Advertisement

Lyotrope polymere Flüssigkristalle

  • K. Kratzat
Chapter
  • 62 Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Seit der Entdeckung des ersten Flüssigkristalls von Reinitzer im Jahre 1888 hat sich die Erforschung des flüssigkristallinen Phasenzustandes zu einem inter-disziplinären Arbeitsgebiet entwickelt, das vielfältige chemische, physikalische, biologische und anwendungsrelevante Forschungsrichtungen einschließt.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Ringsdorf H, Schlarb B, Venzmer J (1988) Moleculare Architektur und Funktion von poly-meren orientierten Systemen-Modelle für das Studium von Organisation, Oberflächen-erkennung und Dynamik bei Biomembranen. Angew Chem 100:117–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Laschewsky A (1995) Molecular concepts, self-organisation and properties of polysoaps. Adv Polym Sci 124:1–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hall PJ, Tiddy GJT (1992) Lyotropic side chain polymer liquid crystals. In: Collyer AA (ed) Liquid crystal polymers. From structures to applications. Elsevier London, UK, p 237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fairhurst CE, Fuller S, Gray J, Holmes C, Tiddy GJT (1998) Lyotropic surfactant liquid crystals. In: Demus D, Goodby J, Gray GW, Spiess H-W, Vill V (eds) Handbook of liquid crystals vol 3. Wiley-vch, Weinheim New York Cichester Brisbane Singapore Toronto, p 341Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chu B, Zhou Z (1996) Physical chemistry of POA surfactants. In: Nonionic surfactants, polyoxyalylene block copolymers, ed Marcel Dekker inc, New York Basel Hong Kong Surfactant Sci Ser vol 60, p 67Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Northolt MG, Sikkema DJ (1992) Lyotropic main chain liquid crystal polymers. In: Collyer A A (ed) Liquid crystal polymers. From structures to applications. Elsevier, London, UK, p 273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Finkelmann H, Lühmann B, Rehage G (1982) Phase behaviour of lyotropic liquid crystalline side chain polymers in aqueous solutions. Colloid Polym Sci 260:56–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lühmann B, Finkelmann H, Rehage G (1985) Phase behaviour and structure of polymer surfactants in aqueous solutions. The occurrence of lyotropic nematic phases. Macromol Chem 186:1059–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Walther M, Finkelmann H (1996) Structure formation of liquid crystalline block copolymers. Prog Polym Sci 21: 951–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    a)Israelachvili JN, Marcelja S, Horn RG (1980) Physical principles of membrane organization. Q Rev Biophys 13: 121–200; b Israelachvili JN in Degiorgio V, Corti M(eds): Physics of amphiphiles: Micelles, Vesicles and Microemulsions, North-Holand Physics Publishing, Amsterdam 1985, p 24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mitchell DJ, Tiddy GJT, Warning L, Bostock T, McDonald MP (1983) Phase behaviour of polyoxyethylene surfactants in water. J Chem Soc Faraday Transl 79:975–1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    a Kratzat K, Finkelmann H (1993) Branched non-ionic oligooxyethylene Y-amphiphiles: effect of molecular geometry on the micellar shape, 1. Liq Cryst 13: 691–699; b Kratzat K, Finkelmann H (1994) Branched Non-ionic oligooxyethylene V-amphiphiles: effect of molecular geometry on LC-phase behaviour, 2. Colloid Polym Sci 272:400-408; c Kratzat K, Schmidt C, Finkelmann H (1994) A doubly branched non-ionic oligooxyethylen V-amphi-phile: effect of molecular geometry on liquid-crystalline phase behaviour, 3. J Colloid Interface Sci 163:190-198; d Kratzat K, Finkelmann H (1996) Asymmetrically branched non-Ionic oligooxyethylene Y-amphiphiles: effect of molecular geometry on liquid-crystalline phase behaviour, 5. J Colloid Interface Sci 181: 542-550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fromherz P (1981) The surfactant-block structure of micelles, synthesis of the droplet and of the bilayer concept. Ber Bunsenges Phys Chem 85: 891–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fontell K (1990) Cubic phases in surfactant and surfactant-like lipid systems. Colloid Polym Sci 268: 264–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tenford C (1980) The hydophobic Effect, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Owenson B, Pratt LR (1984) Molecular statistical thermodynamics of model micellar aggregates. J Phys Chem 88: 2905–2915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cabane B, Duplessix R, Zemb T (1985) J Physique 46: 2161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bekutov EA, Bakanova ZK (1986) Synthetic water-soluble polymers in solution, ed Hüthig und Wepf, Basel 1986Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Löfflör R (1990) Synthese von Monomeren und Polymeren Amphiphilen und deren Charak-terisierung in wässrigen Lösungen: Chem. Dissertation, Universität FreiburgGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Strauss UP (1989) Hydrophobic polyelektrolytes. In Glass JE (ed) Polymers in aqueous media. Adv Chem Ser 223, Am Chem Soc, Washington DC, p 317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kammer U, Eolias HG (1972) Kolloid Z u Z Polymere 250: 344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Anton P, Köberle P, Laschewsky A (1993) Recent developments in the field of micellar polymers. Macromol Chem 194:1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jahns E, Finkelmann H (1987) Lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behavior of a polymeric amphiphile polymerized via their hydrophilic ends. Colloid Polym Sci 265(4): 304–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yu G, Yang Z, Ameri M, Attwood D, Collett JH, Price C, Booth C (1997) Diblock copolymers of ethylene oxide and 1,2-butylene oxide in aqueous solution. Effect of E-block-length distribution on self-assoziation properties. J Phys Chem B 101:4394–4401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhou Z, Chu B (1996) Phase behavior and assoziation properties of PEP triblock copolymer in aqueous solution. Macromolecules 27:2025–2033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yu G-E, Garrett CA, Mai S-M, Altinok H, Attwood D, Price C, Booth C (1998) Effect of cyclisa-tion on the association behavior of block copolymers in aqueous solution. Langmuir 14: 2278–2285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yang Z, Pickard S, Deng N-J, Barlow RJ, Attwood D, Booth C (1994) Effect of block structure on the micellisation and gelation of aqueous solutions of copolymers of ethylene oxide and butylene oxide. Macromolecules 27: 2371–2379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Finkelmann H, Schafheutle MA (1986) Lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behavior of a mono-meric and a polymeric monosaccharide amphiphile in aqueous solution. Colloid Polym Sci 264: 786–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hall C, Tiddy GJT, Pfannemüller B (1991) Lyotropic liquid crystal phase formation in l-(alka-noylmethyl amino) l-deoxy-D-glucitols. Liq Cryst 9: 527–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gallot B, Revilla J, Charreyre MT, Pichot C (1994) Liquid-crystalline propertis of comb-like-polymers prepared by homo and copolymerisation with styrene of liposaccharidic monomers. In: Carfagna C (Ed) Liquid crystalline polymers. Pergamon, Oxford p 1–23Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Thundathil R, Stoffer JO, Friberg SE (1980) Polymerisation in lyotropic liquid crystals. Change of structure during polymerisation. J Polym Sci 18: 2629–2640Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    McGrath KM (1996) Polymerisation of liquid crystalline phases in binary surfactant/water systems. Colloid Polym Sci 274: 499–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gallot B, Douy A (1987) Comb copolymers with thermotropic and lyotropic properties synthesis and structural study. Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 153: 367–373Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gallot B, Marchin B (1989) Liquid-crystalline copolymers with lipoamino acid side chains. Synthesis and structure study Liq Cryst 5(6): 1719–1727Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Okahata Y, Tanamachi S, Nagai M, Kunitake T (1981) Synthetic bilayer membranes prepared from dialkyl amphiphiles with nonionic and zwitterionic head groups. J Colloid Interface Sci 82(2): 401–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Barlow DJ, Ma G, Lawrence MJ, Webster JRP, Penfold J (1995) Neutron reflectance studies of a novel nonionic surfactant and molecular modeling of the surfactant vesicles. Langmuir 11: 3737–3741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kratzat K, nicht veröffentlichten ResultateGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schafheutle MA, Finkelmann H (1988) Shapes of micelles and molecular geometry. Synthesis and studis on the phase behaviour, surface tension and rheology of rigid rod-like surfactants in aqeous solution. Liq Crystals 3(10): 1369–1386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    a Pietschmann N, Lunow A, Brezesinski G, Tschierske C, Kuschel F, Zaschke H (1991) The first liquid crystalline diol compound which exhibits nematic, smectic A+, and smectic C+ meso-phases in the presence of water. Colloid Polym Sci 269: 636–639; b) Tschierske C, Lunow A, Joachimi D, Hentrich F, Girdziunaite D, Zaschke H, Mädicke A, Brezesinski G, Kuschel F (1991) Amphiphilic propane-1,2-diol derivatives incorporating calamitic structural units. Liq Crystals 9: 821-829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Boden N, Bushby RJ, Jolley KW, Holmes MC, Sixl F (1987) Molec Crystals Liq Crystals 152:37Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Keller-Griffith R, Ringsdorf H, Vierengel A (1986) Structural variations in amphiphiles: Discoidal multivalent cations. Colloid Polym Sci 264: 924–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lühmann B, Finkelmann H (1987) Lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behavior of amphiphilic monomers and polymers having a rod-like hydrophobic moiety. Colloid Polym Sci 265: 506–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pietschmann N, Brezesinski G, Tschierske C, Zaschke H, Kuschel F (1989) Phase behavior of amphiphilic side-chain polymers. Liq Cryst 5(6): 1697–1709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schwarzwälder C, Meier W (1997) New nonionic head type polysoaps: a way to reversed liquid crystalline phases. Macromolecules 30(16): 4601–4607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fendler JH (1992) Vesicles. In: Membrane mimetic chemistry, Wiley, New York, p 113Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sisson TM, Lamparski HG, Kölchens S, Elayadi A, O’Brien DF (1996) Cross-linking polymerisations in two-dimensional assemblies. Macromolecules 29:8321–8329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Naitoh K, Ishii Y, Tsujii K (1991) Iridescent phenomena and polymerisation behavior of amphiphilic monomers in lamellar liquid crystalline phase. J Phys Chem 95: 7915–7918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Srisiri W, Benedicto A, O’Brien DF, Trouard TP, Orädd G, Persson S, Lindblom G (1998) Stabilization of a bicontinuous cubic phase from polymerizable monoacylgycerol and diacylgycerol. Langmuir 14:1921–1926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lee Y-S, Yang J, Sisson TM, Frankel DA, Gleeson JT, Aksay E, Keller SL, Gruner SM, O’Brien DF (1995) Polymerisation of nonlamellar lipid assemblies. J Am Chem Soc 117:5573–5578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Srisiri W, Sisson TM, O’Brien DF, McGrath KM, Han Y, Gruner SM (1997) Polymerisation of the inverted hexagonal phase. J Am Chem Soc 119:4866–4873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dorn K, Klingbiel RT, Specht DP, Tyminski PN, Ringsdorf H, O’Brien DF (1984) Permeability characteristics of polymeric bilayer membranes of methacryloyl and butadiene lipids. J Am Chem Soc 106:1627–1633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Meier C (1989) Lyotrop Flüssigkristalline Copolymere aus nichtamphiphilen Monomeren: Chem. Dissertation, Universität FreiburgGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Glatter O, Scherf G, Schillén K, Brown W (1994) Characterisation of a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) triblock copolymer (EO27 PO39 EO27) in aqueous solution. Macromolecules 27: 6046–6054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mortensen K, Pedersen JK (1993) Structural study on the micelle formation of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer in aqueous solution. Macromolecules 26: 805–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wanka G, Hoffmann H, Ulbricht W (1994) Phase diagrams and aggregation behaviour of EPE triblock copolymers in aqueous solution. Macromolecules 27:4145–4159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Alexandridis P, Zhou D, Khan A (1996) Lyotropic liquid crystallinity in amphiphilic block copolymers: temperature effects on phase behaviour and structure for PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers of different composition. Langmuir 12:2690–2700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zhang K, Khan A (1995) Phase behavior of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers in water. Macromolecules 28: 3807–3812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Alexandridis P, Olsson U, Lindman B (1998) A record nine different phases in a ternary isothermal system of an amphiphilic block copolymer and selective solvents. Langmuir 14: 2627–2638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mortensen K, Brown W, Jorgensen E (1994) Phase behavior of PEP triblock copolymer melt and aqueous solutions. Macromolecules 27: 5654–5666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mortensen K (1997) Cubic phase in a connected micellar network of poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) triblock copolymers in water. Macromolecules 30:503–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Alexandridis P, Olsson U, Lindman B (1996) Phase behavior of amphiphilic block copolymers in water-oil mixtures: the pluronik 25R4-water-xylene system. J Phys Chem 100:280–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Alexandridis P, Olsson U, Lindman B (1997) Structural polymorphism of amphiphilic copolymers: six lyotropic liquid crystalline and two solution phases in a poly(oxybutylene)-b-poly(oxyethylene)-water-xylene system. Langmuir 13:23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yang J, Wegner G (1992) Polymerisation in lyotropic liquid crystals. 1. Phase behavior of photo-cross-linkable ethylene oxide (PEO)-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) triblock copolymers PEO-PDMS-PEO in aqueous solution. Macromolecules 25:1786–1790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hill RM, He M, Lin Z, Davis HT, Scriven LE (1993) Lyotropic liquid crystal phase behavior of polymeric siloxane surfactants. Langmuir 9:2789–2798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Löffler R, Finkelmann H (1990) Amphiphilic liquid-crystalline elastomers. Makromol Chem Rapid Commun 11:321–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Fischer P, Schmidt C, Finkelmann H (1995) Amphiphilic liquid-crystalline networks-phase behavior and alignment by chemical fields. Makromol Rapid Commun 16: 435-447Google Scholar
  67. 66.
    Fischer P, Schmidt C, Finkelmann H (1995) Amphiphilic liquid-crystalline networks-phase behavior and alignment by chemical fields. Makromol Rapid Commun 16:435–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Albrecht H (1997) Verzweigte Amphiphile mit hoher Polarisierbarkeitsanisotropie. Synthese und Eigenschaften von Monomeren, Polymeren und Elastomeren: Chem. Dissertation, Uni-versität FreiburgGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Fischer P, Finkelmann H (1998) Lyotropic liquid-crystalline elastomers. Progr Colloid Polym Sci 111: 127–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Kratzat

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations