Advertisement

Pränataldiagnostik

  • Gholamali Tariverdian
  • Marion Paul
Chapter
  • 30 Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Zur Pränataldiagnostik im weiteren Sinne gehören alle Untersuchungen, die im Rahmen der Mutterschaftsvorsorge mit dem Ziel, Informationen über den Gesundheitszustand des Embryos bzw. Fetus zu erhalten, durchgeführt werden.

Literatur

  1. Ager RP, Oliver RW (1986) The risk of midtrimester amniocentesis, being a comparative, analytical review of the major clinical studies. Salford University PressGoogle Scholar
  2. Aitken DA, Crossley JA (1995) Prenatal screening - biochemical. In: Whittle MJ, Connor JM (eds) Prenatal diagnosis in obstetric practice. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 12–29Google Scholar
  3. Allan LD, Sharland GK, Chita SK, Lockhart S, Maxwell DJ (1991) Chromosomal anomalies in fetal congenital heart disease. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1:8–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allan LD, Sharland GK, Milburn A, Lockhart SM, Groves AM, Anderson RH, Cook AC, Fagg NLK (1994) Prospective diagnosis of 1006 consecutive cases of congenital heart disease in the fetus. J Am Coll Cardiol 23:1452–1458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson RL, Goldberg JD, Golbus MS (1991) Prenatal diagnosis in multiple gestation: zo years experience with amniocentesis. Prenat Diagn 11:263–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Assel BG, Lewis SM, Dickermann LH, Park VM, Jassani MN (1992) Single-operator com- parison of early and mid-second-trimester amniocentesis. Obst Gynecol 79:940–944Google Scholar
  7. Association of Clinical Cytogenetics Working Party on Chorionic Villi in Prenatal Diagnosis (1994) Cytogenetic analysis of chorionic villi for prenatal diagnosis: an ACC collaborative study of U.K. data. Prenatal Diagn 14:363–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Auricchio A, Brancolini V, Casari G, Milla PJ, Smith VV, Devoto M, Ballabio A (1996) The locus for a novel syndromic form of neuronal intestinal pseudoobstruction maps to Xq28. Am J Hum Genet 58:743–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Beck AD (1971) The effect of intrauterine urinary obstruction upon the development of the fetal kidney. J Urol 105:784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Benacerraf BR (1998) Ultrasound of fetal syndromes. Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  11. Benacerraf BR, Barss VA, Laboda LA (1985) A sonographic sign for the detection in the second trimester of the fetus with Down’s Syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151:1078–1079PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Benacerraf BR, Mandell J, Estroff JA, Harlow BL, Frigoletto FD (1990) Fetal pyelectasis: a possible association with Down’s Syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 76:58–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Benirscke K (1994) Multiple gestation: incidence, etiology and inheritance. In Creasy R, Resnik R (eds) Maternal fetal medicine, 3rd edn. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  14. Benson CB, Doubilet PM, Laks MP (1993) Outcome of twin gestations following sono-graphic demonstration of the heart beats in the first trimester. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 3:343–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berry SM, Gosden CM, Snijders RJM, Nicolaides KH (1990) Fetal holoprosencephaly: associated malformations and chromosomal defects. Fetal Diagn Ther 5:92–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Böhm N (1984) Kinderpathologie. Farbatlas and Lehrbuch. Schattauer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  17. Bonilla-Musoles FM, Raga F, Ballester RJ, Serra V (1994) Early detection of embryonic malformations by transvaginal and colour doppler sonography. J Ultrasound Med 13:347–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Boué J, Boué A, Lasar A (1975) Retrospective and prospective epidemiology of 1500 karyotypical spontaneous human abortions. Teratology 12:11–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brambati B, Lanzani A, Tului L (1990) Transabdominal and transcervical chorionic villus sampling: efficiency and risk evaluation of 2411 cases. Am J Med Genet 35: 160–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brambati B, Tului L, Cislaghi C, Alberti E (1998) First 10000 chorionic villus samplings performed on singleton pregnancies by a single operator. Prenat Diagn 18:255–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brandenburg H, van der Meulen JHP, Jahoda MGJ, Wladimiroff JW, Niermeijer M, Habbema JDF (1994) A quantitative estimation of the effect of prenatal diagnosis in dizygotic twin pregnancies in women of advanced age. Prenat Diagn 14:243–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Braverman N, Steel G, Obie C et al. (1997) Human PEX7 encodes the peroxisomal PTS2 receptor and is responsible for rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata. Nature Genet 15:369–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bromley B, Estroff JA, Sanders SP, Parad R, Roberts D, Frigoletto FD, Benacerraf BR (1992) Fetal echocardiography: Accuracy and limitations in a population at high and low risk for heart defects. Am J Gynecol 166:1473–1481Google Scholar
  24. Bromley B, Doubilet P, Frigoletto FD Jr, Krauss C, Estroff JA, Benacerraf BR (1994) Is fetal hyperechoic bowel on second-trimester sonogram an indication for amniocentesis? Obstet Gynecol 83:647–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bromley B, Liebermann E, Benacerraf BR (1996) Choroid plexus cysts: not associated with Down Syndrome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 8:232–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bromley B, Liebermann B, Benacerref BR (1997) The detection of Down syndrome using a scoring index of sonographic markers and maternal age. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 10:321–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Brown DL, Roberts DJ, Miller WA (1994) Left ventricular echogenic focus in the fetal heart: pathologic correlation. J Ultrasound Med 13:613–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brumfield CG, Davis RO, Joseph DB, Cosper P (1991) Fetal obstructive uropathies: importance of chromosomal abnormalities and associated anomalies to perinatal outcome. J Reprod Med 36:662–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Buselmaier W, Tariverdian G (1998) Humangenetik, 2. Aufl. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  30. Byrne DL, Marks K, Azar G, Nicolaides KH (1991) Randomized study of early amniocentesis versus chorionic villus sampling: a technical and cytogenetic comparison of 650 patients. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1:235–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Byrne J, Blanc W, Warburton D, Wigger J (1984) The significance of cystic hygroma in fetuses. Hum Pathol 15:61–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Camera G, Mastroiacovo P (1982) Birth prevalence of skeletal dysplasias in the italian multicentric monitoring system for birth defects. In: Papadatos CJ, Bartsocas CS (eds) Skeletal dysplasias. Liss, New York, pp 441–449Google Scholar
  33. Cameron AH, Edwards JH, Derom R, Thiery M, Boelaert R (1983) The value of twin surveys in the study of malformations. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 14:347–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cameron AD, Murphy KW, McNay MB et al. (1994) Midtrimester chorionic villus sampling: an alternative approach? Am J Obstet Gynecol 171:1035–1037PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Canadian Collaborative CVS Amniocentesis Clinical Trial Group (1989) Multicentre randomised clinical trial of chorion villus sampling and amniocentesis. First report. Lancet 1:1–6Google Scholar
  36. Chaoui R (1995) Thorax, Herz and Lunge. In: Sohn C, Holzgreve W (Hrsg) Ultraschall in Gynäkologie and Geburtshilfe. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  37. Chaoui R, Gembruch U (1997) Zur Epidemiologie des kongenitalen Herzfehlers beim Feten and Neugeborenen. Gynäkologe 3:165–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chervenak FA, Isaacson G, Blakemore KJ et al. (1983) Fetal cystic hygroma. Cause and natural history. N Engl J Med 309:822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Chinn A, Fitzsimmons J, Shepard JH, Fantel AG (1989) Congenital heart disease among spontaneous abortuses and stillborn fetuses: prevalence and associations. Teratology 40:475–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chitty L, Campbell S (1992) Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities. In: Brock DJH, Rodeck CH, Ferguson-Smith MA (eds) Prenatal diagnosis and screening. Livingstone, London, pp 595–609Google Scholar
  41. Chudleigh P, Pearce JM, Campbell S (1984) The prenatal diagnosis of transient cysts of the fetal choroid plexus. Prenat Diagn 4:135–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cohen M (1982) An update on the holoprosencephalic disorders. J Pediatr 101:865–869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cohen M (1989) Perspectives on holoprosencephaly III. Spectra distinctions, continuities and discontinuities. Am J Med Genet 34:271–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cohen MM Jr, Gorlin RJ, Fraser FC (1997) Craniofacial disorders. In: Rimoin DL, Connor JM, Pyeritz RE (eds) Emery and Rimoin’s principles and practice of medical genetics, 3rd edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 1121–1147Google Scholar
  45. Connor JM, Ferguson-Smith MA (1993) Essential medical genetics, 3rd edn. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  46. Corteville JE, Dicke JM, Crane JP (1992) Fetal pyelectasis and Down Syndrome: is genetic amniocentesis warranted? Obstet Gynecol 79:770–772PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Crombach G, Eckardstein S von, Reihs T, Röhrborn G (1995) Stellenwert der invasiven Pränataldiagnostik im ersten Trimenon im Vergleich zur Standardamniozentese. Gynäkologe 28:302–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Crombach G, Tutschek B, Reihs T, Goecke TO (1998) Spezielle Aspekte der nicht-invasiven and invasiven Pränataldiagnostik bei Mehrlingen. Gynäkologe 31:218–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cuckle H, Wald N, Stevenson JD et al. (1990) Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein screening for open neural tube defects in twin pregnancies. Prenat Diagn 10:71–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Delhanty JDA (1994) Preimplantation diagnosis. Prenat Diagn 14:1217–1227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Delia J, Gruikshank D, Keye W (1990) Fetoscopic neodymium: YAG laser occlusion of pla- cental vessels in severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 75:1046–1053Google Scholar
  52. DeMyer W (1977) Holoprosencephaly. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of clinical neurology. Elsevier, Amsterdam (Biomedical Press, vol 30, pp 431–478)Google Scholar
  53. Drugan A, Johnson MP, Krivchenia EL, Evans MI (1996) Genetics and genetic counseling. In: Gall SA (ed) Multiple pregnancy and delivery. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 85–97Google Scholar
  54. Edery P, Pelet A, Mulligan LM et al. (1994) Long segment and short segment familial Hirschsprung’s disease: variable clinical expression at the RET locus. J Med Genet 31:602–606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Egmond H van, Orye E, Praet M, Coppens M, Devloo-Blancquaert A (1988) Hypoplastic left heart syndrome and 45X-karyotype. Br Heart J 60:69–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Eiben B, Goebel R, Hansen S, Hammans W (1994) Early amniocentesis. A cytogenetic evaluation of over 1500 cases. Prenat Diagn 14:497–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Eydoux P, Choiset A, Le Porrier N et al. (1989) Chromosomal prenatal diagnosis: Study of 936 cases of intrauterine abnormalities after ultrasound assessment. Prenat Diagn 9:255–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Faber R, Abitzsch, Springer C, Stephan H, Viehweg B (1997) Haben linksventrikuläre echodichte Strukturen eine klinische Bedeutung? Ultraschall Med [Suppl]: 17Google Scholar
  59. Firth HV, Boyd PA, Chamberlain P, MacKenzie IZ, Lindebaum RH, Hudson SM (1991) Severe limb abnormalities after chorionic villus sampling at 65–66 days’ gestation. Lancet 337:762–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Firth HV, Boyd PA, Chamberlain PF, MacKenzie IZ, Morris-Kay GM, Huson SM (1994) Analysis of limb reduction defects in babies exposed to chorionic villus sampling. Lancet 343:1069–1071PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fleischer AC, Manning FA, Jeanty P, Romero R (1996) Sonography in obstetrics and gynecology, principles and practice, 5th edn. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River/NJGoogle Scholar
  62. Gall SA (ed) (1996) Multiple pregnancy and delivery. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  63. Geipel A, Germer U, Gembruch U (1998) Pränatale Diagnostik der singulären Nabelschnurarterie. Ultraschall Med 18 [Supp1]: 11Google Scholar
  64. Gembruch U, Chaoui R (1997) Möglichkeiten und Grenzen eines Screeningprogrammes. Pränatale Diagnostik fetaler Herzfehler durch Untersuchung von „high-risk“- und „low-risk”-Kollektiven. Gynäkologe 30:191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gembruch U, Knöpfle G, Bald R, Hansmann M (1993) Early diagnosis of fetal congenital heart disease by transvaginal echocardiography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 3:310–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gembruch U, Baschata A, Knöpfle G, Hansmann M (1996) First and early second trimester diagnosis of fetal cardiac anomalies. In: Wladimiroff JW, Pilu G (eds) Ultrasound and the fetal heart. Parthenon, New York, pp 39–46Google Scholar
  67. Gerhard Y, Runnebaum B (1995) Endokrine Marker zur Risikoermittlung in der Pränataldiagnostik. Gynäkol Prax 19:405–410Google Scholar
  68. Germer U, Baschat AA, Gembruch U (1997) Frühe fetale Echokardiographie. Gynäkologe 30:200–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ghidini A et al. (1993) The risk of second-trimester amniocentesis in twin gestations: a case control study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 169:1013–1016PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Gilli G, Berry AC, Chantier C (1985) Syndromes with a renal component. Williams & Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  71. Gilmore DH, McNay MB (1985) Letter to the editor: spontaneous fetal loss rate in early pregnancy. Lancet II:107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Giorlandino C, Mobili L, Bilancioni E, D’Alessio P, Carcioppolo O, Gentili P, Vizzone A (1994) Transplacental amniocentesis: is it really a higher-risk procedure? Prenatal Diagn 14:803–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gips H (1993) Die Triple-Diagnostik/AFP im mütterlichen Serum. (Broschüren, Anschr. d. Hrsg.: Max-Planckstr. 36, 61381 Friedrichsdorf)Google Scholar
  74. Godfrey M, Hollister DW (1988) Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: Identification of abnormal Type II collagen. Am J Hum Genet 43:904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Gorlin RJ, Cohen MM Jr, Levin LS (1990) Syndromes of the head and neck, 3rd edn. Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  76. Graham JM Jr, Rimoin DL (1997) Abnormal body size and proportion. In: Rimoin DL, Connor JM, Pyeritz RE (eds) Emery and Rimoin’s principles and practice of medical genetics, 3rd edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 737–751Google Scholar
  77. Hafner E, Schluchter K, Philipp K (1995) Screening for chromosomal abnormalities in an unselected population by fetal nuchal translucency. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 6:330–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hansmann M, Arabin B (1993) Nonimmune hydrops fetalis. In: Chervenak FA, Isaacson GC, Campbell S (eds) Ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology. Little & Brown, Boston, pp 1027–1051Google Scholar
  79. Hansmann M, Gembruch U, Bald R et al. (1991) Fetal tachyarrhythmias: transplacental and direct treatment of the fetus - a report of 6o cases. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1:162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Harper PS (1993) Practical genetic counselling, 4th edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  81. Harrison MR et al. (1990) Antenatal intervention for congenital adenomatoid malformation. Lancet 336:965–967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Heifetz SA (1984) Single umbilical artery: a statistical analysis of 237 autopsy cases and review of the literature. Perspect Pediat Pathol 8:345–352Google Scholar
  83. Heling KS, Chaoui R, Kirchmair F, Stady S, Bollmann R (1997) Die pränatale Diagnostik des fetalen Ileus. Gynäkol Prax 212:35–52Google Scholar
  84. Hildebrandt F (1995) Genetic renal diseases in children. Curr Opin Pediat 7:182–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hildebrandt F, Weber M, Brandis M (1995) Hereditäre Erkrankungen der Niere. Internist 36:254–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hogge WA, Hogge JS, Boehm CD (1993) Increased echogenicity in the fetal abdomen: Use of DNA analysis to establish a diagnosis of cystic fibroses. J Ultrasound Med 12:451–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Holzgreve W (1997) Nicht invasives Serum-Screening. Vortrag auf dem 14. Lübecker Ultraschallseminar für Frauenärzte in TravemündeGoogle Scholar
  88. Holzgreve W, Miny P (1990) Transabdominale und transzervikale Chorionbiopsien. Indikationen, Techniken und bisherige Ergebnisse. Gynäkologe 23:261–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Holzgreve W, Feiel R, Louwen F, Miny P (1993) Prenatal diagnosis and management of fetal hydrocephaly and lissencephaly. Child New Syst 9:408–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Holzgreve W, Gänshirt-Ahlers D, Miny P (1995) Pränatale Diagnostik an fetalen Zellen im mütterlichen Blut. In: Becker R, Fuhrmann W, Holzgreve W, Sperling K (Hrsg) Pränatale Diagnostik und Therapie. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  91. Holzgreve W, Miny P, Sehloo R, Tercanli S (1995) Maternales Serumscreening zur Erfassung kindlicher Chromosomenanomalien. Gynäkologe 28:280–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Holzgreve W, Tercanli S, Miny P (1996) Effizienzbewertung der Pränataldiagnostikmethoden und deren Patientenselektionskriterien. Gynäkologe 29:565–572Google Scholar
  93. Hook EB, Fabia JJ (1978) Frequency of Down Syndrome in live births by single-year maternal age interval: results of a Massachusetts study. Teratology 17:223–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Horcher E (1998) Angeborene Bauchwanddefekte. Gynäkol Prax 22:39–47Google Scholar
  95. Horton WA (1992) Characterization of a type II collagen gene (COL2A1) mutation identified in cultured chondrocytes from human hypochondrogenesis. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 89:4583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. How HY, Villafane J, Parihus RR, Spinnato JA (1994) Small hyperechoic foci of the fetal cardiac ventricle: a benign sonographic finding? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 4:205–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hyett JA, Moscoso G, Nicolaides KH (1995) First trimester nuchal translucency and cardiac septal defects in fetuses with trisomy 21. Am J Obstet Gynecol 172:1411–1413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hyett JA, Perdu M, Sharland GK, Snijders RSM, Nicolaides KM (1997) Increased nuchal translucency at 10–14 weeks of gestation as a marker for major cardiac defects. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 10:242–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kimberling WJ, Kumar S, Gabow PA, Kenyon JB, Conno CJ, Somlo S (1993) Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: localization of the second gene to chromosome 4q13-q23. Genomics 18:467–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kircheisen R, Schröder-Kurth T (1991) Familiäres Blasenmolen-Syndrom und genetische Aspekte dieser Trophoblastentwicklung. Geburtsh Frauenheilkd 51:569–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kommission für Öffentlichkeitsarbeit und ethische Fragen der Gesellschaft für Humangenetik (1993) Gegenwärtiger Stand der Diskussion zur nichtinvasiven Pränataldiagnostik von Chromosomenstörungen an fetalen Zellen aus mütterlichem Blut. Med Gen 4Google Scholar
  102. Kommission für Öffentlichkeitsarbeit und ethische Fragen der Gesellschaft für Humangenetik (1995) Stellungnahme zur Präimplantationsdiagnostik. Med Gen 4:420Google Scholar
  103. Kurtz AD, Wapner RJ, Mata J, Morgan P (1992) Twin pregnancies: accuracy of first trimes- ter abdominal US in predicting chorionicity and amnionicity. Radiology 185:759–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Landy MJ, Weiner S, Corson SL et al. (1986) The “vanishing twin”. Ultrasonographic as- sessment of fetal disappearance in the first trimester. Am J Obstet Gynecol 155:14–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Ledbetter DH, Martin AO, Verlinsky Y, Pergament E, Jackson L, Yang-Feng T, Schonberg SA, Gilbert F et al. (1990) Cytogenetic results of chorionic villus sampling: high success rate and diagnostic accuracy in the United States collaborative study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 162:495–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Leiber B, Olbrich G (1996) Die klinischen Syndrome. Syndrome, Sequenzen und Syndromenkomplexe. Urban & Schwarzenberg, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  107. Leidenberger FA (1992) Klinische Endokrinologie für Frauenärzte. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  108. Lipitz S, Reichman B, Uval J, Shalev J, Achiron R, Barkai G, Lusky A, Mashiach S (1994) A prospective comparison of the outcome of triplet pregnancies managed expectantly or by multifetal reduction of twins. Am J Obstet Gynecol 170:874–879PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Liu DTY, Jeavons B, Preston C, Pearson D (1987) A prospective study of spontaneous miscarriage in ultrasonically normal pregnancies and relevance to chorionic villus sampling. Prenatal Diagn 7:223–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Machin GA (1993) Conjoined twins: implications for blastogenesis. Birth Defects 29:141–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Mahoney B, Petty C, Nyberg D, Luthy D, Hictok D, Hirsch J (1990) The “stuck twin” phenomenon: ultrasonographic findings, pregnancy outcome and management with serial amniocentesis. Obstet Gynecol 77:537–540Google Scholar
  112. Main DM, Mennuti MT (1986) Neural tube defects: issues in prenatal diagnosis and counselling. Obstet Gynecol 67:1–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Martuciello G, Bicocchi MP, Dodero P et al. (1992) Total colonic aganglionosis with inter-stitial deletion of the long arm of chromosomeio. Pediat Surg Int 7: 308–310Google Scholar
  114. McFadyen IR (1989) Early fetal loss. In: Rodeck CH (ed) Fetal medicine. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  115. Meinel K (1985) Sonoanatomische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis oder Ausschluß kindlicher Fehlbildungen im zweiten Schwangerschaftstrimester. Habilitationsschrift, Universität LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  116. Meinel K (1995) Skelett-und Muskelsystem. In: Sohn C, Holzgreve W (Hrsg) Ultraschall in Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe, Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  117. Mennicke K, Schwinger E (1997) Genetische Aspekte kongenitaler fetaler Herzerkrankungen. Gynäkologe 3o:181–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Meyers C, Elias S, Arrabal P (1995) Congenital anomalies and pregnancy loss. In: Keith LG, Papiernik E, Keith DM, Luke B (eds) Multiple pregnancy: epidemiology, gestation and perinatal outcome. Parthenon, New York, pp 73–92Google Scholar
  119. Miny P, Hammer P, Schloo R, Horst J, Tercanli S, Gerlach B, Holzgreve W (1991) Pränatale Diagnostik an Chorionzotten und Placentapunktaten vom ersten bis dritten Schwangerschaftstrimenon: Diagnostische Zuverlässigkeit von Chromosomenuntersuchungen. Geburtsh Frauenheilkd 51:694–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Moore JC, Nur K (1986) An international survey of gastroschisis and omphalocele (490 cases). Nature and distribution of additional malformations. Pediat Surg Internat 1:46–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Moore KL (1993) Embryologie. Lehrbuch und Atlas der Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschen. Schattauer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  122. Morrow RJ, Whittle MJ, McNay MB et al. (1993) Prenatal diagnosis and management of anterior abdominal wall defects in the west of Scotland. Prenat Diagn 13:111–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Mortimer G (1990) Hydatiform mole. In: Buyse ML (ed) Birth defects Encyclopedia. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 884–886Google Scholar
  124. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group (1991) Prevention of neural tube defects: Results of the Medical Research Council Study. Lancet 338:131–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. MRC Working Party on the Evaluation of Chorion Villus Sampling (1991) Medical Research Council European Trial of chorion villus sampling. Lancet I:1491–1499Google Scholar
  126. Müller S (1996) Anmerkungen zur rechtlichen Situation der Präimplantationsdiagnostik in Deutschland. Med Gen 8:272–273Google Scholar
  127. Myrianthopoulos NC (1975) Congenital malformations in twins: epidemiologic survey. Birth Defects 11:1–39Google Scholar
  128. Nanagas JC (1925) A comparison of the growth of the body dimensions of anencephalic human fetuses with normal fetal growth as determined by graphic analysis: an empirical formula. Am J Anat 35:455–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Nava S, Godmilow L, Reeser S, Ludominky A, Donnenfeld AE (1994) Significance of sono-graphically detected second trimester choroid plexus cysts: a series of 211 cases and a review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 4:448–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Neilson IR, Russo P, Laberge JM et al. (1991) Congenital adenomatoid malformation of the lung, current management and progress. J Pediat Surg 26:975–981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Nicolaides KH (1994) Screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities: need to change the rules. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 4:353–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Nicolaides KH, Campbell S, Gabbe SG, Guidetti R (1986) Ultrasound screening for spina bifida: cranial and cerebellar signs. Lancet II:72–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Nicolaides KH, Berry S, Snijders RIM, Thorpe-Beeston JG, Gosden CM (1990) Fetal lateral cerebral ventriculomegaly: associated malformations and chromosomal defects. Fetal Diagn Ther 5:5–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Nicolaides KH, Snijders RIM, Gosden CM, Berry C, Campbell S (1992a) Ultrasonographically detectable markers of fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Lancet 340:704–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Nicolaides KH, Cheng H, Abbas A, Snijders RIM, Gosden GM (1992b) Fetal renal defects, associated malformations and chromosomal defects. Fetal Diagn Ther 7:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Nicolaides KH, Snijders RIM, Cheng M, Gosden CM (1992c) Fetal gastrointestinal and abdominal wall defects: associated malformations and chromosomal defects. Fetal Diagn Ther 7:102–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Nicolaides KH, Salvesen DR, Snijders RIM, Gosden CM (1993) Fetal facial defects: associated malformations and chromosomal abnormalities. Fetal Diagn Ther 8:1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Nicolaides KH, Brizot ML, Snijders RIM (1994) Fetal nuchal translucency: ultrasound screening for fetal trisomy in the first trimester of pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 101:906–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Noble PL, Abraha HD, Snijders RIM, Sherwood R, Nicolaides KH (1996) Screening for fetal trisomy 21 in the first trimester of pregnancy: maternal serum free-hCG and fetal nuchal translucency thickness. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 6:390–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Nora JJ, Nora AH (1991) Cardiovascular Diseases. Genetics, epidemiology and prevention. Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  141. Nora JJ, Nora AM (1988) Update on counseling the family with a first degree relative with a congenital heart defect. Am J Med Genet 29:127–142Google Scholar
  142. Nyberg DA, Kramer D, Resta RG, Kapur R (1993) Prenatal sonographic findings of trisomy 18. J Ultrasound Med 2:103–113Google Scholar
  143. Nyberg DA, Resta RG, Mahony BS, Dubinsky T, Luthy DA, Hickoc DE, Luthardt FW (1993) Fetal hyperechogenic bowel and Down’s Syndrome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 3:330–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. O’Connor DM, Gerassimides A (1996) Classification, placentation and pathology. In: Gall SA (ed) Multiple pregnancy and delivery. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 23–50Google Scholar
  145. Osathanondh U, Potter E (1964) Pathogenesis of polycystic kidneys. Arch Pathol 77:459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Paladini D, Calabro R, Palmieri S, D’Andrea J (1993) Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease and fetal karyotyping. Obstet Gynecol 81:679–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Pandya PP, Kondylios A, Hilbert L, Snijders RIM, Nicolaides KH (1995) Chromosomal defects and outcome in 1015 fetus with increased nuchal translucency. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 5:15–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Passarge E (1972) Genetic heterogeneity and recurrence risk of congenital intestinal aganglionosis. Birth Defects 8:63–67Google Scholar
  149. Passarge E (1993) Wither polygenic inheritance: mapping Hirschsprung disease. Nat Genet 4:325–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Pergament E (1995) Prenatal genetic diagnosis: amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling. In: Keith LG, Papiernik E, Keith DM, Luke B (eds) Multiple pregnancy: epidemiology, gestation and perinatal outcome. Parthenon, New York, pp 313–324Google Scholar
  151. Pergament E, Schulman JD, Copeland K (1992) The risk and efficacy of chorionic villus sampling in multiple gestation. Prenat Diagn 12:377–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Peters DJM, Spruit L, Saris JJ et al. (1993) Chromosome 4 localization of a second gene for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Nat Genet 5:359–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Pittalis MC, Dalpra L, Torricelli F et al. (1994) The predictive value of cytogenetic diagnoses after CVS based on 486o cases with both direct and cuture methods. Prenat Diagn 14:267–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Plath H, Hansmann M (1998) Diagnostik and Therapie zwillingsspezifischer Anomalien. Gynäkologe 31:229–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Potter E (1946) Bilateral renal agenesis. J Pediat 29:68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Prömpeler HJ, Wilhelm C, Madjar H, Prem C, Schillinger H (1989) Prognose von sonographisch früh diagnostizierten Zwillingsschwangerschaften. Geburtsh Frauenheilkd 49:715–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Puffenberger EG, Kauffman ER, Bolk S et al. (1994) Identity-by-descent and association mapping of a recessive gene for Hirschsprung disease on human chromosome 13q22. Hum Mol Genet 3:1217–1225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Purdue PE, Zhang JW, Skoneczny M, Lararow PB (1997) Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata is caused by deficiency of human PEX7, a homologue of the yeast PTS2 receptor. Nat Genet 15:381–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Report of Collaborative Acetylcholinesterase Study (1981) Amniotic fluid acetylcholinesterase electrophoresis as a secondary test in the diagnosis of anencephaly and open spina bifida in early pregnancy. Lancet II:321–325Google Scholar
  160. Rhoads GG, Jackson LG, Schlesselmann SE et al. (1989) The safety and efficacy of chorionic villus sampling for early prenatal diagnosis of cytogenetic abnormalities. N Engl J Med 320:609–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Rinke U, Koletzko B (1991) Prävention von Neuralrohrdefekten durch Folsäurezufuhr in der Frühschwangerschaft. Sonderdruck „Deutsches Ärzteblatt - Ärztliche Mitteilungen“, Heft 1/2Google Scholar
  162. Roach E, DeMyer W, Conneally PM et al. (1978) Holoprosencephaly. Birth data, genetic and demographic analyses of 3o families. Birth Defects 11:294Google Scholar
  163. Robertson FM et al. (1994) Prenatal diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal anomalies. Semin Perinat 18:182–195Google Scholar
  164. Rodis JF et al. (1990) Calculated risk of chromosomal abnormalities in twin gestations. Obstet Gynecol 76:1037–1041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Romero R (1990) Fetal skeletal anomalies. Radiol Clin North Am 28:75–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Romero R, Pilu G, Jeanty P, Ghidini A, Hobbins JC (eds) (1987) Prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies. Appleton & Lange, East NorwalkGoogle Scholar
  167. Rosati D Guariglia (1996) Transvaginal sonographic assessment of the fetal urinary tract in early pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 7:95–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Schluchter K, Wald N, Hackshaw AK, Hafner E, Liebhart E (1998) The distribution of nuchal translucency at 10–13 weeks of pregnancy. Prenat Diagn 18:281–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Schneider KTM, Kaisenberg CV, Holzgreve W (Hrsg) (1994) Manual der fetalen Medizin. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Schroeder-Kurth TM (1985) Die Bedeutung von Methoden, Risikoabwägung und Indikationsstellung für die pränatale Diagnostik. In: Reiter J, Theile U (Hrsg) Genetik und Moral. Grünewald, MainzGoogle Scholar
  171. Schroeder-Kurth TM (1988) Ethische Überlegungen zur Pränataldiagnostik. Gynäkologe 21:168–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Schroeder-Kurth TM, Hübner J (1989) Ethics and medical genetics in the Federal Republic of Germany. In: Weitz D, Fletcher JC (eds) Ethics and human genetics. A cross cultural survey in 17 nations. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 156–175Google Scholar
  173. Sebire NJ, D’Ercole C, Hughes K, Carvalho M, Nicolaides KH (1997) Increased nuchal translucency at 10–14 weeks of gestation as a predictor of severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 10:86–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Sebire NJ, Thornton S, Hughes K, Snijders RJM, Nicolaides KH (1997) The prevalence and consequences of missed abortion in twin pregnancies at 10 to 14 weeks of gestation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 104:8847–8848Google Scholar
  175. Second Report of the UK Collaborative Study on Alphafetoprotein in relation to neural tube defects (1979) Amniotic fluid alphafetoprotein measurements in antenatal diagnosis of anencephaly and open spina bifida in early pregnancy. Lancet II:625–662Google Scholar
  176. Seoud MAF, Toner JP, Kruithoff C, Muasher SJ (1992) Outcome of twin, triplet and quadruplet in in vitro fertilization pregnancies: the Norfolk experience. Fertil Steril 57:825–834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Seppälä M, Ranta T, Geroff L, Lindgren J (1979) Alphafetoprotein in obstetrics and gynecology. In: Weitzel HK, Schneider J (eds) Alphafetoprotein in clinical medicine. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  178. Sepulveda W, Sebire NJ, Hughes K, Kalogeropoulos A, Nicolaides KH (1997) Evolution of the Lambda or twin-chorionic peak sign in dichorionic twin pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol 89:439–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Serville F, Benit P, Saugier P et al. (1993) Prenatal exclusion of X-linked hydrocephalusstenoses of the aqueduct of sylvius-sequence using closely linked DNA markers. Prenat Diagn 13:435–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Sherer DM, Ghezzi F, Cohen J, Romero R (1997) Fetal skeletal anomalies. In: Fleischer AC, Manning FA, Jeanty P, Romero R (eds) Sonography in obstetrics and gynecology, principles and practice, 5th edn. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River/NJGoogle Scholar
  181. Simpson JL, Elias S (1994) Isolating fetal cells in maternal circulation for prenatal diagnosis. Prenat Diagn 14:1229–1242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Smidt-Jensen S, Hahnemann N (1984) Transabdominal fine needle biopsy from chorionic villi in the first trimester. Prenat Diagn 4:163–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Smidt-Jensen S, Permin M, Philip J, Lundsteen C, Zachary JM, Fowler SE, Grüning K (1992) Randomised comparison of amniocentesis and transabdominal and transcervical chorionic villus sampling. Lancet 340:1237–1244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Smidt-Jensen S, Lind A-M, Permin M, Zachary JM, Lundsteen C, Philip J (1993) Cytogenetic analysis of 2928 CVS samples and 1075 amniocenteses from randomised studies. Prenat Diagn 13:723–740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Snijders RJM, Nicolaides KH (1996) Ultrasound markers for fetal chromosomal defects. Parthenon, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  186. Snijders RJM, Holzgreve W, Cuckle H, Nicolaides KH (1994) Maternal age-specific risks for trisomies at 9–14 weeks of gestation. Prenat Diagn 14:543–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Snijders RJM, Sebire NJ, Nicolaides KH (1995) Maternal age and gestational age specific risk for chromosomal defects. Fetal Diagn Ther 10:356–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Snijders RJM, Sebire NT, Souka A, Santiago C, Nicolaides KH (1996) Fetal exomphalos and chromosomal defects: relationship to maternal age and gestation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 6:250–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Spranger J (1998) Kurzripp-Polydaktylie-Syndrome. In: Adler G et al. (Hrsg) Die klinischen Syndrome, 8. Aufl. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München, S 452–454Google Scholar
  190. Stranc LC, Evans JA, Hamerton JL (1994) Prenatal diagnosis in Canada; a review. Prenat Diagn 14:1253–1265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Stümpflen I, Stumpften A, Wimmer M, Bernaschek G (1996) Effect of detailed fetal echocardiography as part of routine prenatal ultrasonographic screening on detection of congenital heart disease. Lancet 348:854–857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Szabo J, Gellen J (1990) Nuchal fluid accumulation in trisomy 21 detected by vaginosonography in first trimester. Lancet II:1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Tabor A, Madsen M, Obel EB, Philip J, Bang J, Norgaard-Pedersen B (1986) Randomised controlled trial of genetic amniocentesis in 4606 low-risk women. Lancet I:1287–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. The European Polycystic Kidney Disease Consortium (1994) The polycystic kidney disease 1 gene encodes a 14 kb transcript and lies within a duplicated region on chromosome 16. Cell 77:881–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. The Fetal Medicine Foundation (1997) The 10–14 week scan, theoretical course 2. (Correspondence: 8, Devonshire Place, London WIN 1 PB)Google Scholar
  196. Tolmie JL, McNay MB, Stephenson JBP, Doyle D, Connor JM (1987) Microcephaly: genetic counselling and antenatal diagnosis after the birth of an affected child. Am J Med Gen 27:583–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Tolmie JL (1995) Chromosome disorders. In: Whittle MS, Connor JM (eds) Prenatal diagnosis in obstetric practice, 2nd edn. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  198. Turner GM, Twining P (1993) The facial profile in the diagnosis of fetal abnormalities. Clin Radiol 47:389–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Tutschek B, Thomas M, Williamson R, Rodeck CH (1995) Nichtinvasive Pränataldiagnostik an fetalen Zellen im mütterlichen Blut. Gynäkologe 28:289–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Twining P (1993) Echogenic foci in the fetal heart: incidence and association with chromosomal disease. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 3 [Suppl 2]:Abstract 190Google Scholar
  201. Ville Y, Hyett J, Hecher K, Nicolaides K (1995) Preliminary experience with endoscopic laser surgery for severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome. N Engl J Med 332:224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Voigt HJ, Beinder E, Caussen U (1994) Sonographische Erkennung von Hinweiszeichen für eine Chromosomenanomalie im 1. and 2. Trimenon. Ergebnisse einer prospektiven Studie. Geburtsh Frauenheilkd 54:460–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Wald NJ, Cuckle HS, Densem JW et al. (1988) Maternal serum screening for Down’s Syndrome in early pregnancy. Br Med J 297:883–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Wald NJ, Cuckle HS, Densem JW, Stone RB (1992) Maternal serum unconjugated oestriol and human chorionic gonadotrophin levels in pregnancies with insulin-dependent diabetes: implications for screening for Down’s syndrome. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 99:51–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Wapner RJ (1995) Genetic diagnosis in multiple pregnancies. Semin Perinatol 19:351–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Wapner RI, Johnson AG, Davis A, Urban A, Morgan P, Jackson L (1993) Prenatal diagnosis in twin gestations: a comparison between second trimester amniocentesis and first trimester chorion villus sampling. Obstet Gynecol 82:49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Ward RHT, Rodeck CH (1993) Letter to the editor: comparison of amniocentesis and transabdominal and transcervical chorionic villus sampling. Lancet 341:186–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Ward RHT, Modell B, Petrou M, Karagozlu F, Dourtsos E (1983) Method of sampling chorionic villi in first trimester of pregnancy under guidance of real time ultrasound. Br Med J 286:1542–1544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Wieacker P, Wilhelm C, Prömpeler H et al. (1992) Pathophysiology of polyhydramnios in twin transfusion syndrome. Fetal Diagn Ther 7:87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Wiedemann HR, Kunze J (1995) Atlas der klinischen Syndrome für Klinik and Praxis, 4. Aufl. Schattauer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  211. Wilson RD, Kendrick V, Wittmann BK, McGillivray BC (1984) Risk of spontaneous abortion in ultrasonically normal pregnancies. Lancet I:920–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Wilson RD, Kendrick V, Wittmann BK, McGillivray BC (1984) Letter to the editor: risk of spontaneous abortion in ultrasonically normal pregnancies. Lancet II:920–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Young SR, Shipley CF, Wade RV, Edwards JG, Waters M, Cantu ML, Best RG, Dennis EJ (1991) Single-center comparison of results of moo prenatal diagnoses with chorionic villus sampling and moo diagnoses with amniocentesis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 165:255–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Zerres K, Waldherr R (1990) Zystische Nierenerkrankungen - Klassifikation and neue Aspekte. Dtsch Ärztebl 87, Heft 43Google Scholar
  215. Zerres K, Völpel MC, Weiß H (1984) Cystic kidneys - genetic, pathologic anatomy, clinical picture and prenatal diagnosis. Hum Genet 68:104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Zerres K, Hansmann M, Krupple G, Stephan M (1985) Prenatal diagnosis of genetically determined early manifestation of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease. Hum Genet 71:368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Zerres K, Gembruch U, Schwanitz G, Rebel D, Bald R, Goltschlich A, Hansmann M (1990) Fetale Echokardiographie and klinische Genetik - Eine enge Wechselbeziehung. Z Kardiol 79:96–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Zienert A, Bollmann R, Chaoui R, Bartho S (1992) Die singuläre Umbilikalarterie - Konsequenzen dieser pränatalen Diagnose. Zentralbl Gynäkol 114:131–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Zosmer N, Bajoria R, Weiner E, Rigby M, Vaughan J, Fisk NM (1994) Clinical and echo-graphic features of in utero cardiac dysfunction in the recipient twin in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Br Heart J 72:74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gholamali Tariverdian
    • 1
  • Marion Paul
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Humangenetik der Universität Heidelberg Genetische PoliklinikHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Gemeinschaftspraxis Drs. med. M. Paul, M. Chwat, M. GastMannheimGermany

Personalised recommendations