• D. Kopf
  • C. Schulz
  • H. Lehnert


Noradrenalin, Adrenalin und Dopaminderivate des Katechols (l,2-Dihydroxybenzol) werden im zentralen Nervensystem (ZNS), sympathischen Nerven und Ganglien sowie in den chromaffinen Zellen des Nebennierenmarks (NNM) gebildet. Im ZNS sind Dopamin und Noradrenalin weit verbreitet, während Adrenalin im Gehirn der Säugetiere in relativ niedrigen Konzentrationen gefunden wird. In der Peripherie ist Noradrenalin der Transmitter des postganglionären sympathischen Nervensystems und Dopamin ist als relevanter Regulator an der renalen Durchblutung beteiligt. Adrenalin wird in der Peripherie vor allem in den chromaffinen Zellen des NNM gebildet und freigesetzt.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Averbuch S.D., Steakley C., Young R.C., Gelmann E.P., Goldstein D.S., Stull R., Keiser H.R. (1988) Malignant pheochromocytoma: effective treatment with a combination of cyclophosphymide, voncristine and dacarbazine. Ann Int Med 109: 267–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bannister R., Mathias C.J. (1993) Autonomic failure. Oxford Medical Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  3. Beldjord C., Desclaux-Arramond F., Raffin-Sanson M. et al. (1995) The ret-protooncogene in sporadic pheochromocytomas: Frequent MEN 2-like mutations and new molecular defects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80: 2063–2068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bravo E.L. (1996) Plasma or urinary metanephrines for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma? That is the question. Ann Int Med 125: 331–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Canale M.P., Bravo E.L. (1994) Diagnostic specificity of serum chromogranin A for pheochromocytoma in patients with renal dysfunction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 78: 1139–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen Y., Best J.A., Nagamoto K., Tank A.W. (1996) Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression by the ml muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in rat pheochromocytoma cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 40: 42–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Duerr E.M., Gimm O., Neuberg D.S., Kum J.B., Clifford S.C., Toledo S.P., Maher E.R., Dahia P.L., Eng C. (1999) Differences in allelic distribution of two polymorphisms in the VHL-associated gene CUL2 in pheochromocytoma patients without somatic CUL2 mutations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84: 3207–3211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eisenhofer G., Lenders J.W., Linehan W.M., Walther M.M., Goldstein D.S., Keiser H.R. (1999) Plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine for detecting pheochromocytoma in von Hippel-Lindau disease and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. N Engl J Med 340: 1872–1879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. El-Mestikawy S., Glowinski J., Hamon M. (1983) Tyrosine hydroxylase activation in depolarized dopaminergic terminals-involvement of Ca2 +-dependent phosphorylation. Nature 302: 830–832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kopf D., Bockisch A., Steinert H., Hahn K., Beyer J., Neumann H.P.H., Hensen J., Lehnert H. (1997) Octreotide scintigraphy and catecholamine response to an octreotide challenge in malignant pheochromocytoma. Clin Endocrinol 46: 39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kopf D., Goretzki P.E., Lehnert H. (2000) Clinical management of malignant adrenal tumors. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2000, in pressGoogle Scholar
  12. Lehnert H. (1995) Diagnostik und Therapie des malignen Phäochromozytoms. In: Leiehnert H, Kopf D, Hensen J. (Hrsg) Endokrine Tumoren-Jahrestagung der Sektion Angewandte Endokrinologie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Endokrinologie. Bundesdruckerei Neu-Isenburg, S 157–165Google Scholar
  13. Ligget, S.B. und Raymond, J.R. (1993) Pharmacology and molecular biology of adrenergic receptors. Bailliere’s Clin Endocrinol Metabol vol 7/2: 279–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lehnert H. (1998) Regulation of catecholamine synthesizing enzyme gene expression in human pheochromocytoma. Eur J Endocrinol 138: 363–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Manger T., Piatek S., Klose S., Kopf D., Kunz D., Lehnert H., Lippert H. (1997) Bilaterale laparoskopische Adrenalektomie beim Phäochromozytom. Langenbecks Arch Chir Suppl Kongressbd 382: 37–42Google Scholar
  16. Mathias C.J. (1993) Sympathetic nervous system dis orders in man. Bailliere’s Clin Endocrinol Metab 7: 465–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Minneman K.P. (1988) α-adrenergic receptor subtypes, inositol phosphates, and sources of cell Ca2+. Pharmacol Rev 40: 87–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Mulligan L.M., Eng C., Healey C.S. et al. (1994) Specific mutations of the ret proto-oncogene are related to disease phenotype in MEN 2 A and FMTC. Nature Genet 6: 70–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mundschenk J., Lehnert H. (1998) Malignant pheochromocytoma. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 106: 373–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Neumann H.P., Reincke M., Bender B.U., Elsner R., Janetschek G. (1999) Preserved adrenocortical function after laparoscopic bilateral adrenal sparing surgery for hereditary pheochromocytoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84: 2608–2610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Perlman, R.L. und Chalfie, M. (1977) Catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla. Clin Endocrinol Metab 6: 551–576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Plouin P.F., Catellier G., Fofol I., Corvol P. (1997) Tumor recurrence and hypertension after successful pheochromocytoma operation. Hypertension 29: 1133–1139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Preitner F., Muzzin P., Revelli J.P. et al. (1998) Metabolic response to various beta-adrenoceptor agonists in beta3-adrenoceptor knockout mice: evidence for a new betaadrenergic receptor in brown adipose tissue. Br J Pharmacol 124: 1684–1688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ruß H., Staust K., Martel F., Gliese M., Schomig E. (1996) The extraneuronal transporter for monoamine transmitters exists in cells derived from human central nervous system glia. Eur J Neurose 8: 1256–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schatz I.J. (1994) Orthostatic hypotension. Clinical diagnosis, testing and treatment. Arch Int Med 144: 1037–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schlumberger M., Gicquel C., Lumbroso J. et al. (1992) Malignant pheochromocytoma: Clinical, biological, histologic and therapeutic data in aseries of 20 patients with distant metastases. J Endocrinol Invest 15: 631–642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Schubert B., VanDongen A.M,. Kirsch G.E., Brown A.M. (1989) Beta-adrenergic inhibition of cardiac sodium channels by dual G-protein pathways. Science 245: 516–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shapiro B., Sisson J.C., Lloyd R., Nakajo M., Satterlee W., Beierwalters W.H. (1984) Malignant phaeochromocytoma:clinical, biochemical and scintigraphic characterization. Clin Endocrinol 20: 189–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shulkin B.L., Thompson N.W., Shapiro B., Francis I.R., Sisson J.C. (1999) Pheochromocytomas: imaging with 2-(fluorine-18)fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET. Radiology 212: 35–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Sisson J.C., Shapiro B., Meyers L. et al. (1987) MIBG to map scintigraphically the adrenergic nervous system in man. J Nucl Med 28: 1625–1636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Trendelenburg U. (1990) The interaction of transport mechanisms and intracellular enzymes in metabolizing systems. J Neural Transm (Suppl 32):3–18Google Scholar
  32. Udenfriend S. (1966) Tyrosine hydroxylase. Pharmacol Rev 18: 43–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Vargas M.P., Zhuang Z., Wang C., Vortmeyer A., Linehan W.M., Merino M.J. (1997) Loss ofheterozygosity on the short arm of chromosomes 1 and 3 in sporadic pheochromocytoma and extra-adrenal paraganglioma. Hum Pathol 28: 411–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Webber J., Macdonald I.A. (1993) Metabolic actions of catecholamines in man. Bailliere’s Clin Endocrin Metabol, vol 7/2: 393–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Winkler H., Sietzen M., Schober M. (1987) The life cyele of catecholamine-storing vesieles. Ann N Y Acad Sci 493: 3–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wong D.L., Siddall B., Wang W. (1995) Hormonal control of rat adrenal phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. Enzyme activity, the final critical pathway. Neuropsychopharmacology 13: 223–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Kopf
  • C. Schulz
  • H. Lehnert

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations