Advertisement

The Role of Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Composition and Dynamics of Plant Communities: A Scaling Issue

  • Michael F. Allen
  • Jennifer Lansing
  • Edith B. Allen
Chapter
Part of the Progress in Botany book series (BOTANY, volume 63)

Abstract

Mycorrhizae are by now a well-known feature of plant communities in terrestrial ecosystems. These symbioses, by definition, are mutualistic and always between plants and fungi localized in the root or rhizoid, and are found in every terrestrial ecosystem except the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. For over a century, the importance of mycorrhizae in facilitating (and occasionally inhibiting) nutrient uptake by plants has been documented for hundreds of plant species and in many different soils and environmental conditions.

Keywords

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Mycorrhizal Fungus Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizal Infection External Hypha 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen EB, Allen MF (1984) Competition between plants of different successions stages: mycorrhizae as regulators. Can J Bot 62:2625–2629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen EB, Allen MF (1986) Water relations of xeric grasses in the field: interactions of mycorrhizas and competition. New Phytol 104:559–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen EB, Allen MF (1988) Facilitation of succession by the non-mycotrophic colonizer Salsola kali (Chenopodiaceae) on a harsh site: effects of mycorrhizal fungi. Am J Bot 75:257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen EB, Allen MF (1990) The mediation of competition by mycorrhizae in successions and patchy environments. In: Grace JB, Tilman GD (eds) Perspectives on plant competition. Academic Press, New York, pp 367–389Google Scholar
  5. Allen EB, Rincon E, Allen MF, Perez-Jimenez A, Huante P (1998) Disturbance and seasonal dynamics of mycorrhizae in a tropical deciduous forest in Mexico. Biotropica 30:261–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Allen EB, Brown JS, Allen MF (2001) Restoration and Biodiversity. In: Levin S (ed) Encyclopedia of biodiversity. Academic Press, San Diego (in press)Google Scholar
  7. Allen MF (1988) Reestablishment VA of mycorrhizae following severe disturbance: comparative patch dynamics of a shrub desert and a subalpine volcano. Proc R Soc Edinb 94:63–71Google Scholar
  8. Allen MF (1991) The ecology of mycorrhizae. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Allen MF (2001) Modeling arbuscular mycorrhizal infection: is % infection an appropriate variable? Mycorrhiza 10:255–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Allen MF, Allen EB (1990) Carbon source of VA mycorrhizae fungi associated with Chenopodiaceae from a semi-arid steppe. Ecology 71:2019–2021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Allen MF, Boosalis MG (1983) Effects of two species of VA mycorrhizal fungi on drought tolerance of winter wheat. New Phytol 93:67–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Allen MF, Moore TS Jr, Christensen M (1980) Phytohormone changes in Bouteloua gracilis infected by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae: I. cytokinin increases in the host plant. Can J Bot 58:371–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Allen MF, Smith WK, Moore TS Jr, Christensen M (1981) Comparative water relations and photosynthesis of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Bouteloua gracilis (J.B.K.) Lag ex Steud. New Phytol 88:683–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Allen MF, Moore TS Jr, Christensen M (1982) Phytohormone changes in Bouteloua gracilis infected by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae. II. Altered levels of gibberellin-like substances and abscisic acid in the host plant. Can J Bot 60:468–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Allen MF, Allen EB, Stahl PD (1984) Differential niche response of Bouteloua gracilis and Pascopyrum smithii to VA mycorrhizae. Bull Torrey Bot Club 111:361–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Allen MF, Allen EB, Friese CF (1989) Responses of the non-mycotrophic plant Salsola kali to invasion by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol 111:45–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Allen MF, Morris SJ, Edwards F, Allen EB (1995) Microbe-plant interactions in mediterranean-type habitats: shifts in fungal symbiotic and saprophytic functioning in response to global change. In: Morene JM (ed) Global change and mediterranean-type ecosystems. Ecological studies vol 117. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 287–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Allen MF, Allen EB, Zink TA, Harney S, Yoshida LC, Siguenza C, Edwards F, Hinkson C, Rillig M, Bainbridge D, Doljanin C, MacAller R (1999) Soil microorganisms. In: Walker LR (ed) Ecosystems of the world; ecosystems of disturbed ground. Elsevier, New York, pp 521–544Google Scholar
  19. Bago B, Shachar-Hill Y, Pfeffer PE (2000) Dissecting carbon pathways in arbuscular mycorrhizas with NMR spectroscopy. In: Podila GK, Douds DD Jr (eds) Current advances in mycorrhizae research. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, p 193Google Scholar
  20. Bever JD (1994) Feedback between plants and their soil communities in an old field community. Ecology 75:1965–1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bever JD, Morton JB, Antonovics J, Schultz PA (1996) Host-dependent sporulation and species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a mown grassland. J Ecol 84:71–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bidartondo MI, Kretzer AM, Pine EM, Bruns TD (2000) High root concentration and uneven ectomycorrhizal diversity near Sarcodes sanguinea (Ericaceae): a cheater that stimulates its victims? Am J Bot 87:1783–1788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brownlee C, Duddridge JA, Malibari A, Read DJ (1983) The structure and function of mycelial systems of ectomycorrhizal roots with special reference to their role in forming inter-plant connections and providing pathways for assimilate and water transport. Plant Soil 71:433–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Caldwell MM, Eissenstat DM, Richards JH, Allen MF (1985) Competition for phosphorus: differential uptake from dual-isotope-labeled soil interspaces between shrub and grass. Science 229:384–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chalot M, Brun A (1998) Physiology of organic nitrogen acquisition by ectomycorrhizal fungi and ectomycorrhizas. FEMS Microbiol Rev 22:21–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chiarello N, Hickman JC, Mooney HA (1982) Endomycorrhizal role for interspecific transfer of phosphorus in a community of annual plants. Science 217:941–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chilvers GA, Lapeyrie FF, Horan DP (1987) Ectomycorrhizal vs. endomycorrhizal fungi within the same root system. New Phytol 107:441–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Duan XG, Neuman DS, Reiber JM, Green CD, Saxton AM, Auge RM (1996) Mycorrhizal influence on hydraulic and hormonal factors implicated in the control of stomatal conductance during drought. J Exp Bot 47:1541–1550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Egerton-Warburton LM, Allen EB (2000) Shifts in arbuscular mycorrhizal communities along an anthropogenic nitrogen deposition gradient. Ecol Appl 10:484–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ek H, Andersson S, Soderstrom B (1996) Carbon and nitrogen flow in Silver birch and Norway spruce connected by a common mycorrhizal mycelium. Mycorrhiza 6:465–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eom AH, Harnett DC, Wilson GWT (2000) Host plant species effects on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in tallgrass prairie. Oecologia 122:435–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Finlay RD, Read DJ (1986a) The structure and function of the vegetative mycelium of ectomycorrhizal plants: I. translocation of carbon-14 labeled carbon between plants interconnected by a common mycelium. New Phytol 103:143–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Finlay RD, Read DJ (1986b) The structure and function of the vegetative mycelium of ectomycorrhizal plants: II. the uptake and distribution of phosphorus by mycelial strands interconnecting host plants. New Phytol 103:157–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fitter AH (1977) Influence of mycorrhizal infection on competition for phosphorus and potassium by two grasses. New Phytol 79:19–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fitter AH, Graves JD, Watkins NK, Robinson D, Scrimgeour C (1998) Carbon transfer between plants and its control in networks of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Funct Ecol 12:406–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Francis R, Read DJ (1984) Direct transfer of carbon between plants connected by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelium. Nature 307:53–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Francis R, Finlay RD, Read DJ (1986) Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza in natural vegetation systems: IV. Transfer of nutrients in inter-specific and intra-specific combinations of host plants. New Phytol 102:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Friese CF, Allen MF (1991) The spread of VA mycorrhizal fungal hyphae in the soil: inoculum types and external hyphal architecture. Mycologia 83:409–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Friese CF, Allen MF (1993) The interaction of harvester ants and VA mycorrhizal fungi in a patchy semi-arid environment: the effects of mound structure on fungal dispersion and establishment. Funct Ecol 7:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gange AC, Brown VK, Sinclair GS (1993) Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: a determinant of plant community structure in early succession. Funct Ecol 7:616–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gehring CA, Whitham TG (1995) Duration of herbivore removal and environmental stress affect the ectomycorrhizae of pinyon pines. Ecology 76:2118–2123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gehring CA, Cobb NS, Whitham TG (1997) Three-way interactions among ectomycorrhizal mutualists, scale insects, and resistant and susceptible pinyon pines. Am Nat 149:824–841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gehring CA, Theimer TC, Whitham TG, Kiem P (1998) Ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure of pinyon pine growing in two environmental extremes. Ecology 79:1562–1572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Grace JB, Tilman GD (1990) Perspectives on plant competition. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Graves JD, Watkins NK, Fitter AH, Robinson D, Scrimgeour C (1997) Intraspecific transfer of carbon between plants linked by a common mycorrhizal networks. Plant Soil 192:153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Green CD, Stodola A, Auge RM (1998) Transpiration of detached leaves from mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal cowpea and rose plants given varying abscisic acid, pH, calcium and phosphorous. Mycorrhiza 8:93–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Grime JP, Mackey JML, Hillier SH, Read DJ (1987) Floristic diversity in a model system using experimental microcosms. Nature 328:420–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Grogan P, Baar J, Bruns TD (2000) Below-ground ectomycorrhizal community structure in a recently burned Bishop pine forest. J Ecol 88:1051–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hartnett DC, Wilson WT (1999) Mycorrhizae influence plant community structure and diversity in tallgrass prairie. Ecology 80:1187–1195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Helm DJ, Allen EB, Trappe JM (1996) Mycorrhizal chronosequence near exit glacier, Alaska. Can J Bot 74:1496–1506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Helm DJ, Allen EB, Trappe JM (1999) Plant growth and ectomycorrhiza formation by transplants on deglaciated land near exit glacier, Alaska. Mycorrhiza 8:297–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hickson LD (1993) The effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the light harvesting, gas exchange, and architecture of sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata). MS Thesis, San Diego State University, San Diego, 95 ppGoogle Scholar
  53. Horton TR, Bruns TD, Parker VT (1999) Ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Arcto-staphylos contribute to Pseudotsuga menziesii establishment. Can J Bot 77:93–102Google Scholar
  54. Johnson NC, Edgerton-Warburton LM, Allen EB (1997) Mycorrhizal responses to nitrogen eutrophication at six mesic to semiarid sites. Bull Ecol Soc Am 78:118Google Scholar
  55. Karen O, Nylund JE (1997) Effects of ammonium sulphate on the community structure and biomass of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a Norway spruce stand in southwestern Sweden. Can J Bot 75:1628–1642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Klironomos JN, Rillig MC, Allen MF (1999) Designing belowground field experiments with the help of semi-variance and power analyses. Appl Soil Ecol 12:227–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Klironomos JN, McCune J, Hart M, Neville J (2000) The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the relationship between plant diversity and productivity. Ecol Lett 3:137–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lodge DJ, Wentworth TR (1990) Negative associations among VA-mycorrhizal fungi and some ectomycorrhizal fungi inhabiting the same root systems. Oikos 57:347–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lundberg P, Ranta E, Kaitala V (2000) Species loss leads to community closure. Ecol Lett 3:465–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lussenhop J, Fogel R (1999) Seasonal change in phosphorus content of Pinus strobus-Cenococcum geophilum ectomycorrhizae. Mycologia 91:742–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Marler MJ, Zabinski CA, Callaway RM (1999a) Mycorrhizae indirectly enhance competitive effects of an invasive forb on a native bunchgrass. Ecology 80:1180–1186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Marler MJ, Zabinski CA, Wojtowicz T, Callaway RM (1999b) Mycorrhizae and fine root dynamics of Centaurea maculosa and native bunchgrasses in western Montana. Northwest Sci 73:217–224Google Scholar
  63. Massicotte HB, Molina R, Tackaberry LE, Smith JE, Amaranthus MP (1999) Diversity and host specificity of ectomycorrhizal fungi retrieved from three adjacent forest sites by five host species. Can J Bot 77:1053–1076Google Scholar
  64. Molina R, Massicotte H, Trappe JM (1992) Specificity phenomena in mycorrhizal symbiosis: community-ecological consequences and practical implications. In: Allen MF (ed) Mycorrhizal functioning. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 357–423Google Scholar
  65. Morton JB, Redecker D (2001) Two new families of Glomales, Archaeosporaceae and Paraglomaceae, with two new genera Archaeospora and Paraglomus, based on concordant molecular and morphological characters. Mycologia 93:181–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mullen R, Schmidt S (1993) Mycorrhizal infection, phosphorus uptake, and phenology in Ranunculus adoneus :implications for the functioning of mycorrhizae in alpine systems. Oecologia 94:229–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mullen RB, Schmidt SK, Jaeger CH (1998) Nitrogen uptake during snowmelt by the snow buttercup, Ranunculus adoneus. Arctic Alpine Res 30:121–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Naeem S, Daniel R, Schuurman G (2000) Producer-decomposer co-dependency influences biodiversity effects. Nature 403:762–764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Perry DA, Margolis H, Choquette C, Molina R, Trappe JM (1989) Ectomycorrhizal mediation of competition between coniferous tree species. New Phytol 112:501–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Podila GK, Douds DD Jr (2000) Current advances in mycorrhizae research. American Phytophathological Society, St. Paul, MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
  71. Pregitzer KS, DeForest JL, Burton AJ, Allen MF, Ruess RW, Hendrick RL (2001) Fine root length, diameter, specific root length and nitrogen concentration of nine tree species across four North American biomes. Ecology (in press)Google Scholar
  72. Read DJ (1997) Mycorrhizal fungi: the ties that bind. Nature 388:517–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Redecker D, Morton JB, Bruns TD (2000) Ancestral lineages of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (glomales). Mol Phylogen Evol 14:276–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Reid CPP, Woods FW (1969) Translocation of C14-labeled compounds in mycorrhizae and its implications in interplant nutrient cycling. Ecology 50:179–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rillig MC, Wright SF, Allen MF, Field CB (1999) Rise in carbon dioxide changes in soil structure. Nature 400:628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rossow LJ, Bryant JP, Kielland K (1997) Effects of above-ground browsing by mammals on mycorrhizal infection in an early successional taiga ecosystem. Oecologia 110:94–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Seastedt TR, Knapp AK (1993) Consequences of nonequilibrium resource availability across multiple time scales: the transient maxima hypothesis. Am Nat 141:621–633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Shefferson RP, Sandercock BK, Proper J, Beissinger SR (2001) Estimating dormancy and survival of a rare herbaceous perennial using mark-recapture models. Ecology 82:145–156Google Scholar
  79. Simard SW, Jones MD, Durall DM, Perry DA, Myrold DD, Molina R (1997a) Reciprocal transfer of carbon isotopes between ectomycorrhizal Betula papyrifera and Pseudotsuga menziesii. New Phytol 137:529–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Simard, SW, Perry DA, Jones MD, Myrold DD, Durall DM, Molina R (1997b) Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field. Nature 388:579–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Smith SE, Read DJ (1997) Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  82. Stahl PO, Smith WK (1984) Effects of different geographic isolates of Glomus on the water relations of Agropyron smithii. Mycologia 76:261–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Taylor DL, Bruns TD (1999) Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a Pinus muricata forest: minimal overlap between the mature forest and resistant propagule communities. Mol Ecol 8:1837–1850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Taylor AFS, Martin F, Read DJ (2000) Fungal diversity in ectomycorrhizal communities of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) along north-south transects. In: Schulze ED (ed) Carbon and nitrogen cycling in European forest ecosystems. Ecological studies, vol 142. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 343–365Google Scholar
  85. Trappe JM (1977) Selection of fungi for ectomycorrhizal inoculation in nurseries. Annu Rev Phytopathol 15:203–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Van der Heijden MGA, Klironomos JN, Ursic M, Moutoglis P, Streitwolf-Engel R, Boller T, Wiemken A, Sanders IR (1998) Mycorrhizal fungal diversity determines plant biodiversity, ecosystem variability and productivity. Nature 396:69–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wallander H, Arnebrant K, Ostrand F, Karen O (1997) Uptake 15 N-labelled alanine, ammonium and nitrate in Pinus sylvestris L. ectomycorrhiza growing in forest soil treated with nitrogen, sulphur or lime. Plant Soil 195:329–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wang GM, Coleman DC, Freckman DW, Dyer MI, McNaughton SJ, Acra MA, Goeschl JD (1989) Carbon partitioning patterns of mycorrhizal versus non-mycorrhizal plants: real-time dynamic measurements using 11CO2. New Phytol 112:489–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wang, GM, Stribley DP, Tinker PB, Walker C (1993) Effects of pH on arbuscular my-corrhiza. I. Field observations on the long-term liming experiments at Rothamsted and Woburn. New Phytol 124:465–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Weinbaum BS, Allen MF, Allen EB (1996) Survival of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi following reciprocal transplanting across the Great Basin, USA. Ecol Appl 6:1365–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Whittaker RH (1970) Communities and ecosystems. MacMillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  92. Wilkinson DM (1999) Mycorrhizal networks are best explained by a plurality of mechanisms: a comment on Fitter et al., 1998. Funct Ecol 13:435–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Yoshida LC (1999) Ammonium and nitrate additions to a mycorrhizal annual invasive grass, Bromus madritensis, and Artemisia californica in coastal sage scrub: greenhouse and field experiments. PhD, University of California, RiversideGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael F. Allen
    • 1
  • Jennifer Lansing
    • 1
  • Edith B. Allen
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Conservation BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA

Personalised recommendations