrine mechanism. Blood 99:1117–1129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lehmann U, Bock O, Laenger F, Kreipe H (2001) Demonstration of light chain restricted clonal B-lymphoid infiltrates in archival bone marrow trephines by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Am J Pathol 159:2023–2029PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lehtonen A, Matikainen S, Miettinen M, Julkunen I (2002) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-induced STAT5 activation and target-gene expression during human monocyte/macrophage differentiation. J Leukoc Biol 71:511–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lemischka IR, Paulet DH, Mulligan RC (1986) Developmental potential and dynamic behaviour of hematopoetic stem cells. Cell 45:917–927PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lenschow DJ, Walunas TL, Bluestone JA (1996) CD28/B7 system of T cell costimulation. Annu Rev Immunol 14:233–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lin JX, Leonhard WJ (1997) Signaling from the IL-2 receptor to the nucleus. Cytokin Growth Factor Rev 8:313–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Liu YJ, Grouard G, de Bouteiller O, Banchereau (1996) Follicular dendritic cells and germinal centers. J Int Rev Cytol 166:139–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Loffert D, Ehlich A, Müller W, Rajewsky K (1996) Surrogate light chain expression is required to establish immunoglobulin heavy chain allelic exclusion during early B cell development. Immunity 4:133–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lundberg K, Heath W, Kontgen F, Carbone FR, Shortman K (1995) Intermediate steps in positive selection: differentiation of CD4+8int TCRint thymocytes into CD4-8+TCRhi thymocytes. J Exp Med 181:1643–1651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Majka M, Janowska-Wieczorek A, Ratajczak J et al. (2001) Numerous growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines are secreted by human CD34(+) cells, myeloblasts, erythroblasts, and megakaryoblasts and regulate normal hematopoiesis in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Blood 97:3075–3085PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McKinstry WJ, Li CL, Rasko JE, Nicola NA, Johnson GR, Metcalf D (1997) Cytokine receptor expression on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Blood 89:65–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Medvinsky A, Dzierzak E (1999) Development of the hematopoietic stem cell: can we describe it? Blood 94:3613–3614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Metcalf D (1993) Hematopoietic regulators: redundancy or subtety? Blood 82:3515–3523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Metcalf D (1998) Lineage commitment in the progeny of murine hematopoietic pre-progenitor cells: influence of thrombopoietin and interleukin 5. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:6408–6412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Metcalf D, Laabi Y (2001) Lineage commitment and maturation induction in normal and leukemic preprogenitor cells. Ann NY Acad Sci 938:278–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Metzger H (1988) Molecular aspects of receptors and binding factors for IgE. Adv Immunol 43:277–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mohle R, Salemi P, Moore MA, Rafii S (1997) Expression of interleukin-5 by human bone marrow microvascular endothelial cells: implications for the regulation of eosinophilopoiesis in vivo. Br J Haematol 99:732–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mohle R, Bautz F, Rafii S, Moore MA, Brugger W, Kanz L (1998) The chemokine receptor CXCR-4 is expressed on CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors and leukemic cells and mediates transendothelial migration induced by stromal cell-derived factor-1. Blood 91:4523–4530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Moore MAS (2001) The hematopoietic system and hematopoiesis. In: Knowles DM (ed) Neoplastic hematopathology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1–42Google Scholar
  86. Moore MAS, Metcalf D (1970) Ontogeny of the haematopoetic system: yolk sac origin of in vivo and in vitro colony forming cells in the developing mouse embryo. Br J Haematol 18:279–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Moore KW, O’Garra A, Waal Malefyt R de, Vieira P, Mosmann TR (1993) Interleukin-10. Annu Rev Immunol 11:165–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Morshead CM, Benveniste P, Iscove NN, Kooy D van der (2002) Hematopoietic competence is a rare property of neural stem cells that may depend on genetic and epigenetic alterations. Nat Med 8:268–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Muench MO, Firpo MT, Moore MA (1993) Bone marrow transplantation with interleukin-1 plus kit-ligand ex vivo expanded bone marrow accelerates hematopoietic reconstitution in mice without the loss of stem cell lineage and proliferative potential. Blood 81:3463–3473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Mukaida N, Harada A, Matsushima K (1998) Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF/MCP-1), chemokines essentially involved in inflammatory and immune reactions. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 9:9–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Munoz-Fernandez MA, Fernandez MA, Fresno M (1992) Activation of human macrophages for the killing of intracellular Trypanosoma cruzi by TNF-α and IFN-γ through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Immunol Lett 33:35–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nagamura-Inoue T, Tamura T, Ozato K (2001) Transcription factors that regulate growth and differentiation of myeloid cells. Int Rev Immunol 20:83–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nossal GJ (1994) Negative selection of lymphocytes. Cell 76:229–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. O’Garra A, Spits H (1993) The immunobiology of interleukin-4. Res Immunol 144:567–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ogawa M, Porter PN, Nakahata T (1983) Renewal and commitment to differentiation of hemopoietic stem cells (an interpretive review). Blood 61:823–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Ogawa M, Kizumoto M, Nishikawa S, Fujimoto T, Kodama H, Nishikawa SI (1999) Expression of α4-integrin defines the earliest precursor of hematopoietic cell lineage diverged from endothelial cells. Blood 93:1168–1177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Opstelten D (1996) B lymphocyte development and transcription regulation in vivo. Adv Immunol 63:197–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Papayannopoulou T, Craddock C (1997) Homing and trafficking of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Acta Haematol 97:97–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pelanda R, Schwers S, Sonoda E, Torres RM, Nemazee D, Rajewsky K (1997) Receptor editing in a transgenic mouse model: site, efficiency, and role in B cell tolerance and antibody diversification. Immunity 7:765–775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pétrie HT, Livak F, Schatz DG, Strasser A, Crispe IN, Shortman K (1993) Multiple rearrangements in T cell receptor alpha chain genes maximize the production of useful thymocytes. J Exp Med 178:615–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Prak EL, Weigert M J (1995) Light chain replacement: a new model for antibody gene rearrangement. Exp Med 182:541–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Prockop DJ (1997) Marrow stromal cells as stem cells for non-hematopoietic tissues. Science 276:71–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pui JC, Allman D, Xu L et al. (1999) Notchl expression in early lymphopoiesis influences B versus T lineage determination. Immunity 11:299–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ramshaw I, Ruby J, Ramsay A, Ada G, Karupiah G (1992) Expression of cytokines by recombinant vaccinia viruses: a model for studying cytokines in virus infections in vivo. Immunol Rev 127:157–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rennick D, Yang G, Muller-Sieburg CL et al. (1987) Interleukin 4 (B-cell stimulatory factor 1) can enhance or antagonize the factor-dependent growth of hemopoietic progenitor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:6889–6893PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rich IN (1998) Homeobox genes and hematopoiesis: an emerging picture for genomic therapy. J Hematother 7:515–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rich BE, Kupper TS (2001) Cytokines: IL-20 — a new effector in skin inflammation. Curr Biol 11:R531–R534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sanderson CJ (1997) Interleukin-5. In: Garland JM, Quesenberry PJ, Hilton DJ (eds) Colony stimulating factors: molecular and cellular biology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 405–420Google Scholar
  109. Sawada K, Krantz SB, Dai CH et al. (1990) Purification of human blood burst-forming units-erythroid and demonstration of the evolution of erythropoietin receptors. J Cell Physiol 142:219–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Shaffer AL, Yu X, He Y, Boldrick J, Chan EP, Staudt LM (2000) BCL-6 represses genes that function in lymphocyte differentiation, inflammation and cell cycle control. Immunity 13:199–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Schebesta M, Heavey B, Busslinger M (2002) Transcriptional control of B-cell development. Curr Opin Immunol 14:216–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Schofield L, McConville MJ, Hansen D et al. (1999) CD1d-restricted immunoglobulin G formation to GPI-anchored antigens mediated by NKT cells. Science 283:225–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sebzda E, Mariathasan S, Ohteki T, Jones R, Bachmann MF, Ohashi PS (1999) Selection of the T cell repertoire. Annu Rev Immunol 17:829–874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Shivdasani RA (2001) Molecular and transcriptional regulation of megakaryocyte differentiation. Stem Cells 19:397–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Shortman K, Wu L (1996) Early T lymphocyte progenitors. Annu Rev Immunol 14:29–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Spits H, Blom B, Jaleco AC et al. (1998) Early stages in the development of human T, natural killer and thymic dendritic cells. Immunol Rev 165:75–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sprent J, Webb SR (1995) Intrathymic and extrathymic clonal deletion of T cells. Curr Opin Immunol 7:196–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Springer TA (1994) Traffic signals for lymphocyte recirculation and leucocyte emigration: the multistep paradigm. Cell 76:301–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Staal FJ, Weerkamp F, Langerak AW, Hendriks RW, Clevers HC (2001) Transcriptional control of T lymphocyte differentiation. Stem Cells 19:165–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stier S, Cheng T, Dombkowski D, Carlesso N, Scadden DT (2002) Notch1 activation increases hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal in vivo and favors lymphoid over myeloid lineage outcome. Blood 99:2369–2378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Stoffel R, Wiestner A, Skoda RC (1996) Thrombopoietin in thrombocytopenic mice: evidence against regulation at the mRNA level and for a direct regulatory role of platelets. Blood 87:567–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Taghon T, Stolz F, De Smedt M et al. (2002) HOX-A10 regulates hematopoietic lineage commitment: evidence for a monocyte-specific transcription factor. Blood 99:1197–1204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Takatsu K (1998) Interleukin-5 and B cell differentiation. Cytokin Growth Factor Rev 9:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Takeda S, Sonoda E, Arakawa H (1996) The κ:λ ratio of immature B cells. Immunol Today. 17:200–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Tarlinton D (1998) Germinal centers: form and function. Curr Opin Immunol 10:245–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Thomas DB, Yoffey JM (1964) Human foetal haematopoiesis (1964). Br J Haematol 10:193–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Thomassen M J, Antal JM, Connors M J et al. (1993) Immunomodulatory effects of recombinant interleukin-3 treatment on human alveolar macrophages and monocytes. J Immunother 14:43–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Till JE, McCulloch EA (1961) A direct measurement of the radiation sensitivity of normal mouse bone marrow cells. Radiât Res 14:213–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Trinchieri G (1995) Interleukin-12: a proinflammatory cytokine with immunoregulatory function that bridges innate resistance and antigen-specific adaptive immunity. Annu Rev Immunol 13:251–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Walker L, Carlson A, Tan-Pertel HT, Weinmaster G, Gasson J (2001) The notch receptor and its ligands are selectively expressed during hematopoietic development in the mouse. Stem Cells 19:543–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wang M, Tan Z, Zhang R, Kotenko SV, Liang P (2002) Interleukin 24 (MDA-7/MOB-5) signals through two heterodimeric receptors, IL-22R1/IL-20R2 and IL-20R1/IL-20R2. J Biol Chem 277:7341–7734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Ward AC, Loeb DM, Soede-Bobok AA, Touw IP, Friedman AD (2000) Regulation of granulopoiesis by transcription factors and cytokine signals. Leukemia 14:973–990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Warren DJ, Moore MAS (1988) Synergism among interleukin 1, interleukin 3 and interleukin 5 in the production of eosinophils from primitive hematopoetic stem cells. J Immunol 140:94–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Waterhouse P, Penninger JM, Timms E et al. (1995) Lymphoproliferative disorders with early lethality in mice deficient in Ctla-4. Science 270:985–988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wong FS, Visintin I, Wen L, Flavell RA, Janeway CA Jr (1996) CD8 T cell clones from young nonobese diabetic (NOD) islets can transfer rapid onset of diabetes in NOD mice in the absence of CD4 cells. J Exp Med 183:67–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Yamamura M, Uyemura K, Deans RJ et al. (1991) Defining protective responses to pathogens: cytokine profiles in leprosy lesions. Science 254:277–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Yang YC (1997) Human interleukin-3: an overview. In: Garland JM, Quesenberry PJ, Hilton DJ (eds) Colony stimulating factors: molecular and cellular biology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 227–254Google Scholar
  138. Yasutomo K (2002) The cellular and molecular mechanism of CD4/CD8 lineage commitment. J Med Invest 49:1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Zannettino AC, Buhring HJ, Niutta S, Watt SM, Benton MA, Simmons PJ (1998) The sialomucin CD164 (MGC-24v) is an adhesive glycoprotein expressed by human hematopoietic progenitors and bone marrow stromal cells that serves as a potent negative regulator of hematopoiesis. Blood 92:2613–2628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Zerrahn J, Held W, Raulet DH (1997) The MHC reactivity of the T cell repertoire prior to positive and negative selection. Cell 88:627–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Zukali JR, DuBois CM, Oppenheim J J (1997) Hematopoetic effects of interleukin-1. In: Garland JM, Quesenberry PJ, Hilton DJ (eds) Colony stimulating factors: molecular and cellular biology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 347–368Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Florian Länger
  • Hans Heinrich Kreipe

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations