Advertisement

Stoffwechselkrankheiten

  • Winfried Mohr
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Der Zusammenfassung von Pick [398] ist zu entnehmen, dass Gaucher [156] 1882 in seiner „Thèse de Paris“ das „Epithélioma primitif de la rate“ als idiopathische Milzhypertrophie ohne Leukämie beschrieb. Schlagenhaufer [453] erkannte 1907 das Leiden als „Systemerkrankung des lymphatisch-hämatopoetischen Apparates“, evtl. durch den „Tuberkelbacillus“ verursacht, und Marchand [298] begründete zeitgleich die Auffassung, dass es Folge der „Einlagerung einer fremdartigen Substanz“ ist. Das Fehlen eines Glukozerebrosid-abbauenden Enzyms [54] bzw. eine reduzierte Aktivität der Glukozerebrosidase [385] wurden später als Ursache ermittelt.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Abbott DF, Gresham GA (1972) Arthropathy in transfusional siderosis. Br Med J 1:418–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abney ER, Evans WH, Parkhouse ME (1976) Location of nucleotide pyrophosphatase and alkaline phosphodiesterase activities on the lymphocyte surface membrane. Biochem J 159:293–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abrams JJ, Grundy SM, Kane JP, Chang C-M (1979) Normocholesterolemic dysbetalipoproteinemia with xanthomatosis. Metabolism 28:113–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abul-Haj SK, Martz DG, Douglas WF, Geppert LJ (1962) Farber’s disease. Report of a case with observations on its histogenesis and notes on the nature of the stored material. J Pediatr 61:221–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Agudelo CA, Schumacher HR (1973) The synovitis of acute gouty arthritis. Hum Pathol 4:265–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aksoy M, Çamli N, Dilsen G et al. (1975) Osteoarticular pains and changes in Wilson’s disease. A radiological study in fourteen patients in nine Turkish families. Acta Hepato-Gastroenterol 22:164–170Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Albrecht H (1902) Ueber Ochronose. Z Heilkd 23:366–378Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Allard SA, King RHM, Thomas PK, Bourke BE (1991) Haemarthrosis due to fracture through amyloid deposits in bone in Portuguese familial amyloidosis. Ann Rheum Dis 50:820–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Amstutz HC, Carey EJ (1966) Skeletal manifestations and treatment of Gaucher’s disease. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 48:670–701Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Anderson HC (1969) Vesicles associated with calcification in the matrix of epiphyseal cartilage. J Cell Biol 41:59–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Anderson HC (1980) Calcification processes. Pathol Annu 15:45–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Anderson HC (1983) Calcific diseases. A concept. Arch Pathol Lab Med 107:341–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Anderson HC, McGregor DH, Tanimura A (1990) Mechanisms of calcification in atherosclerosis. In: Glagov S, Newman WP, Schaffer SA (eds) Pathobiology of the human atherosclerotic plaque. Springer, New York Berlin Heidelberg London Paris Tokyo Hongkong, pp 235–249Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Andres TL, Trainer TD (1980) Intervertebral chondrocalcinosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 104:269–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Angeles AP, Badger R, Gruber HE, Seegmiller JE (1989) Chondrocyte growth inhibition induced by homogentisic acid and its partial prevention with ascorbic acid. J Rheumatol 16:512–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Appelboom T, Ehrlich GE (1998) Historical note: the concept of gout in 1880. Arthritis Rheum 41:1511–1512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Archer RS, Bayley JIL, Archer CW, Ali SY (1993) Cell and matrix changes associated with pathological calcification of the human rotator cuff tendons. J Anat 182:1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Assenat H, Calemard E, Charra B, Laurent G, Terrat JC, Vanel T (1980) Hémodialyse. Syndrome du canal carpien et substance amyloide. Nouv Presse Med 9:1715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Athanasou NA, Caughey M, Burge P, Woods CG (1991) Deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in a soft tissue chondroma. Ann Rheum Dis 50:950–952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Athanasou NA, West L, Sallie B, Puddle B (1995) Localized amyloid deposition in cartilage is glycosaminoglycans-associated. Histopathology 26:267–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Axford JS, Bomford A, Revell P, Watt I, Williams R, Hamilton EBD (1991) Hip arthropathy in genetic hemochromatosis. Radiographic and histologic features. Arthritis Rheum 34:357–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Axford JS, Bomford AB, Revell P, Watt I, Hamilton EDB (1992) Grand rounds in rheumatology. Series editor: D. L. Scott. A case of haemochromatosis arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 31:547–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Baba H, Maezawa Y, Kawahara N, Tomita K, Furusawa N, Imura S (1993) Calcium crystal deposition in the ligamentum flavum of the cervical spine. Spine 18:2174–2181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Balazovich KJ, Boxer LA (1990) Extracellular adenosine nucleotides stimulate protein kinase C activity and human neutrophil activation. J Immunol 144:631–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Baldursson H, Evans EB, Dodge WF, Jackson WT (1969) Tumoral calcinosis with hyperphosphatemia. A report of a family with incidence in four siblings. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 51:913–925Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ballou SP, Khan MA, Kushner I (1976) Diffuse intervertebral disk calcification in primary amyloidosis. Ann Intern Med 85:616–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Balsa A, Martin-Mola E, Gonzalez T, Cruz A, Ojeda S, Gijon-Banos J (1990) Familial articular Chondrocalcinosis in Spain. Ann Rheum Dis 49:531–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Beck C (1901) Ueber Tendinitis und Tendovaginitis prolifera calcarea. Dtsch Z Chir 58:328–334Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Beck LH (1986) Requiem for gouty nephropathy. Kidney Int 30:280–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Beck M (1993) Lysosomale Speicherkrankheiten. Nosologie, Diagnostik, Therapieansätze. Dtsch Ärztebl 90: B-2113–2118 (A: 2835–2860)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Benanti JC, Gramling P, Bulat PI, Chen P, Lundstrom G (1986) Retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis: Report of five cases and review of the literature. J Emerg Med 4:15–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Beneke (1922) Über lokale Amyloidose des Herzens. Zbl Allg Pathol Anat 33:240–241 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Benhamou CL, Laoussadi S, Geslin N et al. (1985) Arthropathie microcristalline à oxalate de calcium au cours d’une oxalose primitive. Rev Rhum 52:267–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bennett RM, Lehr JR, McCarty DJ (1976) Crystal shedding and acute pseudogout. An hypothesis based on a therapeutic failure. Arthritis Rheum 19:93–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Benson MD, Uemichi T (1996) Transthyretin amyloidosis. Amyloid: Int J Exp Clin Invest 3:44–56Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bergemann, Stieda A (1908) Ueber die mit Kalkablagerung einhergehende Entzündung der Schulterschleimbeutel. Münch Med Wochenschr 55:2699–2702Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Berger RG, Levitin PM (1988) Febrile presentation of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease. J Rheumatol 15:642–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Beutler A, Schumacher HR (1994) Gout and’ pseudogout’. When are arthritic symptoms caused by crystal deposition? Postgrad Med 95:103–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Beutler A, Rothfuss S, Clayburne G, Sieck M, Schumacher HR (1993) Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition in synovium. Relationship to collagen fibers and Chondrometaplasia. Arthritis Rheum 36:704–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bhattacharyya AK, Connor WE (1974) β-Sitosterolemia and xanthomatosis. A newly described lipid storage disease in two sisters. J Clin Invest 53:1033–1043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bianchi L, Berneis K, Studer A (1972) Brown discoloration of cartilage in phenacetin abuse. Virchow Arch B Cell Pathol 10:339–343Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bierman SM, Edgington T, Newcomer VD, Pearson CM (1966) Farber’s disease: A disorder of mucopolysaccharide metabolism with articular, respiratory, and neurologic manifestations. Arthritis Rheum 9:620–630Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Björkhem I, Skrede S (1989) Familial diseases with storage of sterols other than cholesterol: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis and phytosterolemia. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D (eds) The metabolic basis of inherited disease, 6th ed. McGraw-Hill Information Services Company, New York St. Louis San Francisco Colorado Springs Auckland Bogotá Caracas Hamburg Lisbon London Madrid Mexico Milan Montreal New Delhi Panama Paris San Juan São Paulo Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto, pp 1283–1302Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Blackburn WD (1994) Validity of acute phase proteins as markers of disease activity. J Rheumatol (Suppl 42) 21:9–13Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bladen HA, Nylen MU, Glenner GG (1966) The ultrastructure of human amyloid as revealed by the negative staining technique. J Ultrastruct Res 14:449–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Blauth W, Kemlein W (1982) Erfahrungen mit der operativen Behandlung der sogenannten Tendinosis calcarea. Orthop Praxis 18:950–956Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Boat TF, Welsh MJ, Beaudet AL (1989) Cystic fibrosis. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D (eds) The metabolic basis of inherited disease, 6th ed. McGraw-Hill Information Services Company, New York St. Louis San Francisco Colorado Springs Auckland Bogotá Caracas Hamburg Lisbon London Madrid Mexico Milan Montreal New Delhi Panama Paris San Juan São Paulo Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto, pp 2649–2680Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Boedeker C (1861) Das Alkapton; ein Beitrag zur Frage: welche Stoffe des Harns können aus einer alkalischen Kupferoxydlösung Kupferoxydul reduciren? Ann Chem Pharmacol 117:98–106Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bona I, Vial C, Brunet P, Couturier JC, Girard-Madoux M, Bady B, Guibaud P (1994) Carpal tunnel syndrome in mucopolysaccharidoses. A report of four cases in child. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 34:471–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bonucci E (1967) Fine structure of early cartilage calcification. J Ultrastruct Res 20:33–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Boudin G, Pepin B, Hubault A, Goldstein B, Lidy C (1977) Les arthropathies de la maladie de Wilson. Ann Méd Interne 128:853–856Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bourke S, Rooney M, Fitzgerald M, Bresnihan B (1987) Episodic arthropathy in adult cystic fibrosis. Q J Med 64:651–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Brady RO (1978) Glucosyl ceramide lipidosis: Gaucher’s disease. In: Stanbury JB, Wyngaarden JB, Fredrickson DS (eds) The metabolic basis of inherited disease, 4th ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York St. Louis San Francisco Auckland Bogota Düsseldorf Johannesburg London Madrid Mexico Montreal New Delhi Panama Paris Säo Paulo Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto, pp 731–746Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Brady RO, Kanfer JN, Shapiro D (1965) Metabolism of glucocerebrosides. IL Evidence of an enzymatic deficiency in Gaucher’s disease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 18:221–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Brandes A, Müller K-M (1995) Kalzinosen des Meniskus. Morphologische und röntgenographische Befunde zur zonalen Gliederung. Pathologe 16:269–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Breathnach SM, Melrose SM, Bhogal B et al. (1981) Amyloid P component is located on elastic fibre microfibrils in normal human tissue. Nature 293:652–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Brik R, Mandel H, Aizin A, Goldscher D, Ziegler M, Bialik V, Berant M (1993) Mucolipoidosis III presenting as a rheumatological disorder. J Rheumatol 20:133–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Brill JM, McCarty DJ (1964) “Studies on the nature of gouty tophi“ by Max Freudweiler, 1899. Ann Intern Med 60:486–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Brogsitter AM (1926) Histopathologic der Gelenkgicht. Dtsch Arch Klin Med 153:257–326Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Brugsch T, Citron J (1908) Ueber die Absorption der Harnsäure durch Knorpel. Z Exp Pathol Therapie 5:402–405Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Buch H (1873) Ein Fall von multipler primärer Sarcomatose des Knochenmarkes, und eine eigenthümliche Affection der vier großen Gelenke. Med Diss, Friedrichs Universität Halle-Wittenberg. Buchdruckerei Lipke, HalleGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Buckingham RB, Bole GG, Bassett DR (1975) Polyarthritis associated with type IV hyperlipoproteinemia. Arch Intern Med 135:286–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Buddecke E (1985) Grundriß der Biochemie, 7. Aufl. de Gruyter, Berlin New York, S 143–144Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bullough PG (1992) Atlas of orthopedic pathology with clinical and radiologic correlations, 2nd ed. Gower Medical Publishing, New York LondonGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Burnett CH, Commons RR, Albright F, Howard JE (1949) Hypercalcemia without hypercalcuria or hypophosphatemia, calcinosis and renal insufficiency. A syndrome following prolonged intake of milk and alkali. N Engl J Med 240:787–794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Campion EW, Glynn RJ, DeLabry LO (1987) Asymptomatic hyperuricemia. Risks and consequences in the normative aging study. Am J Med 82:421–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Campistol JM, Bernard D, Papastoitsis G, Solé M, Kasirsky J, Skinner M (1996) Polymerization of normal and intact β2-microglobulin as the amyloidogenic protein in dialysis-amyloidosis. Kidney Int 50:1262–1267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cardenal A, Masuda I, Haas AL, McCarty DJ (1996) Specificity of a porcine 127-kd nucleotide pyrophosphohydrolase for articular tissues. Arthritis Rheum 39:245–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Cardenal A, Masuda I, Ono W, Haas AL, Ryan LM, Trotter D, McCarty DJ (1998) Serum nucleotide pyrophosphohydrolase activity; elevated levels in osteoarthritis, calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease, scleroderma, and fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 25:2175–2180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Cartwright GE, Edwards CQ, Kravitz K, Skolnick M, Amos DB, Johnson A, Buskjaer L (1979) Hereditary hemochromatosis. Phenotypic expression of the disease. N Engl J Med 301:175–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Cary NRB (1985) Clinicopathological importance of deposits of amyloid in the femoral head. J Clin Pathol 38:868–872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital (1991) Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 4–1991. An 18-year-old man with Morquio’s syndrome and a tumor of the right femur. N Engl J Med 324:251–259Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Caswell AM, Whyte MP, Russell RGG (1991) Hypophosphatasia and the extracellular metabolism of inorganic pyrophosphate: Clinical and laboratory aspects. Cleveland Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 28:175–232Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chaisson CE, McAlindon TE, Felson DT, Naimark A, Wilson PWF, Sawin CT (1996) Lack of association between thyroid status and Chondrocalcinosis or osteoarthritis: The Framingham osteoarthritis study. J Rheumatol 23:711–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Chang SJ, Ko YC, Wang TN, Chang FT, Cinkotai FF, Chen CJ (1997) High prevalence of gout and related risk factors in Taiwan’s Aborigines. J Rheumatol 24:1364–1369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Chapman PT, Yarwood H, Harrison AA et al. (1997) Endothelial activation in monosodium urate monohydrate crystal-induced inflammation. Arthritis Rheum 40: 955–965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Chary-Valckenaere I, Kessler M, Mainard D et al. (1998) Amyloid and non-amyloid carpal tunnel syndrome in patients receiving chronic renal dialysis. J Rheumatol 25:1164–1170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Chern CJ, MacDonald AB, Morris AJ (1969) Purification and properties of a nucleoside triphosphate pyrophos-phohydrolase from red cells of the rabbit. J Biol Chem 244:5489–5495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Chiari (1883) Ueber die sogenannte Fettnecrose. Prager Med Wochenschr 8:285–286 u. 299–300Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Claudepierre P, Rahmouni A, Bergamasco P, Montazel J-L, Larget-Piet B, Chevalier X (1997) Misleading clinical aspects of hydroxyapatite deposits: A series of 15 cases. J Rheumatol 24:531–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Cohen AS, Shirahama T (1973) Electron microscopic analysis of isolated amyloid fibrils from patients with primary, secondary and myeloma-associated disease. Isr J Med Sci 9:849–856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Collins DH (1937) The subcutaneous nodule of rheumatoid arthritis. J Pathol Bact 45:97–115Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Comfort TH, Arafiles RP (1978) Barbotage of the shoulder with image-intensified fluoroscopic control of needle placement for calcific tendinitis. Clin Orthop 135:171–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Constantin A, Marin F, Bon E, Fedele M, Lagarrigue B, Bouteiller G (1996) Calcification of the transverse ligament of the atlas in Chondrocalcinosis: computed tomography study. Ann Rheum Dis 55:137–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Cooper JA, Moran TJ (1957) Studies on ochronosis. I. Report of case with death from ochronotic nephrosis. AMA Arch Pathol 64:46–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Corrà T, Zaccala M, Galante M (1995) Ochronotic arthropathy: Rapid destructive hip osteoarthritis associated with metabolic disease. Clin Rheumatol 14:474–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Crouzet J, Beraneck L, Charpentier Yle, Abelanet R (1980) Fabry’s disease. Arthritis Rheum 23:784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Currie WJC (1979) Prevalence and incidence of the diagnosis of gout in Great Britain. Ann Rheum Dis 38:101–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Currie WJC, Turmer P (1979) The frequency of renal stones within Great Britain in a gouty and non-gouty population. Br J Urol 51:337–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Davidson A, Kalff V, Ryan PFJ (1985) Bone crisis of Gaucher’s disease due to bone ischemia: A case report. Arthritis Rheum 28:218–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Davis PB (1984) Cystic fibrosis in adults. In: Taussig LM (ed) Cystic fibrosis. Thieme-Stratton Inc, New York, pp 408–433Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Delbarre F, Kurc D (1977) Les arthropathies de l’ochronose. Ann Med Interne (Paris) 128:847–852Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    DeMarsh QB, Kautz J (1957) The submicroscopic morphology of Gaucher cells. Blood 12:324–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    DePierre JW, Karnovsky ML (1974) Ecto-enzymes of the Guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocyte. J Biol Chem 249:7111–7120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dhillon V, Woo P, Isenberg D (1989) Amyloidosis in the rheumatic diseases. Ann Rheum Dis 48:696–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Dickersin GR, Lott IT, Kolodny EH, Dvorak AM (1980) A light and electron microscopic study of mannosidosis. Hum Pathol 11:245–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Dieppe PA, Doherty M, Papadimitriou GM (1982) Inflammatory responses to intradermal crystals in healthy volunteers and patients with rheumatic diseases. Rheumatol Int 2:55–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Dihlmann W, Bandick (1988) Computertomographie der Schulterweichteile Teil 3: Periarthropathia calcificans humeroscapularis. Fortschr Röntgenstr 148:58–61Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Dihlmann W, Delling G (1987) Pyrophosphatose der Rotatorenmanschette. Aktuel Rheumatol 12:226–230Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Dixey J, Redington AN, Butler RC et al. (1988) The arthropathy of cystic fibrosis. Ann Rheum Dis 47:218–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Dixon HBF (1981) Nomenclature committee of IUB (NC-IUB) IUB-IUPAC joint commission on biochemical nomenclature (JCBN). Newsletter 1981. J Biol Chem 256:12–14Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Doherty M, Dieppe P (1986) Crystal deposition disease in the elderly. Clin Rheum Dis 12:97–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Doherty M, Watt I, Dieppe PA (1982) Localised chondro-calcinosis in post-meniscectomy knees. Lancet 1: 1207–1210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Doherty M, Hamilton E, Henderson J, Misra H, Dixey J (1991) Familial Chondrocalcinosis due to calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition in English families. Br J Rheumatol 30:10–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Duret MH (1899) Tumeurs multiples et singulières des bourses séreuses (Endothéliomes, peut-être d’origine parasitaire). Bull Mem Soc Anat Paris 74:725–731Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Duró JC (1998) Urate milk. J Rheumatol 25:2285–2286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Duston MA, Skinner M, Meenan RF, Cohen AS (1989) Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of abdominal fat aspiration for the diagnosis of amyloidosis. Arthritis Rheum 32:82–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Eade AWT, Swannell AJ, Williamson N (1981) Pyrophosphate arthropathy in hypophosphatasia. Ann Rheum Dis 40:164–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Eberle P (1983) Modelluntersuchungen zur ochronotischen Arthropathie. Med Diss, Universität UlmGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Eberle P, Mohr W, Claes L (1984) Biomechanische Untersuchungen zur Pathogenese der ochronotischen Arthropathie. Z Rheumatol 43:249–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Elferink JGR, Deierkauf M (1987) A biochemical study of hydroxyapatite crystal induced enzyme release from neutrophils. Ann Rheum Dis 46:590–597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ellis RWB, Sheldon W, Capon NB (1936) Gargoylism (chondro-osteo-dystrophy, corneal opacities, hepatosplenomegaly, and mental deficiency). Q J Med 5:119–135Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ellman MH, Vazquez T, Ferguson L, Mandel N (1978) Calcium pyrophosphate deposition in ligamentum flavum. Arthritis Rheum 21:611–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ellman MH, Vazquez LT, Brown NL, Mandel N (1981) Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition in lumbar disc fibrocartilage. J Rheumatol 8:955–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Emsley J, White HE, O’Hara BP et al. (1994) Structure of pentameric human serum amyloid P component. Nature 367:338–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Enzinger FM, Weiss SW (1995) Soft tissue tumors, 3rd ed. Mosby, St. Louis Baltimore Berlin Boston Carslbad Chicago London Madrid Naples New York Philadelphia Sydney Tokyo TorontoGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Eshel G, Gulik A, Halperin N, Avrahami E, Schumacher HR, McCarty DJ, Caspy D (1990) Hereditary chondrocalcinosis in an Ashkenazi Jewish family. Ann Rheum Dis 49:528–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Ettlinger RE, Hunder GG (1979) Synovial effusions containing cholesterol crystals. Report of 12 patients and review. Mayo Clin Proc 54:366–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Eustace SJ, Baker ND, Lan HHC, Dorfman D (1996) Hemochromatosis arthropathy. Radiol Clin North Am 34:441–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Fahey JJ, Stark HH, Donovan WF, Drennan DB (1973) Xanthoma of the Achilles tendon. J Bone Joint Surg 55 A:1197–1211Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Faires JS, McCarty DJ (1962) Acute arthritis in man and dog after intrasynovial injection of sodium urate crystals. Lancet 2:682–685Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Fam AG (1989) Subcutaneous cholesterol crystal deposition and tophus formation. Arthritis Rheum 32:1190–1191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Fam AG (1998) Reply. J Rheumatol 25:2286Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Fam AG, Assaad D (1997) Intradermal urate tophi. J Rheumatol 24:1126–1131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Fam AG, Rubenstein J (1989) Hydroxyapatite pseudopodagra. Arthritis Rheum 32:741–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Fam AG, Sugai M, Gertner E, Lewis  (1983) Cholesterol “tophus“. Arthritis Rheum 26:1525–1528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Fam AG, Schumacher HR, Clayburne G, Villanueva T, Baker D, Jimenez SA (1990) Effect of joint motion on experimental calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal induced arthritis. J Rheumatol 17:644–655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Fam AG, Reis MD, Szalai JP (1997) Acute gouty synovitis associated with „urate milk,,. J Rheumatol 24:2389–2393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Farber S, Cohen J, Uzman LL (1957) Lipogranulomatosis. A new lipo-glyco-protein „storage“ disease. J Mt Sinai Hosp 24:816–837Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Farebrother DA, Hatfield P, Simmonds HA, Cameron JS, Jones AS, Cadenhead A (1975) Experimental crystal nephropathy (one year study in the pig). Clin Nephrol 4:243–250Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Faure G, Daculsi G (1983) Calcified tendinitis: a review. Ann Rheum Dis (Suppl 1) 42:49–53Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Faure G, Daculsi G, Netter P, Gaucher A, Kerebel B (1982) Apatites in heterotopic calcifications. Scanning Electr Microsc 4:1629–1634Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Feder JN, Gnirke A, Thomas W et al. (1996) A novel MHC class I-like gene is mutated in patients with hereditary haemochromatosis. Nature Gen 13:399–488Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Feller ER, Schumacher HR (1972) Osteoarticular changes in Wilson’s disease. Arthritis Rheum 15:259–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Naimark A, Kannel W, Meenan RF (1989) The prevalence of Chondrocalcinosis in the elderly and its association with knee osteoarthritis: The Framingham study. J Rheumatol 16:1241–1245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Fenton P, Young S, Prutis K (1995) Gout of the Spine. Two case reports and a review of the literature. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 77:767–771Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Ferenczy A, Talens M, Zoghby M, Hussain SS (1977) Ultrastructural studies on the morphogenesis of psammoma bodies in ovarian serous neoplasia. Cancer 39:2451–2459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Fernandez Dapica MP, Gómez-Reino JJ (1986) Familial Chondrocalcinosis in the Spanish population. J Rheumatol 13:631–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Fernández-Alonso J, Rios-Camacho C, Valenzuela-Castano A, Rocha-Castilla JL (1993) Pseudotumoral amyloidosis of β2-microglobulin origin in the buttock of a patient receiving long term haemodialysis. J Clin Pathol 46:771–772PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Ferrari R, Wendelboe M, Ford PM, Corbett WEN, Anastassiades TP (1993) Pancreatitis arthritis with periarticular fat necrosis. J Rheumatol 20:1436–1437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Fiechtner JJ, Simkin PA (1981) Urate spherulites in gouty synovia. JAMA 245:1533–1536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Findlay GH, Morrison JGL, Simson IW (1975) Exogenous ochronosis and pigmented colloid milium from hydroquinone bleaching creams. Br J Dermatol 93:613–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Fisher RC, Horner RL, Wood VE (1974) The hand in mucopolysaccharide disorders. Clin Orthop 104:191–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Fitzcharles MA, Kirwan JR, Colvin BT, Currey HLF (1982) Sideroblastic anaemia with iron overload presenting as an arthropathy. Ann Rheum Dis 41:97–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    François S, Guaydier-Souquieres G, Marcelli C (1997) Acute sacroiliitis as a manifestation of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease. A report of two cases. Rev Rhum (Engl Ed) 64:508–512Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Freudweiler M (1899) Experimentelle Untersuchungen über das Wesen der Gichtknoten. Dtsch Arch Klin Med 63:266–335Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Fuchs U (1968) Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchung des Homogentisinsäure-Melanins bei Ochronose. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat 344:243–248Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Gabriel JKP (1996) Pseudozysten-Folge primärer und sekundärer ischämischer Hüftkopfnekrosen. Med Diss, Universität UlmGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Gaines JJ (1989) The pathology of alkaptonuric ochronosis. Hum Pathol 20:40–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Gais G (1999) Die Assoziation von Kalziumpyrophosphatkristallen mit der synovialen chondroiden Metaplasie. Med Diss, Universität UlmGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Garrod AB (1848) Observations on certain pathological conditions of the blood and urine in gout, rheumatism and Bright’s disease. Trans Med Chir Soc 31:83–97Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Garrod AB (1859) The nature and treatment of gout and rheumatic gout. Walton and Maberly, LondonGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Gärtner J, Heyer A (1995) Tendinosis calcarea der Schulter. Orthopäde 24:284–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Gärtner J, Simons B (1990) Analysis of calcific deposits in calcifying tendinitis. Clin Orthop 254:111–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Gaucher AA, Kessler ML, Netter PA (1992) Dialysis associated arthropathy. Can we prevent it?. Can it be treated? J Rheumatol 19:1659–1662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Gaucher E (1882) De l’épithélioma primitif de la rate. Thèse de Paris. 1882 (zitiert nach Pick [398])Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Gejyo F, Yamada T, Odani S et al. (1985) A new form of amyloid protein associated with chronic hemodialysis was identified as β2-microglobulin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 129:701–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Gerster JC, Lagier R (1989) Upper limb pyrophosphate tenosynovitis outside the carpal tunnel. Ann Rheum Dis 48:689–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Gerster JC, Lagier R, Bovin G (1982) Olecranon bursitis related to calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease. Clinical and pathologic study. Arthritis Rheum 25:989–996PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Ghormley RK, Manning GF, Power MH, McCrary WE (1942) Multiple calcified bursae and calcified cysts in the soft tissues. Trans West Surg Assoc 51:292–308Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Gibson JP, Roenigk WJ (1972) Pseudogout in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 161:912–915Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Gies U, Linke RP, Schachenmayr W (1996) Amyloid deposits of immunohistochemically different classes in the ligamentum flavum in biopsies from patients with herniated discs or lumbar spinal stenosis. Clin Neuropathol 15:54–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Glenner GG (1980) Amyloid deposits and amyloidosis. The β-fibrilloses. N Engl J Med 302:1283–1333 and 1333–1343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Glueck CJ, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS (1968) Acute tendinitis and arthritis. JAMA 206:2895–2897PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Goffin Y, De Doncker E (1980) Altérations histologique et histochimique de la capsule articulaire dans l’arthrose et chez les sujets séniles. Etude basée sur 57 prélèvements per-opératoires et 28 prélèvements d’autopsie. Rev Rhum 47:15–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Goldin DS, Stangler DA, Canoso JJ (1981) Rheumatoid subcutaneous bursitis. J Rheumatol 8:974–978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Golding DN, Walshe JM (1977) Arthropathy of Wilson’s disease. Study of clinical and radiological features in 32 patients. Ann Rheum Dis 36:99–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Goldman JA, Glueck CJ, Abrams NR, Steiner P, Herman JH (1972) Musculoskeletal disorders associated with type-IV hyperlipoproteinaemia. Lancet 2:449–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Gordon TP, Reid C, Rozenbilds MAM, Ahern M (1986) Crystal shedding in septic arthritis: case reports and in vivo evidence in an animal model. Aust NZ J Med 16:336–340Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Gottschalk R, Neeck G, Wigand R, Vogtherr B, Kaltwasser JP (1997) Die hämochromatotische Arthropathie—Eine frühe Manifestation genetischer Hämochromatose. Z Rheumatol 56:156–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Goupille P, Soutif D, Fouquet B, Amsallem G, Valat J-P (1991) Hydroxyapatite pseudopodagra. J Rheumatol 18:786–787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Gravanis MB, Gaffney EF (1983) Idiopathic calcifying tenosynovitis. Am J Surg Pathol 7:357–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Greenberg DC (1986) Pathological fracture of the patella secondary to gout. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 68:1286–1288Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Greiling H (1989) Purin-und Pyrimidinstoffwechsel. In: Greiling H, Gressner AM (Hrsg) Lehrbuch der klinischen Chemie und Pathobiochemie. Schattauer, Stuttgart New York, S 294–310Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Gresser U, Gathof B (1991) Epidemiology of hyperuricaemia. In: Gresser U, Zöllner N (eds) Urate deposition in man and its clinical consequences. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York London Paris Tokyo HongKong Barcelona Budapest, pp 82–96Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Grinlinton FM, Vuletic JC, Gow PJ (1990) Rapidly progressive calcific periarthritis occurring in a patient with lupus nephritis receiving chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J Rheumatol 17:1100–1103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Gröbner W (1990) Sekundäre Hyperurikämie und Gicht. In: Zöllner N (Hrsg) Hyperurikämie, Gicht und andere Störungen des Purinhaushalts, 2. Aufl. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, London, Paris, Tokyo, HongKong Barcelona, S 234–252Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Gross O, Allard E (1908) Experimenteller Beitrag zur Pathogenese der Ochronose. Arch Exp Pathol Pharm 59:384–387Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Grossman RE, Hensley GT (1967) Bone lesions in primary amyloidosis. Am J Roentgenol 101:872–875Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Groszek E, Abrams JJ, Grundy SM (1981) Normolipidemic plantar xanthomatosis associated with benign monoclonal gammopathy. Metabolism 30:927–935PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Grynpas MD, Cheng P-T, Pritzker KPH (1987) Dissolution of calcium pyrophosphate crystals by free radicals generated by neutron irradiation. J Rheumatol 14:1073–1074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Gschwend N, Patte D, Zippel J (1972) Die Therapie der Tendinitis calcarea des Schultergelenks. Arch Orthop Unfall-Chir 73:120–135Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Gschwend N, Scherer M, Löhr J (1981) Die Tendinitis calcarea des Schultergelenks (T. c). Orthopäde 10:196–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Gschwind C, Tonkin MA (1992) Carpal tunnel syndrome in children with mucopolysaccharidosis and related disorders. J Hand Surg 17 A:44–47Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Guder WG (1989) Niere und ableitende Harnwege. In: Greiling H, Gressner AM (Hrsg) Lehrbuch der klinischen Chemie und Pathobiochemie, 2. Aufl. Schattauer, Stuttgart New York, S 563–604Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Guravich JL (1959) Familial hypercholesteremic xanthomatosis: a preliminary report. Am J Med 26:8–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Haddad FS, Jones DHA, Vellodi A, Kane N, Pitt MC (1997) Carpal tunnel syndrome in the mucopolysaccharidoses and mucolipidoses. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 79:576–582Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Hall AP, Barry PE, Dawber TR, McNamara PM (1967) Epidemiology of gout and hyperuricemia. Am J Med 42:27–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Halla JT, Schumacher HR, Trotter ME (1985) Bursal fat necrosis as the presenting manifestation of pancreatic disease: Light and electron microscopic studies. J Rheumatol 12:359–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Halverson PB, Cheung HS, McCarty DJ, Garancis J, Mandel N (1981) “Milwaukee shoulder“-Association of microspheroids containing hydroxyapatite crystals, active collagenase, and neutral protease with rotator cuff defects. II. Synovial fluid studies. Arthritis Rheum 24:474–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Hamilton E, Williams R, Barlow KA, Smith PM (1968) The arthropathy of idiopathic haemochromatosis. Q J Med 37:171–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Hämmerle M, Müller W (1985) Cholesterinkristalle in der Synovialflüssigkeit. Aktuel Rheumatol 10:99–101Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Hansemann (1889) „Discussion,,. Berl Klin Wochenschr 26:1115Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Hansemann D (1892) Über Ochronose. Berl Klin Wochenschr 29:660–662Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Harcup C, Wing EJ, Schneider S, Pipher A (1983) Primary meningococcal arthritis and pseudogout in an elderly women. Arthritis Rheum 26:1409–1411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Harper HA, Löffler G, Petrides PE, Weiß L (1975) Physiologische Chemie. Eine Einführung in die medizinische Biochemie für Studierende der Medizin und Ärzte. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, S 121Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Hartmanno J (1678) Praxis Chymiatrica, oder Chymische Artzney-Übung. Johann Hofmanns, Nürnberg, S 452Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Haugen HF, Skrede S (1977) Nucleotide pyrophosphatase and phosphodiesterase. I. Organ distribution and activities in body fluids. Clin Chem 23:1531–1537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Hawkins PN (1994) Studies with radiolabeled serum amyloid P component provide evidence for turnover and regression of amyloid deposits in vivo. Clin Sci 87:289–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Hawkins PN (1997) Diagnosis and treatment of amyloidosis. Ann Rheum Dis 56:631–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Hawkins PN, Pepys MB (1995) Imaging amyloidosis with radiolabeled SAP. Eur J Nucl Med 22:595–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Hessling J, Holtkamp W (1996) Ein Patient mit multiplen intrapulmonalen Rundherden. Med Klin 91:570–573Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Hintner H, Stössl H, Höpfl R, Grubauer G, Fritsch P (1988) Amyloid K. Hautarzt 39:419–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    His W (1900) Schicksal und Wirkungen des sauren harnsauren Natrons in Bauch-und Gelenkhöhle des Kaninchens. Dtsch Arch Klin Med 67:81–108Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Hodge JC, Schneider R, Freiberger RH, Magid SK (1993) Calcific tendinitis in the proximal thigh. Arthritis Rheum 36:1476–1482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Hoffman GS, Schumacher HR, Paul H, Cherian V, Reed R, Ramsay AG, Franck WA (1982) Calcium oxalate micro-crystalline-associated arthritis in end-stage renal disease. Ann Intern Med 97:36–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 206a.
    Holman CB (1952) Roentgenologic manifestations of vitamin D intoxication. Radiology 59:805–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 207.
    Homma N, Gejyo F, Isemura M, Arakawa M (1989) Collagen-binding affinity of beta-2-microglobulin, a preprotein of hemodialysis-associated amyloidosis. Nephron 53:37–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 208.
    Horowitz MD, Abbey L, Sirota DK, Spiera H (1990) Intraarticular noninflammatory free urate suspension (urate milk) in 3 patients with painful joints. J Rheumatol 17:712–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 209.
    Howell DS, Martell-Pelletier J, Pelletier J-P, Morales S, Muniz O (1984) NTP pyrophosphohydrolase in human chondrocalcinotic and osteoarthritic cartilage. II. Further studies on histologic and subcellular distribution. Arthritis Rheum 27:193–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 210.
    Howie AD, Stack BHR (1979) Cystic fibrosis in adolescents and young adults. Scot Med J 24:193–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 211.
    Hueter C (1910) Ungewöhnliche Lokalisation der Amyloidsubstanz in einem Falle von multiplem Myelom. Ziegler Beitr Pathol Anat 49:101–126Google Scholar
  213. 212.
    Hurler G (1919) Über einen Typ multipler Abartungen, vorwiegend am Skelettsystem. Z Kinderheilkd 24: 220–234Google Scholar
  214. 213.
    Hurst NP, van den Berg R, Disney A, Alcock M, Albertyn L, Green M, Pascoe V (1989) ’Dialysis related arthropathy’: a survey of 95 patients receiving chronic haemodialysis with special reference to β2 microglobulin related amyloidosis. Ann Rheum Dis 48:409–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 214.
    Husby G, Araki S, Benditt EP et al. (1991) The 1990 guidelines for nomenclature and classification of amyloid and amyloidosis. In: Natvig JB, Førre Ø, Husby G et al. (eds) Amyloid and amyloidosis. 6. International symposium on amyloidosis-6, 1990, Oslo-. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 7–11Google Scholar
  216. 215.
    Inclan A, Leon P, Camejo MG (1943) Tumoral calcinosis. JAMA 121:490–495Google Scholar
  217. 216.
    Irak I, Reginato AJ (1998) Multiple crystal deposition disease due to monosodium urate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate (CPPD) crystals. J Rheumatol (Suppl 52) 25:871 (Abstr W87)Google Scholar
  218. 217.
    Ishida T, Dorfman HD, Bullough PG (1995) Tophaceous pseudogout (tumoral calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease). Hum Pathol 26:587–593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 218.
    Ishikawa H, Ueba Y, Isobe T, Hirohata K (1987) Interaction of polymorphonuclear leukocytes with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals deposited in chondrocalcinosis cartilage. Rheumatol Int 7:217–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 219.
    Jaccard Y-B, Gerster J-C, Calame L (1996) Mixed monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate crystal-induced arthropathy. A review of seventeen cases. Rev Rhum [Eng]Google Scholar
  221. 220.
    Jackson JK, Lauener R, Duronio V, Burt HM (1997) The involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in crystal induced human neutrophil activation. J Rheuamtol 24:341–348Google Scholar
  222. 221.
    Jacobs A (1977) Iron overload-clinical and pathologic aspects. Semin Hematol 14:89–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 222.
    Jarrett MP, Grayzel AI (1980) Simultaneous gout, pseudogout, and septic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 23:128–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 223.
    Jensen OA (1971) Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (Sanfilippo’s syndrome). Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand A 79:257–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 224.
    Jessee EF, Toone E, Owen DS, Ibry R (1980) Coexistent rheumatoid arthritis and chronic tophaceous gout. Arthritis Rheum 23:244–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 225.
    Johannessen JV, Sobrinho-Simöes M (1980) The origin and significance of thyroid psammoma bodies. Lab Invest 43:287–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 226.
    Johnston AW, Weller SDV, Warland BJ (1968) Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Arch Dis Child 43:73–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 227.
    Jones AC, Chuck AJ, Arie EA, Green DJ, Doherty M (1992) Diseases associated with calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease. Semin Arthritis Rheum 22:188–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 228.
    Jozsa L (1971) The submicroscopic structure of connective tissue in a case of Hunter’s syndrome. I. Polarisation microscopic examinations. Acta Morphol Acad Sci Hung 19:301–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 229.
    Józsa L, Réffy A, Bálint BJ, Demel Z (1981) Involvement of tendons in inherited diseases. Acta Paediatr Acad Sci Hung 22:293–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 230.
    Kaklamanis P, Spengos M (1973) Osteoarticular changes and synovial biopsy findings in Wilson’s disease. Ann Rheum Dis 32:422–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 231.
    Kalkoff F (1885) Das Wort „Gicht“. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 11:14–15Google Scholar
  233. 232.
    Kandel RA, Renlund RC, Cheng P-T, Rapley WA, Mehren KG, Pritzker KPH (1983) Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease with concurrent vertebral hyperostosis in a Barbary ape. Arthritis Rheum 26:682–687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 233.
    Kandel RA, Cheng P-T, Pritzker KPH (1986) Localized apatite synovitis of the wrist. J Rheumatol 13:667–669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 234.
    Kanterewicz E, Sanmarti R, Mellado JA, Euras JM, Brugués J (1995) Pseudogout masking brucellar arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 34:294–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 235.
    Kattermann R (1989) Lipid-und Lipoproteinstoffwechsel. In: Greiling H, Gressner AM (Hrsg) Lehrbuch der klinischen Chemie und Pathobiochemie. Schattauer, Stuttgart New York, S 223–265Google Scholar
  237. 236.
    Katz WA (1975) Deposition of urate crystals in gout. Arthritis Rheum 18:751–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 237.
    Kawano N, Yoshida S, Ohwada T, Yada K, Sasaki K, Matsuno T (1980) Cervical radiculomyelopathy caused by deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in the ligamenta flava. Case report. J Neurosurg 52:279–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 238.
    Kernodle GW, Allen NB (1986) Acute gout presenting in the manubriosternal joint. Arthritis Rheum 29:570–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 239.
    Key JA (1949) Calcium deposits in the vicinity of the shoulder and of other joints. Ann Surg 129:737–753Google Scholar
  241. 240.
    Khan AM, Walker F (1984) Age related detection of tissue amyloid P in the skin. J Pathol 143:183–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 241.
    Kim KM, Huang S-N (1971) Ultrastructural study of calcification of human aortic valve. Lab Invest 25:357–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 242.
    Kim KM, Trump BF (1975) Amorphous calcium precipitations in human aortic valve. Calcif Tissue Res 18:155–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 243.
    Kim KM, Valigorsky JM, Mergner WJ, Jones RT, Pendergrass RF, Trump BF (1976) Aging changes in the human aortic valve in relation to dystrophic calcification. Hum Pathol 7:47–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 244.
    Kionka H (1900) Entstehung und Wesen der „Vogelgicht“ und ihre Beziehung zur Arthritis urica des Menschen. Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 44:186–206Google Scholar
  246. 245.
    Kirkpatrick CJ, Mohr W (1987) In-vitro-Untersuchungen an Chondrozytenkulturen zur Pathogenese der ochronotischen Arthropathie. In: Dettmer N, Lindner J (Hrsg) Zell-und Gewebskulturmodelle in der Pathobiochemie der Bindegewebserkrankungen. PCS-Verlag, Basel, S 91–104Google Scholar
  247. 246.
    Kirkpatrick CJ, Mohr W, Haferkamp O (1981) The effect of soluble sodium urate on the proliferation and proteoglycan synthesis of lapine articular chondrocytes in monolayer culture. Rheumatol Int 1:131–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 247.
    Klemp P, Stansfield SA, Castle B, Robertson MC (1997) Gout is on the increase in New Zealand. Ann Rheum Dis 56:22–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 248.
    Kohn NN, Hughes RE, McCarty DJ, Faires JS (1962) The significance of calcium phosphate crystals in the synovial fluid of arthritic patients: The “pseudogout syndrome“. II. Identification of crystals. Ann Intern Med 56:738–745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 249.
    Kresse H, Cantz M, Figura K von, Glössl J, Paschke E (1981) The mucopolysaccharidoses: Biochemistry and clinical symptoms. Klin Wochenschr 59:867–876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 250.
    Krishnan J, Chu W-S, Elrod JP, Frizzera G (1993) Tumoral presentation of amyloidosis (amyloidomas) in soft tissues. A report of 14 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 100:135–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 251.
    Kižek V (1971) Urolithiasis and prostatolithiasis in alcaptonuria with ochronosis. Int Urol Nephrol 3:245–250Google Scholar
  253. 252.
    Krüger-Franke M, Weiss M, Rosemeyer B, Gokel JM (1992) Die tumorförmige Kalzinose des Sitzbeins. Z Orthop 130:524–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 253.
    Kurihara K, Mizuseki K, Saiki T, Wakisaka H, Maruyama S, Sonobe J (1997) Tophaceous pseudogout of the temporomandibular joint: Report of a case. Pathol Int 47:578–580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 254.
    Kuzma BB, Goodman JM, Renkens KL (1997) Cervical myelopathy secondary to calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition in the alar ligament. Surg Neurol 47:498–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 255.
    Kyle RA, Gertz MA (1990) Systemic amyloidosis. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 19:49–87Google Scholar
  257. 256.
    La du BN (1995) Alkaptonuria. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D (eds) The metabolic and molecular bases of inherited disease, 7th ed, vol I. McGraw-Hill, New York St. Louis San Francisco Auckland Bogotá Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi San Juan Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto, pp 1371–1386Google Scholar
  258. 257.
    Laborde JM, Green DL, Askari AD, Muir A (1977) Arthritis in hemochromatosis. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 59:1103–1107Google Scholar
  259. 258.
    Ladefoged C, Christensen HE (1980) Congophilic substance with green dichroism in hip joints in autopsy material. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand Section A 88:55–58Google Scholar
  260. 259.
    Ladefoged C, Fedders O, Petersen OF (1986) Amyloid in intervertebral discs: a histopathological investigation of surgical material from 100 consecutive operations on herniated discs. Ann Rheum Dis 45:239–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 260.
    Lafferty FW, Reynolds ES, Pearson OH (1965) Tumoral calcinosis. A metabolic disease of obscure etiology. Am J Med 38:105–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 261.
    Lagier R (1980) The concept of osteoarthrotic remodelling as illustrated by ochronotic arthropathy of the hip. Virchow Arch A Pathol Anat Histol 385:293–308Google Scholar
  263. 262.
    Lagier R, Sit’aj S (1974) Vertebral changes in ochronosis. Ann Rheum Dis 33:86–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 263.
    Lagier R, Baud C-A, Lacotte D, Cunningham T (1988) Rapidly progressive osteoarthrosis of ochronotic origin. Am J Clin Pathol 90:95–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 264.
    Landis WJ (1986) A study of calcification in the leg tendons from the domestic turkey. J Ultrastruct Mol Struct Res 94:217–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 265.
    Landois F (1908) Zur Kenntnis der Ochronose. Virchows Arch 193:275–290Google Scholar
  267. 266.
    Lang FJ (1937) Gelenkgicht (Arthritis urica). In: Henke F, Lubarsch O (Hrsg) Handbuch der speziellen pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie, 9 Teil 3. Springer, Berlin, S 309–341Google Scholar
  268. 267.
    Lanting PJH, van Baarlen J, Festen JJM, van de Laar MAFJ (1995) Tophus-like cholesterol nodules in 2 patients with rheumatoid disease. J Rheumatol 22:338–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 268.
    Laoussadi S, Kahan A, Delbarre F, Aubouy G (1978) Le rhumatisme des thésaurismoses à lipides. Atteinte articulaire au cours de la carence en glucocérébrosidase (maladie de Gaucher). Étude ultrastructurale de la synoviale. C R Acad Sci Paris 286:1641–1644Google Scholar
  270. 269.
    Laskar FH, Sargison KD (1970) Ochronotic arthropathy. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 52:653–666Google Scholar
  271. 270.
    Lawrence JM, Moore TL, Madson KL, Rejent AJ, Osborn TG (1993) Arthropathies of cystic fibrosis: Case reports and review of the literature. J Rheumatol (Suppl 38) 20:12–15Google Scholar
  272. 271.
    Lawrence RC, Hochberg MC, Kelsey JL, McDuffie FC, Medsger TA, Felts WR, Shulman LE (1989) Estimates of the prevalence of selected arthritic and musculoskeletal diseases in the United States. J Rheumatol 16:427–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 272.
    Lazarevic MB, Skosey JL, Vitic J, Mladenovic V, Myones BL, Popovic J, Swedler WI (1993) Cholesterol crystals in synovial and bursal fluid. Semin Arthritis Rheum 23:99–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 273.
    Lesch M, Nyhan WL (1964) A familial disorder of uric acid metabolism and central nervous system function. Am J Med 36:561–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 274.
    Letterer E (1959) Allgemeine Pathologic Grundlagen und Probleme. Thieme, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  276. 275.
    Levo Y, Shalev O, Rosenmann E, Eliakim M (1980) Gout and amyloidosis. Ann Rheum Dis 39:589–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 276.
    Lichtenstein L, Kaplan L (1954) Hereditary ochronosis. Pathologic changes observed in two necropsied cases. Am J Pathol 30:99–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 277.
    Likhatscheff A (1896) Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Folgen der Ureterunterbindung bei Hühnern mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der nachfolgenden Uratablagerungen. Zieglers Beitr Pathol Anat 20:102–154Google Scholar
  279. 278.
    Lindsay S, Reilly WA, Gotham TJ, Skahen R (1948) Gargoylism. II. Study of pathologic lesions and clinical review of twelve cases. Am J Dis Child 76:239–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 279.
    Linke RP, Altland K, Ernst J, Gerhard L, Michels H, Saeger W, Willig F (1998) Praktische Hinweise zur Diagnose und Therapie generalisierter Amyloidosen. Dtsch Ärtzebl 95 A: A2626–2636Google Scholar
  281. 280.
    Linker A, Carney HC (1987) Presence and role of glycos-aminoglycans in amyloidosis. Lab Invest 57:297–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 281.
    Lipper S, Kahn LB (1978) Amyloid tumor. A clinicopathologic study of four cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2:141–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 282.
    LiVolsi VA (1977) Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with psammoma bodies. Obstet Gynecol 50:725–728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 283.
    Loeb JN (1972) The influence of temperature on the solubility of monosodium urate. Arthritis Rheum 15:189–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 284.
    Loeper M, Mahoudeau D, Tonnet J (1934) La réalité du rhumatisme oxalique (2). Bull Mém Soc Méd Hôp (Paris) 50:749–751Google Scholar
  286. 285.
    López Redondo MJ, Requena L, Macía M, Schoendorff C, Sanchez Yus E, Robledo A (1993) Fingertip tophi without gouty arthritis. Dermatology 187:140–143Google Scholar
  287. 286.
    Lorenzo JP, Csuka ME, Derfus BA, Gotoff RA, McCarthy GM (1997) Concurrent gout and mycobacterium tuberculosis arthritis. J Rheumatol 24:184–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 287.
    Lotz M, Rosen F, McCabe G et al. (1995) Interleukin l β suppresses transforming growth factor-induced inorganic pyrophosphate (Ppi) production and expression of the Ppi-generating enzyme PC-1 in human chondrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:10364–10368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 288.
    Ludwig GD, Toole JF, Wood JC (1963) Ochronosis from quinacrine (atabrine). Ann Intern Med 59:378–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 289.
    Luschka H (1856) Die Altersveränderungen der Zwischenwirbelknorpel. Arch Path Anat Virchows Arch 9:311–327Google Scholar
  291. 290.
    Lussier A, de Médicis R, Magny P, Beaudet F (1993) Acute apatite podagra with negative birefringent spherulites in the synovial fluid. Arthritis Rheum (Suppl) 36: R38 (Abstr 36)Google Scholar
  292. 291.
    Lussier-Cacan S, Cantin M, Roy CC, Sniderman AD, Nestruck AC, Davignon J (1986) Tendon xanthomas associated with cholestanolosis and hyperapobetalipoproteinemia. Clin Invest Med 9:94–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 292.
    Lyles KW, Burkes EJ, Ellis GJ, Lucas KJ, Dolan EA, Drezner MK (1985) Genetic transmission of tumoral calcinosis: Autosomal dominant with variable clinical expressivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metabolism 60:1093–1096Google Scholar
  294. 292a.
    Maas O (1898) Über die Pigmentierungen der Leber, besonders über die Hämochromatose. Med Diss, Universität Strassburg, Goeller C u J, StrassburgGoogle Scholar
  295. 293.
    MacDougal B, Weeks PM, Wray RC (1977) Median nerve compression and trigger finger in the mucopolysaccharidoses and related diseases. Plast Reconstr Surg 59: 260–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 294.
    Magnus-Levy A (1931) Bence-Jones-Eiweiß und Amyloid. Z Klin Med 116:510–531Google Scholar
  297. 295.
    Mahoney PG, James PD, Howell CJ, Swannell AJ (1981) Spontaneous rupture of the Achilles tendon in a patient with gout. Ann Rheum Dis 40:416–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 296.
    Malawista SE, Duff GW, Atkins E, Cheung HS, McCarty DJ (1985) Crystal-induced endogenous pyrogen production. A further look at gouty inflammation. Arthritis Rheum 28:1039–1046PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 297.
    Mandel GS, Halverson PB, Rathburn M, Mandel NS (1990) Calcium pyrophosphate crystal depostion: A kinetic study using a type I collagen gel model. Scanning Microscopy 4:175–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 298.
    Marchand (1907) Ueber sog. idiopathische Splenomegalie (Typus Gaucher). Münch Med Wochenschr 54:1102–1103Google Scholar
  301. 299.
    Marcolongo R, Calabria AA, Lalumera M, Gerli R, Alessandrini C, Cavallo G (1988) The „switch-off mechanism of spontaneous resolution of acute gout attack. J Rheumatol 15:101–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 300.
    Marguery MC, Giordano F, Parant M et al. (1993) Fabry’s disease: Heterozygous form of different expression in two monozygous twin sisters. Dermatology 187:9–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 301.
    Martin JJ, Leroy JG, Farriaux JP, Fontaine G, Desnick RJ, Cabello A (1975) I-Cell disease (mucolipidosis II). A report on its pathology. Acta Neuropathol 33:285–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 302.
    Martinez-Cordero E, Barreira-Mercado E, Katona G (1986) Eye tophi deposition in gout. J Rheumatol 13:471–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 303.
    Marx JL (1989) The cystic fibrosis gene is found. Science 245:923–925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 304.
    Masuda I, Hamada J-I, Haas AL, Ryan LM, McCarty DJ (1995) A unique ectonucleotide pyrophosphohydrolase associated with porcine chondrocyte-derived vesicles. J Clin Invest 95:699–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 305.
    Masuda I, Cardenal A, Ono W, Hamada J-I, Haas AL, McCarty DJ (1997) Nucleotide pyrophosphohydrolase in human synovial fluid. J Rheumatol 24:1588–1594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 306.
    Mathews JL, Williams HJ (1987) Arthritis in hereditary hemochromatosis. Arthritis Rheum 30:1137–1141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 307.
    Mathon G, Gagné C, Brun D, Lupien P-J, Moorjani S (1985) Articular manifestations of familial hypercholesterolaemia. Ann Rheum Dis 44:599–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 308.
    Maugara Y, Péru L, Berthelot JM, Prost A, Daculsi G (1993) Witlockite and tricalcium phosphate in 2 periarticular calcifications of the shoulder. Arthritis Rheum (Suppl) 36: S160 (Abstr B113)Google Scholar
  311. 309.
    McCarroll HR (1957) Some clinical observations in problems of soft tissue calcification. Arch Surg 74:578–588Google Scholar
  312. 310.
    McCarthy GM, Mitchell PG, Cheung HS (1991) The mitogenic reponse to stimulation with basic calcium phosphate crystals is accompanied by induction and secretion of collagenase in human fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum 34:1021–1030PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 311.
    McCarthy GM, Carrera GF, Ryan LM (1993) Acute calcific periarthritis of the finger joints: A syndrome of women. J Rheumatol 20:1077–1080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 312.
    McCarty DJ (1970) A historical note: Leeuwenhoek’s description of crystals from a gouty tophus. Arthritis Rheum 13:414–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 313.
    McCarty DJ (1976) Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease-1975. Arthritis Rheum 19: 275–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 314.
    McCarty DJ (1990) Milwaukee shoulder syndrome. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 102:271–284Google Scholar
  317. 315.
    McCarty DJ (1994) Gout without hyperuricemia. JAMA 271:302–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 316.
    McCarty DJ, Gatter RA (1966) Recurrent acute inflammation associated with focal apatite crystal deposition. Arthritis Rheum 9:804–819PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 317.
    McCarty DJ, Kohn NN, Faires JS (1962) The significance of calcium phosphate crystals in the synovial fluid of arthritic patients: the “pseudogout syndrome“. I. Clinical aspects. Ann Intern Med 56:711–737Google Scholar
  320. 318.
    McCarty DJ, Phelps P, Pyenson J (1966) Crystal induced inflammation in canine joints. I. An experimental model with quantification of the host response. J Exp Med 124:99–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 319.
    McCarty DJ, Halverson PB, Carrera GF, Brewer BJ, Kozin F (1981) „Milwaukee shoulder“-Association of microspheroids containing hydroxyapatite crystals, active collagenase, and neutral protease with rotator cuff defects. I. Clinical aspects. Arthritis Rheum 24:464–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. 320.
    McClatchie S, Bremner AD (1969) Tumoral calcinosis-an unrecognized disease. Br Med J 1:153–155 320a. McKusick VA (1994) Alkaptonuria: Tracked down to chromosome 3. Genomics 19:3–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 321.
    McDonald SP, Coates PTH, Disney APS (1998) Amyloid, advanced glycation end products, and dialysis related arthropathy. Ann Rheum Dis 57:193–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 322.
    McGill NW, Dieppe PA (1991) Evidence for a promoter of urate crystal formation in gouty synovial fluid. Ann Rheum Dis 50:558–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 323.
    McGill NW, Dieppe PA (1991) The role of serum and synovial fluid components in the promotion of urate crystal formation. J Rheumatol 18:1042–1045PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 324.
    McGregor DH, Mowry M, Cherian R, McAnaw M, Poole E (1995) Nonfamilial tumoral calcinosis associated with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism: Report of two cases with clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic findings. Hum Pathol 26:607–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 325.
    McKee PM (1989) Pathology of the skin with clinical correlations. Gower Medical Publishing, London (pp 7.2-7.3)Google Scholar
  328. 326.
    McKusick VA (1972) Heritable disorders of connective tissue, 4th ed. Mosby Comp, Saint LouisGoogle Scholar
  329. 327.
    McLaren CE, Gordeuk VR, Looker AC et al. (1995) Prevalence of heterozygotes for hemochromatosis in the white population of the United States. Blood 86:2021–2027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 328.
    McLaurin AW, Beisel WR, McCormick GJ, Scalettar R, Herman RH (1961) Primary hyperoxaluria. Ann Intern Med 55:70–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 329.
    Melamed S, Chester W (1938) Osseous form of Gaucher’s disease. Report of a case. Arch Intern Med 61:798–807Google Scholar
  332. 330.
    Meltzer CC, Fishman EK, Scott WW (1992) Tumoral calcinosis causing bone erosion in a renal dialysis patient. Clin Imaging 16:49–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 331.
    Menerey KA, Eider W, Brewer GJ, Braunstein EM, Schumacher HR, Fox IH (1988) The arthropathy of Wilson’s disease: Clinical and pathologic features. J Rheumatol 15:331–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 33la.
    Merkel PA (1999) Rheumatic disease and cystic fibrosis. Arthritis Rheum 41:1563–1571Google Scholar
  335. 332.
    Meyers OL, Watermeyer GS (1976) Cholesterol-rich synovial effusions. S Afr Med J 50:973–975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 333.
    Mihatsch MJ, Riede UN, Bianchi L (1973) Ultrastrukturelle Veränderung des Knorpels im Falle der Phenacetin-Pseudo-Ochronose und der Alkaptonurie. Virchows Arch Abt B Zellpathol 14:307–312Google Scholar
  337. 334.
    Mikkelsen WM, Dodge HJ, Valkenburg H (1965) The distribution of serum uric acid values in a population unselected as to gout or hyperuricemia. Tecumseh, Michigan 1959–1960. Am J Med 39:242–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. 335.
    Milazzo SC (1978) Chondrocalcinosis and other crystal induced arthropathies. Aust NZ J Med (Suppl 1) 8:152–154Google Scholar
  339. 336.
    Milch RA (1962) Biochemical studies on the pathogenesis of collagen tissue changes in alcaptonuria. Clin Orthop 24:213–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. 337.
    Milch RA, Murray RA (1961) Studies of alcaptonuria: Adsorption of homogentisic acid solutions on collagen chromatographic columns. Arthritis Rheum 4:268–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 338.
    Milch RA, Murray RA (1961) Studies of alcaptonuria: binding of homogentisic acid solutions to hide powder collagen. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 106:68–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. 338a.
    Mills PR, Rooney PJ, Watkinson G, MacSween RNM (1979) Hypercholesterolaemic arthropathy in primary biliary cirrhosis. Ann Rheum Dis 38:179–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 339.
    Miner ME, Schimke RN (1975) Carpal tunnel syndrome in pediatric mucopolysaccharidoses. J Neurosurg 43: 102–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 340.
    Mitra D, Stamp TC, James DW, Bhalla AK (1993) The arthropathy of vitamin D resistant rickets. Arthritis Rheum (Suppl) 36:S160 (Abstr B111)Google Scholar
  345. 341.
    Mitrovic DR, Stankovic A, Iriarte-Borda O, Uzan M, Quintero M, Miravet L, Kuntz D (1988) The prevalence of chondrocalcinosis in the human knee joint. An autopsy survey. J Rheumatol 15:633–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 342.
    Miyata T, Inagi R, Iida Y et al. (1994) Involvement of β2-microglobulin modified with advanced glycation end products in the pathogenesis of hemodialysis-associated amyloidosis. J Clin Invest 93:521–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 343.
    Mohr W (1976) Amyloid deposits in the periarticular tissue. Z Rheumatol 35:412–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. 344.
    Mohr W (1984) Arthropathien. In Doerr W, Scifert G (Hrsg.) Spezielle pathologische Anatomie, 18/I. Pathologie der Gelenke und Weichteiltumoren I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, S 373–547Google Scholar
  349. 345.
    Mohr W (1984) Gelenkkrankheiten. Diagnostik und Pathogenese makroskopischer und histologischer Strukturveränderungen. Thieme, Stuttgart New YorkGoogle Scholar
  350. 346.
    Mohr W (1987) Pathologie des Bandapparates. Sehnen, Sehnenscheiden, Faszien, Schleimbeutel. In: Doerr W, Scifert G (eds) Spezielle pathologische Anatomie, Band 19. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  351. 347.
    Mohr W (1991) Urate depositions in tissues. In: Gresser U, Zöllner N (eds.) Urate depositions in man and its clinical consequences. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Paris Tokyo Hongkong Barcelona Budapest, S 24–47Google Scholar
  352. 348.
    Mohr W (1991) Kalziumpyrophosphat-Dihydrat-Ablagerungen im Knorpel von Femurköpfen nach Schenkelhalsfraktur. Aktuel Rheumatol 16:210–213Google Scholar
  353. 349.
    Mohr W (1996) Kalzifizierte Tendopathie. In: Springorum H-W, Katthagen B-D (Hrsg.) Aktuelle Schwerpunkte der Orthopädie: Fortbildungskurse der DGOT, Band 6. Thieme, Stuttgart New York, S 39–47Google Scholar
  354. 350.
    Mohr W (1997) Gelenke, Sehnen und Sehnengleitgewebe, Bursen, Faszien. In: Remmele W (Hrsg) Pathologie 5, 2. Aufl. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Barcelona Budapest Hongkong London Mailand Paris Santa Clara Singapur Tokio, S 383–482Google Scholar
  355. 351.
    Mohr W, Bilger S (1990) Morphologische Grundstrukturen der kalzifizierten Tendopathie und ihre Bedeutung für die Pathogenese. Z Rheumatol 49:346–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. 352.
    Mohr W, Galle J (1979) Plasmozytom mit periartikulären Amyloidtumoren. Aktuel Rheumatol 4:39–42Google Scholar
  357. 353.
    Mohr W, Harland U (1992) Pathologische Befunde an der Rotatorenmanschette und Interpretation histopathologischer Veränderungen am Sehnengewebe. Aktuel Rheumatol 17:67–73Google Scholar
  358. 354.
    Mohr W, Kirkpatrick CJ (1983) Articular amyloid. J Rheumatol 10:335–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 355.
    Mohr W, Meiners A (1988) Kongophile („Amyloid“-)Ablagerungen in der Bursa tendinis calcanei. Z Rheumatol 47:333–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 356.
    Mohr W, Paulini K, Beneke G, Scomazzoni G (1974) Resorption von Amyloid. Untersuchungen am implantierten Amyloid. Pathol Microbiol 41:240–252Google Scholar
  361. 357.
    Mohr W, Hersener J, Wilke W, Weinland G, Beneke G (1974) Pseudogicht (Chondrokalzinose). Z Rheumatol 33:107–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. 358.
    Mohr W, Oehler K, Hersener J, Wilke W (1979) Chondrocalcinose der Zwischenwirbelscheiben. Z Rheumatol 38:11–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 359.
    Mohr W, Wessinghage D, Lenschow E (1980) Die Ultrastruktur von hyalinem Knorpel und Gelenkkapselgewebe bei der alkaptonurischen Ochronose. Z Rheumatol 39:55–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. 360.
    Mohr W, Hersener J, Richter R, Buchner F (1990) Fadengranulome mit Kalziumpyrophosphat-Ablagerungen. Z Orthop 128:134–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. 361.
    Mohr W, Hersener J, Baltisser I, Stöberl F (1991) Primärer Kalziumpyrophosphat-Dihydrat-Tophus oder lokalisierte pigmentierte noduläre Synovialitis mit sekundären Kalziumpyrophosphat-Dihydrat-Ablagerungen? Aktuel Rheumatol 16:52–57Google Scholar
  366. 362.
    Mohr W, Kuhn C, Linke RP, Wessinghage D (1991) Deposition of amyloid of unknown origin in articular cartilage. Virchows Arch B [Cell Pathol] 60:259–262Google Scholar
  367. 363.
    Moser CR, Fessel WJ (1974) Rheumatic manifestations of hypophosphatemia. Arch Intern Med 134:674–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. 364.
    Moser HW (1995) Ceramidase deficiency: Farber lipogranulomatosis. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D (eds) The metabolic and molecular bases of inherited disease, 7th ed, vol II. McGraw-Hill, New York St. Louis San Francisco Auckland Bogotá Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi San Juan Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto, pp 2589–2599Google Scholar
  369. 365.
    Moyer RA, Bush DC, Harrington TM (1989) Acute calcific tendinitis of the hand and wrist: A report of 12 cases and a review of the literature. J Rheumatol 16:198–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. 366.
    Mullin GT, Caperton EM, Crespin SR, Williams RC (1968) Arthritis and skin lesions resembling erythema nodosum in pancreatic disease. Ann Intern Med 68:75–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. 367.
    Muñoz-Gómez J, Gómez-Pérez R, Solé-Arques M, Llopart-Buisán E (1987) Synovial fluid examination for the diagnosis of synovial amyloidosis in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing haemodialysis. Ann Rheum Dis 46:324–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. 368.
    Murakami T, Tachibana S, Endo Y, Kawai R, Hara M, Tanase S, Ando M (1994) Familial carpal tunnel syndrome due to amyloidogenic transthyretin His 114 variant. Neurology 44:315–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. 369.
    Murphy P, Masterson E, O’Meara A, Fogarty E (1995) Hip dysplasia in Hurler’s syndrome: Orthopaedic management following bone marrow transplantation. J Bone Joint Surg (Suppl III) 77B: 338 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  374. 370.
    Naunyn B (1865) Ueber die Chemie der Transsudate und des Eiters. Arch Anat Physiol Wiss Med 32:166–190Google Scholar
  375. 371.
    Norman-Taylor F, Fixsen JA, Sharrard WJW (1995) Hunter’s Syndrome as a cause of childhood carpal tunnel syndrome: A report of three cases. J Pediatr Orthop B 4:106–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. 372.
    Norris JS, Hope DT (1995) Cervical myelopathy caused by pseudogout. Br J Neurosurg 6:103–105Google Scholar
  377. 373.
    O’Brien WM, La du BN, Bunim JJ (1963) Biochemical, pathologic and clinical aspects of alcaptonuria, ochronosis and ochronotic arthropathy. Am J Med 34:813–838Google Scholar
  378. 374.
    Oda H, Sasaki Y, Nakatani Y, Maesaka H, Suwa S (1988) Hunter’s syndrome. An ultrastructural study of an autopsy case. Acta Pathol Jpn 38:1175–1190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. 375.
    Ohashi K, Hara M, Yanagishita M, Kawai R, Tachibana S, Ogura Y (1995) Proteoglycans in haemodialysis-related amyloidosis. Virchows Arch 427:49–59Google Scholar
  380. 376.
    Ohira T, Ishikawa K (1987) Hydroxyapatite deposition in osteoarthritic articular cartilage of the proximal femoral head. Arthritis Rheum 30:651–660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. 377.
    Oliver RAM (1959) Siderosis following transfusions of blood. J Pathol Bact 77:171–194Google Scholar
  382. 378.
    Pagel JL (1910) Thomas Sydenham. Abhandlung über die Gicht. In: Sudhoff K (Hrsg) Klassiker der Medizin. Johannes Ambrosius Barth, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  383. 379.
    Painter CF (1907) Subdeltoid bursitis. Boston Med Surg J 156:345–349Google Scholar
  384. 380.
    Palacios-Boix A, Kraus A, Alarcon-Segovia D (1984) Location of tophi at Cushing’s striae. J Rheumatol 11:720–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. 381.
    Palella TD, Fox IH (1989) Hyperuricemia and gout. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D (eds) The metabolic basis of inherited disease, 6th ed. McGraw-Hill Information services company, New York St. Louis San Francisco Colorado Springs Auckland Bogotá Caracas Hamburg Lisbon London Madrid Mexico Milan Montreal New Delhi Panama Paris San Juan São Paulo Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto, pp 965–1006Google Scholar
  386. 382.
    Palmer DG, Highton J, Hessian PA (1989) Development of the gout tophus. An hypothesis. Am J Clin Pathol 91:190–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. 383.
    Pascual E (1991) Persistence of monosodium urate crystals and low-grade inflammation in the synovial fluid of patients with untreated gout. Arthritis Rheum 34:141–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. 384.
    Pastores GM, Sibille AR, Grabowski GA (1993) Enzyme therapy in Gaucher disease type 1: Dosage efficacy and adverse effects in 33 patients treated for 6 to 24 months. Blood 82:408–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. 385.
    Patrick AD (1965) A deficiency of glucocerebrosidase in Gaucher’s disease. Biochem J 97: 17c–18cGoogle Scholar
  390. 386.
    Paul H, Schumacher HR (1981) Sequential ultrastructural changes in the growth of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Arthritis Rheum (Suppl) 24:S73 (Abstr 96)Google Scholar
  391. 387.
    Pazzaglia UE, Beluffi G, Campbell JB et al. (1989) Mucolipidosis II: correlation between radiological features and histopathology of the bones. Pediatr Radiol 19:406–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. 388.
    Pepys MB (1988) Amyloidosis: Some recent developments. Q J Med 67:283–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. 389.
    Pepys MB, Rademacher TW, Amatayakul-Chantier S et al. (1994) Human serum amyloid P component is an invariant constituent of amyloid deposits and has a uniquely homogeneous glycostructure. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:5602–5606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. 390.
    Perez-Ruiz F, Calabozo M, Alonso-Ruiz A (1997) Gouty arthritis in the manubriosternal joint. Ann Rheum Dis 56:571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. 391.
    Perricone E, Brandt KD (1978) Enhancement of urate solubility by connective tissue. I. Effect of proteoglycan aggregates and buffer cation. Arthritis Rheum 21:453–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. 392.
    Perricone E, Brandt KD (1979) Enhancement of urate solubility by connective tissue. II. Inhibition of sodium urate crystallisation by cation exchange. Ann Rheum Dis 38:467–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  397. 393.
    Peters SP, Lee RE, Glew RH (1977) Gaucher’s disease, a review. Medicine 56:425–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. 394.
    Petrukhin K, Fischer SG, Pirastu M et al. (1993) Mapping, cloning and genetic characterization of the region containing the Wilson disease gene. Nature Gen 5:338–342Google Scholar
  399. 395.
    Phatak P, Sham R, O’Leary M, Dunnigan K, Raubertas R, Cappucio J (1995) Prevalence of hereditary hemochromatosis in primary care: an interim analysis. Blood (Suppl 1) 86:129a (Abstr 504)Google Scholar
  400. 396.
    Phillips RM, Sulser RE, Songcharoen S (1980) Inflammatory arthritis and subcutaneous fat necrosis associated with acute and chronic pancreatitis. Arthritis Rheum 23:355–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. 397.
    Pick L (1906) Ueber die Ochronose. Berl Klin Wochenschr 43: 478–482, 509–512, 591–597Google Scholar
  402. 398.
    Pick L (1926) Der Morbus Gaucher und die ihm ähnlichen Erkrankungen. (Die lipoidzellige Splenohepatomegalie Typus Niemann und die diabetische Lipoidzellenhyperplasie der Milz.). Erg Inn Med Kinderheilk 29:519–589Google Scholar
  403. 399.
    Pick L (1927) Die Skelettform (ossuäre Form) des Morbus Gaucher. Veröffentlichungen aus der Kriegs-und Konstitutionspathologie 4:1–75Google Scholar
  404. 400.
    Polisson RP, Martinez S, Khoury M et al. (1985) Calcification of entheses associated with X-linked hypophosphatemic osteomalacia. N Engl J Med 313:1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. 401.
    Poole AR, Rosenberg LC (1986) Chondrocalcin and the calcification of cartilage. A review. Clin Orthop 208:114–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. 402.
    Poole AR, Pidoux I, Reiner A, Choi H, Rosenberg LC (1984) Association on an extracellular protein (chondrocalcin) with the calcification of cartilage in endochondral bone formation. J Cell Biol 98:54–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. 403.
    Poppel MH, Zeitel BE (1956) Roentgen manifestations of milk drinker’s syndrome. Radiology 67:195–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. 404.
    Porter GA (1983) Gouty nephropathy: Fact or fiction? Am J Kidney Dis 2:553–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  409. 405.
    Pritzker KPH (1986) Calcium pyrophosphate crystal arthropathy: A biomineralization disorder. Hum Pathol 17:543–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. 406.
    Pritzker KPH, Fam AG, Omar SA, Gertzbein SD (1981) Experimental cholesterol crystal arthropathy. J Rheumatol 8:281–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. 407.
    Pritzker KPH, Renlund RC, Cheng P-T (1983) Which comes first: Crystals or osteoarthritis?. A study of surgically removed femoral heads. J Rheumatol (Suppl 9) 10:38–39Google Scholar
  412. 408.
    Raman D, Abdalla AM, Newton DRL, Haslock I (1981) Coexistent rheumatoid arthritis and tophaceous gout: a case report. Ann Rheum Dis 40:427–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. 409.
    Rate AJ, Parkinson RW, Meadows TH, Freemont AJ (1992) Acute carpal tunnel syndrome due to pseudogout. J Hand Surg 17B:217–218Google Scholar
  414. 410.
    Ratech H, Greco MA, Gallo G, Rimoin DL, Kamino H, Hirschhorn R (1985) Pathologic findings in adenosinedeaminase-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency. I. Kidney, adrenal, and chondro-osseous tissue alterations. Am J Pathol 120:157–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. 411.
    Refior HJ, Melzer C (1984) Makroskopische und mikroskopische Autopsiebefunde an der Rotatorenmanschette —Eine Untersuchung an 195 Schultergelenken. Z Unfallchir Versicherungsmed Berufskr 77:139–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  416. 412.
    Refior HJ, Krödel A, Melzer C (1987) Examinations of the pathology of the rotator cuff. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 106:301–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. 413.
    Reginato AJ, Ferreiro Seoane JL, Barbazan Alvarez C et al. (1986) Arthropathy and cutaneous calcinosis in hemodialysis oxalosis. Arthritis Rheum 29:1387–1396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. 414.
    Reginato AM, Valenzuela FR, Martinéz VC, Passano G, Daza SK (1970) Polyarticular and familial chondrocalcinosis. Arthritis Rheum 13:197–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. 415.
    Reichelt A (1981) Beitrag zur operativen Therapie der Tendinosis calcarea der Schulter. Z Orthop 119:21–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. 416.
    Remberger K, Faust H, Keyl W (1985) Tendinitis calcarea. Klinik, Morphologie, Pathogenese und Differentialdiagnose. Pathologe 6:196–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. 417.
    Renlund RC, Pritzker KPH, Cheng P-T, Kessler MJ (1986) Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as a model for calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease. J Med Primatol 15:11–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. 418.
    Reuter H (1988) Kalziumpyrophosphatarthropathie und Amyloidarthropathie-kausale oder akzidentelle Koinzidenz?. Med Diss, Unversität UlmGoogle Scholar
  423. 419.
    Richards AJ (1989) Median nerve entrapment and chondrocalcinosis. J Rheumatol 16:1401–1402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. 420.
    Rick W (1989) Pankreas. In: Greiling H, Gressner AM (Hrsg) Lehrbuch der klinischen Chemie und Pathobiochemie. Schattauer, Stuttgart New York, S 544–562Google Scholar
  425. 421.
    Rimon D, Cohen L (1989) Hypercholesterolemic (type II hyperlipoproteinemic) arthritis. J Rheumatol 16:703–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. 422.
    Rindfleisch E (1903) Über Bildung und Rückbildung gichtischer Tophi. Virchows Arch 171:361–369Google Scholar
  427. 423.
    Ring D, Vaccaro AR, Scuderi G, Pathria MN, Garfin SR (1994) Acute calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis. Clinical presentation and pathological characterization. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 76:1636–1642Google Scholar
  428. 424.
    Riordan JR (1993) The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Annu Rev Physiol 55:609–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  429. 425.
    Riordan JW, Dieppe PA (1987) Cholesterol crystals in shoulder synovial fluid. Br J Rheumatol 26:430–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  430. 426.
    Ritter U, Ewald K (1971) Die Gicht. Diagnostik 4:3–6Google Scholar
  431. 427.
    Rizzoli AJ, Trujeque L, Bankhurst AD (1980) The coexistence of gout and rheumatoid arthritis: case reports and a review of the literature. J Rheumatol 7:316–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. 428.
    Roberts ED, Baskin GB, Watson E, Henk WG, Shelton TC (1984) Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPDD) in nonhuman primates. Am J Pathol 116: 359–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. 429.
    Roberts W (1892) The croonian lectures on the chemistry and therapeutics of uric acid gravel and gout. Br Med J 2:63–65Google Scholar
  434. 430.
    Röcken C, Saeger W, Linke RP (1993) Mehrere unterschiedliche Amyloidtypen bei einer 93jährigen Patientin: Kasuistik eines Sektionsfalles. Pathologe 14:42–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  435. 431.
    Rodnan GP (1979) Arthropathies associated with hematologic disorders, storage diseases, and dysproteinemias. In: McCarty DJ (ed) Arthritis and allied conditions, 9th ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 925–952Google Scholar
  436. 431a.
    Romeo R, Augustyn JM, Mandel G, Daoud AS (1990) Characterization of nucleating proteolipids from calcified and non-calcified atherosclerotic lesions. In: Glagow S, Newman WP, Schaffer SA (eds) Pathobiology of the human atherosclerotic plaque. Springer, New York Berlin Heidelberg London Paris Tokyo HongKong, pp 251–262Google Scholar
  437. 432.
    Rooney PJ, Ballantyne D, Buchanan WW (1975) Disorders of the locomotor system associated with abnormalities of lipid metabolism and the lipoidoses. Clin Rheum Dis 1:163–193Google Scholar
  438. 433.
    Ropes MW, Bauer W (1953) Synovial fluid changes in joint disease. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  439. 434.
    Rosen F, McCabe G, Quach J, Solan J, Terkeltaub R, Seegmiller JE, Lotz M (1997) Differential effects of aging on human chondrocyte responses to transforming growth factor β. Increased pyrophosphate production and decreased cell proliferation. Arthritis Rheum 40:1275–1281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  440. 435.
    Rosenthal DI, Mayo-Smith W, Goodsitt MM, Doppelt S, Mankin HJ (1989) Bone and bone marrow changes in Gaucher disease: Evaluation with quantitative CT1. Radiology 170:143–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  441. 436.
    Roubenoff R (1990) Gout and hyperuricemia. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 16:539–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  442. 437.
    Russell RGG (1965) Excretion of inorganic pyrophosphate in hypophosphatasia. Lancet 2:461–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  443. 438.
    Russell RGG, Bisaz S, Donath A, Morgan DB, Fleisch H (1971) Inorganic pyrophosphate in plasma in normal persons and in patients with hypophosphatasia, osteogenesis imperfecta, and other disorders of bone. J Clin Invest 50:961–969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  444. 439.
    Ryan LM, McCarty DJ (1995) Understanding inorganic pyrophosphate metabolism: toward prevention of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition. Ann Rheum Dis 54:939–941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  445. 440.
    Ryan LM, Rachow JW, McCarty DJ (1991) Synovial fluid ATP: A potential substrate for the production of inorganic pyrophosphate. J Rheumatol 18:716–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. 441.
    Saag KG, Niemann TH, Warner CA, Naides SJ (1992) Subcutaneous pancreatic fat necrosis associated with acute arthritis. J Rheumatol 19:630–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  447. 442.
    Sands MS, Erway LC, Vogler C, Sly WS, Birkenmeier EH (1995) Syngenic bone marrow transplantation reduces the hearing loss associated with murine mucopolysaccharidosis type VII. Blood 86:2033–2040PubMedGoogle Scholar
  448. 443.
    Sandström C (1938) Peritendinitis calcarea. A common disease of middle life: Its diagnosis, pathology and treatment. Am J Roentgenol Rad Ther 40:1–21Google Scholar
  449. 444.
    Sanmarti R, Kanterewicz E, Pladevall K, Panella D, Brugués Tarradellas J, Munoz Gomez J (1996) Analysis of the association between Chondrocalcinosis and osteoarthritis: a community based study. Ann Rheum Dis 55:30–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. 445.
    Sant GR, Dias E (1976) Primary gout affecting the sternoclavicular joint. Br Med J 1:262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  451. 446.
    Sarkar K, Uhthoff HK (1978) Ultrastructural localization of calcium in calcifying tendinitis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 102:266–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  452. 447.
    Saxe PA, Altman RD (1991) Subcutaneous cholesterol crystals mimicking calcinosis cutis in systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol 18:743–745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  453. 448.
    Schattner A, Varon D, Green L, Hurwitz N, Bentwich Z (1989) Primary amyloidosis with unusual bone involvement: Reversibility with melphalan, prednisone, and cholchicine. Am J Med 86:347–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  454. 449.
    Scheele CW (1786) Analysis of the calculus vesicas. 1776. In: The Chemical Essays of Charles-William Scheele. Translated from the Transactions of the Academy of Sciences at Stockholm. J Murray, London, W Gordon and C Elliot, Edinburgh; Facsimile reprint (1966) Dawsons of Pall Mall, London, pp 199–206Google Scholar
  455. 450.
    Scheinberg IH, Sternlieb I (1984) Wilson’s disease. In: Smith LH (ed) Major problems in internal medicine, Vol 23. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia London Toronto Mexico City Rio de Janeiro Sydney TokyoGoogle Scholar
  456. 451.
    Schidlow DV, Goldsmith DP, Palmer J, Huang NN (1984) Arthritis in cystic fibrosis. Arch Dis Child 59:377–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  457. 452.
    Schilsky ML (1996) Wilson Disease: Genetic basis of copper toxicity and natural history. Semin Liver Dis 16:83–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  458. 453.
    Schlagenhaufer F (1907) Über meist familiär vorkommende histologisch charakteristische Splenomegalien (Typus Gaucher). (Eine Systemerkrankung des lymphatisch-hämopoetischen Apparates). Virchows Arch Pathol Anat Physiol Klin Med 187:125–163Google Scholar
  459. 454.
    Schlesinger N, Gowin KM, Baker DG, Beutler AM, Hoffman BI, Schumacher HR (1998) Acute gouty arthritis is seasonal. J Rheumatol 25:342–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  460. 455.
    Schlotthauer CF, Bollman JL (1934) Spontaneous gout in turkeys. J Am Vet Med Assoc 85:98–103Google Scholar
  461. 456.
    Schlumberger HG (1959) Synovial gout in the parakeet. Lab Invest 8:1304–1318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  462. 457.
    Schmidt KL, Leber H-W, Schütterle G (1981) Arthropathie bei primärer Oxalose-Kristallsynovitis oder Osteopathie? Dtsch Med Wochenschr 106:19–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  463. 458.
    Schmied PA, Gerster JC (1988) La chondrocalcinose articulaire de l’adulte jeune. Description de neuf cas dont un de forme héréditaire dans une famille Suisse. Rhumatologie 40:201–205Google Scholar
  464. 459.
    Schubert GE (1997) Ableitende Harnwege und Urethra. In: Remmele W (Hrsg.) Pathologie 5, 2. Aufl. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Barcelona Budapest Hongkong London Mailand Paris Santa Clara, Singapur, Tokio, S 193–261Google Scholar
  465. 460.
    Schumacher HR (1964) Hemochromatosis and arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 7:41–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  466. 461.
    Schumacher HR (1972) Ultrastructural characteristics of the synovial membrane in idiopathic haemochromatosis. Ann Rheum Dis 31:465–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  467. 462.
    Schumacher HR, Regulato AJ, Pullman S (1987) Synovial fluid oxalate deposition complicating rheumatoid arthritis with amyloidosis and renal failure. Demonstration of intracellular oxalate crystals. J Rheumatol 14:361–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  468. 463.
    Searle J, Kerr JFR (1971) Ochronotic arthropathy. Med J Austr 2:713–715Google Scholar
  469. 464.
    Seegmiller JE, Rosenbloom FM, Kelley WN (1967) Enzyme defect associated with a sex-linked human neurological disorder and excessive purine synthesis. Science 155:1682–1684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  470. 465.
    Sella EJ, Goodman AH (1973) Arthropathy secondary to transfusion hemochromatosis. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 55:1077–1081Google Scholar
  471. 466.
    Sethi D, Naunton Morgan TC, Brown EA et al. (1990) Dialysis arthropathy: a clinical, biochemical, radiological and histological study of 36 patients. Q J Med 77:1061–1082PubMedGoogle Scholar
  472. 467.
    Shbeeb MI, Duffy J, Bjornsson J, Ashby AM, Matteson EL (1996) Subcutaneous fat necrosis and polyarthritis associated with pancreatic disease. Arthritis Rheum 39:1922–1925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  473. 468.
    Sheth KJ, Bernhard GC (1979) The arthropathy of Fabry disease. Arthritis Rheum 22:781–783PubMedGoogle Scholar
  474. 469.
    Shimizu K, Kasai R, Yamamuro T, Hosokawa M, Takeshita S, Takeda T (1981) Amyloid deposition in the articular structures of AKR senescent mice. Arthritis Rheum 24:1540–1543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  475. 470.
    Shimizu K, Ishii M, Yamamuro T, Takeshita S, Hosokawa M, Takeda T (1982) Amyloid deposition in intervertebral discs of senescence-accelerated mouse. Arthritis Rheum 25:710–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  476. 471.
    Shimizu K, Higuchi K, Matsushita M, Yamamuro T, Takeda T (1992) Immunohistochemical studies of age-associated amyloid deposition in the joint of senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM). Z Rheumatol 51:243–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  477. 472.
    Shwachman H, Kowalski M, Khaw K-T (1977) Cystic fibrosis: A new outlook. 70 patients above 25 years of age. Medicine 56:129–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  478. 473.
    Siller WG (1959) Avian nephritis and visceral gout. Lab Invest 8:1319–1357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  479. 474.
    Silverstein MN, Kelly PJ (1967) Osteoarticular manifestations of Gaucher’s disease. Am J Med 253:569–577Google Scholar
  480. 475.
    Simkin PA (1977) The pathogenesis of podagra. Ann Intern Med 86:230–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  481. 476.
    Sinigaglia L, Fargion S, Fracanzani AL et al. (1997) Bone and joint involvement in genetic hemochromatosis: Role of cirrhosis and iron overload. J Rheumatol 24:1809–1813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  482. 477.
    Skogen B, Natvig JB (1981) Degradation of amyloid proteins by different serine proteases. Scand J Immunol 14:389–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  483. 478.
    Smukler NM, Schumacher HR, Pascual E, Brown S, Ryan WE, Sadeghian MR (1979) Synovial fat necrosis associated with ischemic pancreatic disease. Arthritis Rheum 22:547–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  484. 479.
    Snaith ML, Coomes EN (1977) Gout with normal serum urate concentration. Br Med J 1:685–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  485. 480.
    Sokoloff L (1990) Acquired chondronecrosis. Ann Rheum Dis 49:262–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  486. 481.
    Sokoloff L, Varma AA (1988) Chondrocalcinosis in surgically resected joints. Arthritis Rheum 31:750–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  487. 482.
    Sparwasser C, Gilbert P, Mohr W, Linke P (1991) Unilateral extended amyloidosis of the renal pelvis and ureter: A case report. Urol Int 46:208–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  488. 483.
    Spilberg I (1975) Current concepts of the mechanism of acute inflammation in gouty arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 18:129–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  489. 484.
    Stein K, Störkel S, Linke RP, Goebel HH (1987) Chemical heterogeneity of amyloid in the carpal tunnel syndrome. Virchows Arch A 412:37–45Google Scholar
  490. 485.
    Stenn FF, Milgram JW, Lee SL, Weigand RJ, Veis A (1977) Biochemical identification of homogentisic acid pigment in an ochronotic Egyptian mummy. Science 197:566–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  491. 486.
    Stern C (1973) The prinicples of human genetics. Third edition. W. H. Freeman and Comp, San Francisco, p 235Google Scholar
  492. 487.
    Stieda A (1908) Zur Pathologie der Schultergelenkschleimbeutel. Arch Klin Chir 85:910–924Google Scholar
  493. 488.
    Stone MJ (1990) Amyloidosis: A final common pathway for protein deposition in tissues. Blood 75:531–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  494. 489.
    Stout JT, Caskey CT (1989) Hypoxanthine phosphoribo-syltransferase deficiency: The Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and gouty arthritis. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D (eds) The metabolic basis of inherited disease, 6th ed. McGraw-Hill Information Services Company, New York St. Louis San Francisco Colorado Springs Auckland Bogotá Caracas Hamburg Lisbon London Madrid Mexico Milan Montreal New Delhi Panama Paris San Juan São Paulo Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto, pp 1007–1028Google Scholar
  495. 490.
    Strege R, Saeger W, Röcken C, Missmahl HP, Linke RP (1995) Systemische Amyloidosen im Sektionsgut: Immunhistologische Klassifikation und Beziehungen zu Grunderkrankungen. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 79:595–596Google Scholar
  496. 491.
    Stremmel W, Gehrke S (1998) Hämochromatose-invasive oder nichtinvasive Diagnostik? Dtsch Ärztebl 95:A 2909-2910Google Scholar
  497. 492.
    Stuhlsatz HW (1989) Aminosäuren-Stoffwechsel. In: Greiling H, Gressner AM (Hrsg) Lehrbuch der klinischen Chemie und Pathobiochemie. Schattauer, Stuttgart New York, S 279Google Scholar
  498. 493.
    Stürmer J, Lang GK, Münzer M (1988) Ochronosis oculi. Pathologe 9:295–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  499. 494.
    Sugar HS, Waddell WW (1946) Ochronosis-like pigmentation associated with the use of atabrine. Ill Med J 89:234–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  500. 495.
    Summers GD, Webley M (1986) Episodic arthritis in cystic fibrosis: A case report. Br J Rheumatol 25:393–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  501. 496.
    Swan A, Dularay B, Dieppe P (1990) A comparison of the effects of urate, hydroxyapatite and diamond crystals on polymorphonuclear cells: Relationship of mediator release to the surface area and adsorptive capacity of different particles. J Rheumatol 17:1346–1352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  502. 497.
    Swan A, Heywood B, Chapman B, Seward H, Dieppe P (1995) Evidence for a causal relationship between the structure, size, and load of calcium pyrophospahte dihydrate crystals, and attacks of pseudogout. Ann Rheum Dis 54:825–830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  503. 498.
    Sydenham T (1716) Opera medica. Fratres de Tournes, Geneva, S 460Google Scholar
  504. 499.
    Szachnowski P, Bridges AJ (1994) Subcutaneous cholesterol nodules. J Rheumatol 21:2391–2392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  505. 500.
    Taccari E, Teodori S (1984) Rheumatoid chyliform bursitis: pathogenetic role of rheumatoid nodules. Arthritis Rheum 27:221–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  506. 501.
    Terkeltaub R, Martin J, Curtiss LK, Ginsberg MH (1990) Glycosaminoglycans alter the capacity of low density lipoprotein to bind to monosodium urate crystals. Rheumatol 17:1211–1216Google Scholar
  507. 502.
    Teutschlaender O (1949) Die Lipoido-Calcinosis oder Lipoidkalkgicht (Lipocalcinogranulomatose). Beitr Pathol Anat 110:402–432Google Scholar
  508. 503.
    Tezelman S, Siperstein AE, Duh Q-Y, Clark OH (1993) Tumoral calcinosis. Arch Surg 128:737–745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  509. 504.
    Thiele P, Schröder H-E (1982) Epidemiologie der Hyperurikämie und Gicht. Z Ges Inn Med 37:406–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  510. 505.
    Thompson GR, Ting YM, Riggs GA, Fenn ME, Denning RM (1968) Calcific tendinitis and soft-tissue calcification resembling gout. JAMA 203:122–130Google Scholar
  511. 506.
    Thornton C (1983) Amyloid disease. An autopsy review of the decades 1937–46 and 1961–70. Ulster Med J (Belfast) 52:31–34Google Scholar
  512. 507.
    Tu J, Blackwell RQ, Hou T (1963) Tissue copper levels in Chinese patients with Wilson’s disease. Neurology 13:155–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  513. 508.
    Uhthoff HK (1975) Calcifying tendinitis, an active cell-mediated calcification. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 366:51–58Google Scholar
  514. 509.
    Uhthoff HK, Sarkar K (1978) Calcifying tendinitis. Its pathogenetic mechanism and a rationale for its treatment. Int Orthop (SICOT) 2:187–193Google Scholar
  515. 510.
    Uhthoff HK, Sarkar K, Maynard JA (1976) Calcifying tendinitis. A new concept of its pathogenesis. Clin Orthop 118:164–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  516. 511.
    Uhthoff HK, Sarkar K, Hammond I (1982) Die Bedeutung der Dichte und der Schärfe der Abgrenzung des Kalkschattens bei der Tendinopathia calcificans. Radiologe 22:170–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  517. 512.
    Varga J, Giampaolo C, Goldenberg DL (1985) Tophaceous gout of the spine in a patient with no peripheral tophi: Case report and review of the literature. Arthritis Rheum 28:1312–1315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  518. 513.
    Virchow R (1855-56) Die Vorlesungen Rudolf Virchows über allgemeine pathologische Anatomie aus dem Wintersemester 1855/56 in Würzburg, nachgeschrieben von cand. med. Emil Kugler. Faksimiledruck 1930. Fischer, Jena, S 86–87Google Scholar
  519. 514.
    Virchow R (1866) Ein Fall von allgemeiner Ochronose der Knorpel und knorpelähnlichen Theile. Virchows Arch 37:212–219Google Scholar
  520. 515.
    Vlassara H, Brownlee M, Manogue KR, Dinarello CA, Pasagian A (1988) Cachectin/TNF and IL-1 induced by glucose-modified proteins: Role in normal tissue remodeling. Science 240:1546–1548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  521. 516.
    Vogler C, Levy B, Kyle JW, Sly WS, Williamson J, Whyte MP (1994) Mucopolysaccharidosis VII: Postmortem biochemical and pathological findings in a young adult with β-glucuronidase deficiency. Modern Pathol 7:132–137Google Scholar
  522. 517.
    Voigt C, Saeger W, Schneider M (1990) Klinische und immunhistochemische Untersuchungen von Synovialisa-myloid bei chronischer Niereninsuffizienz. Pathologe 11:332–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  523. 518.
    Voisin L, Bardin T, Bucki B, Benhamou CL, Zingraff J, Kuntz D (1991) The arthropathy of primary oxalosis. Arthritis Rheum (Suppl) 34:S145 (Abstr C73)Google Scholar
  524. 519.
    Wagner T, Mohr W (1984) Age distribution of amyloid in the intervertebral discs. Ann Rheum Dis 43:663–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  525. 520.
    Walker RJ, Williams R (1974) Haemochromatosis and iron overload. In: Jacobs A, Worwood M (eds) Iron in biochemistry and medicine. Academic Press, London New York, pp 859–1612Google Scholar
  526. 521.
    Walker RJ, Dymock IW, Ansell ID, Hamilton EBD, Williams R (1972) Synovial biopsy in haemochromatosis arthropathy. Histological findings and iron deposition in relation to total body iron overload. Ann Rheum Dis 31:98–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  527. 522.
    Wallace DJ, Klinenberg JR, Morhaim D, Berlanstein B, Biren PC, Callis G (1979) Coexistent gout and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 22:81–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  528. 523.
    Wallace SL, Robinson H, Masi AT, Decker JL, McCarty DJ, Yü T-F (1978-79) Selected data on primary gout. Bull Rheum Dis 29:992–995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  529. 524.
    Wallingford WR, McCarty DJ (1970) Membranolytic effect of monosodium urate (MSU) compared with calcium pyrophosphate-dihydrate (CPPD). Arthritis Rheum 13:357 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  530. 525.
    Wang JK, Morris AJ (1974) The distribution of nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase in the tissues of the rabbit. Arch Biochem Biophys 161:118–124Google Scholar
  531. 526.
    Watts RA, Kelly S, Hacking JC, Lomas D, Hazleman BL (1993) Fat necrosis. An unusual cause of polyarthritis. J Rheumatol 20:1432–1435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  532. 527.
    Weichselbaum A (1877) Die senilen Veränderungen der Gelenke und deren Zusammenhang mit der Arthritis deformans. Sitzungsber Kaiserl Akad Wiss Mathemat-Naturwiss Klasse III. Abteilung, Wien 75:193–243Google Scholar
  533. 528.
    Weinberger A, Schumacher HR, Agudelo CA (1979) Urate crystals in asymptomatic metatarsophalangeal joints. Ann Intern Med 91:56–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  534. 529.
    Weinberger A, Halabe A, Raphael A, Samuel R, Pinkhas J (1984) Spherulite crystals in synovial tissue of a patient with recurrent monoarthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2:63–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  535. 530.
    Weiss SW, Kelly WD (1983) Bilateral destructive synovitis associated with alpha mannosidase deficiency. Am J Surg Pathol 7:487–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  536. 531.
    Weissmann G (1971) The molecular basis of acute gout. Hosp Practice 6:43–52Google Scholar
  537. 532.
    Welfling J, Kahn M-F, Desroy M, Paolaggi J-B, de Sèze S (1965) Les calcifications de l’épaule. IL La maladie des calcifications tendineuses multiples. Rev Rhum 32:325–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  538. 533.
    Westermark P (1972) Occurrence of amyloid deposits in the skin in secondary systemic amyloidosis. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand A 80:718–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  539. 534.
    Wheeler AP, Grahan BS (1985) Case report: pseudogout presenting with low synovial fluid glucose: identification of crystals by Gram stain. Am J Med Sci 289:68–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  540. 535.
    Wilcox WR, Khalaf AA (1975) Nucleation of monosodium urate crystals. Ann Rheum Dis 34:332–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  541. 536.
    Winternitz CI, Jackson JK, Burt HM (1996) The interaction of monoclinic calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals with neutrophils. Rheumatol Int 16:101–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  542. 537.
    Wolfe HJ, Blennerhasset JB, Young GF, Cohen RB (1964) Hurler’s syndrome. A histochemical study. New techniques for localization of very water-soluble acid mucopolysaccharides. Am J Pathol 45:1007–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  543. 538.
    Wolff H (1902) Ueber eine seltene Form seniler Verkalkung. Arch Klin Chir 67:299–313Google Scholar
  544. 539.
    Wolkow M, Baumann E (1891) Ueber das Wesen der Alkaptonurie Hoppe Seyler’s Z Physiol Chem 15:228–285Google Scholar
  545. 540.
    Wollaston WH (1797) On gouty and urinary concretions. Phil Trans 87:386–400Google Scholar
  546. 541.
    Woolley PB (1952) Exogenous ochronosis. Br Med J 2:760–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  547. 542.
    Wrede L (1912) Ueber Kalkablagerungen in der Umgebung des Schultergelenks und ihre Beziehungen zur Periarthritis scapulo-humeralis. Langenbecks Arch Klin Chir 99:259–272Google Scholar
  548. 543.
    Wright GD, Doherty M (1997) Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition is not always’ wear and tear’ or aging. Ann Rheum Dis 56:586–588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  549. 544.
    Wullbrand A, Saeger W, Missmahl H-P, Voigt C, Linke RP (1990) Amyloid in intervertebral discs of surgery and autopsy material. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat 416:335–341Google Scholar
  550. 545.
    Wysenbeek AJ, Shani E, Beigel Y (1989) Musculoskeletal manifestations in patients with hypercholesterolemia. J Rheumatol 16:643–645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  551. 546.
    Xu Y, Cruz T, Cheng P-T, Pritzker KPH (1991) Effects of pyrophosphatase on dissolution of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals. J Rheumatol 18:66–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  552. 547.
    Xu Y, Cruz TF, Pritzker KPH (1991) Alkaline phosphatase dissolves calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals. J Rheumatol 18:1606–1610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  553. 548.
    Yang B-Y, Sartoris DJ, Resnick D, Clopton P (1996) Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease: Frequency of tendon calcification about the knee. J Rheumatol 23:883–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  554. 549.
    Yoshida M, Ikadai H, Maekawa A, Takahashi M, Nagase S (1993) Pathological characteristics of mucopolysaccharidosis VI in the rat. J Comp Pathol 109:141–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  555. 550.
    Yosipovitch G, Yosipovitch Z (1993) Acute calcific periarthritis of the hand and elbows in women. A study and review of the literature. J Rheumatol 20:1533–1538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  556. 550a.
    Zalokar J, Lellouch J, Claude JR (1981) s. [559]Google Scholar
  557. 551.
    Zannoni VG, Seegmiller JE, La du BN (1962) Nature of the defect in alcaptonuria. Nature 193:952–953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  558. 552.
    Zannoni VG, Lomtevas N, Goldfinger S (1969) Oxidation of homogentisic acid to ochronotic pigment in connective tissue. Biochim Biophys Acta 177:94–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  559. 553.
    Zitnan D, Sitaj S (1958) Familiäres Auftreten multipler Gelenksknorpelkalzifikationen (in Tschechisch). Bratislav Lekarske Listy, Bratislava 38:217–228Google Scholar
  560. 554.
    Zitan D, Sitaj Š (1960) Chondrocalcinosis polyarticularis (familiaris). Radipl Diagn 1:498–508Google Scholar
  561. 555.
    Zitan D, Sitaj Š (1963) Chondrocalcinosis articularis. Section I: Clinical and radiological study. Ann Rheum Dis 22:142–152Google Scholar
  562. 556.
    Zöllner N (1990) Die chronische Gicht. In: Zöllner N (Hrsg) Hyperurikämie, Gicht und andere Störungen des Purinhaushalts. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York London Paris Tokyo Hong Kong Barcelona, S 158–169Google Scholar
  563. 557.
    Zöllner N (1990) Von der Hyperurikämie zur Gicht. In: Zöllner N (Hrsg) Hyperurikämie, Gicht und andere Störungen des Purinhaushalts. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York London Paris Tokyo Hong Kong Barcelona, S 111–120Google Scholar
  564. 558.
    Zöllner N, Kamilli I (1992) Das Wesen der Gicht. Dtsch Ärztebl 89:B2260–B2266 (A1 3563–3573)Google Scholar
  565. 559.
    Zalokar J, Lellouch J, Claude JR (1981) Goutte et uricémie dans une population de 4663 hommes jeunes actifs. Sem Hôp Paris 57:664–670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  566. 560.
    Zoppini A, Teodori S, Taccari E (1980) Valeur de la biopsie synoviale dans le diagnostic des arthropathies associées aux hyperlipoprotéinémies. Rev Rhum 47:111–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  567. 561.
    Zuckner J, Uddin J, Gantner GE, Dorner RW (1964) Cholesterol crystals in synovial fluid. Ann Intern Med 60:436–446PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Winfried Mohr
    • 1
  1. 1.Universität Ulm Abt. PathologieUlmGermany

Personalised recommendations