Advertisement

Child development and family resources: Evidence from the second generation of the 1958 British birth cohort

  • Andrew McCulloch
  • Heather E. Joshi
Part of the Population Economics book series (POPULATION)

Abstract

Studies of American and recently British children suggest that there is a link between family income and child development, in particular that one consequence of child poverty is to hold back cognitive development. This paper investigates the impact of family income, material deprivation, maternal education and child-rearing behaviour on an indicator of cognitive functioning, using British data on children aged 6 to 17 whose mothers are members of the 1958 Birth Cohort Study. The poorer average cognitive functioning among children from the lowest income groups could largely be accounted for, statistically, by the greater material disadvantage of these groups. These analyses provide evidence to suggest that low income has detrimental effects on children’s cognitive functioning through the operation of longer-term material disadvantage, and that these effects may be mitigated by positive parental behaviours.

Keywords

Poverty deprivation child development 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baharudin R, Luster T (1998) Factors Related to the Quality of the Home Environment and Children’s Achievement.Journal of Family Issues19(4):375–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baydar N, Brooks-Gunn J, Furstenberg FF (1993) Early Warning Signs of Functional Illiteracy —Predictors in Childhood and Adolescence.Child Development64(3):815–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brooks-Gunn J, Duncan GJ, Klebanov PK, Sealand N (1993) Do Neighborhoods Affect Child and Adolescent Development?American Journal of Sociology99(2):353–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brooks-Gunn J, Duncan G, Aber JL (1997)Neighbourhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Development.Russell Sage Foundation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Chase-Lansdale PL, Gordon R, Brooks-Gunn J, Klebanov P (1997) Neighbourhood and Family Influences on the Intellectual and Behavioural Competence of Preschool and Early School-age Children. In: Brooks-Gunn J, Duncan G, Aber L (eds)Neighbourhood Povertyvol 1. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 79–145Google Scholar
  6. Church J (1996)Social Trends 26.HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Church J (1997)Social Trends 27.HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Clarke L, Di Salvo P, Joshi H, Wright J (1997) Stability and Instability inChildren’s Lives: Longitudinal Evidence from Great Britain. Research Paper 97–1, Centre for Population Studies, London School of Hygiene and Tropical SciencesGoogle Scholar
  9. Conger RD, Elder GH, Lorenz FO, Conger KJ, Simons RL, Whitbeck LB, Huck S, Melby JN (1990) Linking Economic Hardship to Marital Quality and Instability.Journal of Marriage and the Family52(3):643–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davies H, Joshi H, Clarke L (1997) Is it Cash the Deprived are Short of?.Journal of the Royal Statistical Society SeriesA160(1):107–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davies H, Joshi H, Peronaci R (1998) Dual and Zero-earner Couples in Britain: Longitudinal Evidence on Polarization and Persistence. Discussion Paper in Economics 8/98, Birkbeck College, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Duncan G, Brooks-Gunn J (1997)Consequences of Growing up Poor.Russell Sage Foundation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Duncan G, Brooks-Gunn J, Klebanov P (1994) Economic Deprivation and Early Childhood Development.Child Development65(2):296–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dunn LM, Dunn LM (1981)Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised.American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, MNGoogle Scholar
  15. Ferri E (1993) Life at 33:The Fifth Follow-up of the National Child Development Study.National Children’s Bureau, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Goldstein H (1995)Multilevel Models in Educational and Social Research2nd Ed. Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Gregg P, Harkness S, Machin S (1999)Child Development and Family Income.Joseph Rowntree Foundation, YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Gregg P, Wadsworth J (1996) More Work in Fewer Households. In: Hills J (ed)New Inequalities. The Changing Distribution of Income and Wealth in the United Kingdom.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 181–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hanson TL, McLanahan S, Thomson E (1997) Economic Resources, Parental Practices and Children’s Well-Being. In: Duncan J, Brooks-Gunn J (eds)Consequences of Growing up Poor.Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 190–238Google Scholar
  20. Harkness S, Machin S, Waldfogel J (1996) Women’s Pay and Family Incomes in Britain, 197991. In: Hills J (ed)New Inequalities. The Changing Distribution of Income and Wealth in the United Kingdom.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 181–207Google Scholar
  21. Haveman R, Wolfe B (1995)Succeeding Generations.Russell Sage Foundation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Haskey J (1994) Stepfamilies and Stepchildren in Great Britain.Population Trends76:17–28Google Scholar
  23. Haskey J (1997) Children who experience Divorce in their Family.Population Trends87:5–10Google Scholar
  24. Hill MS, Jenkins SP (1999) Poverty among British Children: Chronic or Transitory? Institute for Social and Economic Research, Essex University, Working Paper 99/23Google Scholar
  25. Hobcraft J (1998) Intergenerational and Life-Course Transmission of Social Exclusion: Influences of Childhood Poverty, Family Disruption, and Contact with the Police. CASEpaper 15, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of EconomicsGoogle Scholar
  26. Joshi H, Cooksey C, Wiggins RD, McCulloch A, Verropoulou G, Clarke L (1999) Diverse Family Living Situations and Child Development: A Multi-level Analysis omparing Longitudinal Evidence from Britain and the United States.International Journal of Law Policy and the Family13(2):292–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kiernan KE (1996) Lone Motherhood, Employment and Outcomes for Children.International Journal of Law Policy and the Family10(2):233–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Korenmann S, Miller J, Sjaastad J (1995) Long-term Poverty and Child Development: Evidence from the NLSY.Children and Youth Services Review17(1):127–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kratzer L, Hodgins S (1997) Adult Outcomes of Child Conduct Problems: A Cohort Study.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology25(1):65–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lefebvre P, Merrigan P (1998) Work Schedules, Job Characteristics, Parenting Practices and Children’s Outcomes. Working Paper 77, Center for Research on Economic Fluctuations and Employment, Universite du Quebec a MontrealGoogle Scholar
  31. Macintyre S, Ellaway A, Der G, Ford G, Hunt K (1998) Do Housing Tenure and Car Access predict Health because they are simply Markers of Income or Self-Esteem? A Scottish Study.Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health52(10):657–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Marsh A, McKay S (1993)Families Work and Benefits.Policy Studies Institute, London McLanahan S (1997) Parent Absence or Poverty: which matters more?. In: Duncan J, Brooks-Google Scholar
  33. Gunn J (eds)Consequences of Growing up Poor.Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 35–48Google Scholar
  34. McLanahan S, Sandefur G (1994)Growing Up With a Single Parent: What Hurts What Helps.Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  35. McLoyd VC (1998) Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Child Development.American Psychologist53(2):185–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Office of National Statistics (1997)Birth Statistics 1995Series FM1: 17.HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Office of National Statistics (1998)Social Focus on Women and Men.HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. O’Higgins M, Jenkins S (1990) Poverty in the EC. In: Teehens R, van Praag B (eds).Analysing Poverty in the European Community.Eurostat, Luxembourg, 64–87Google Scholar
  39. Rubin DB (1987)Multiple Imputation for Nonresponse in Surveys.Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schafer JL (1997)Analysis of Incomplete Multivariate Data(Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability 72.) London, Chapman and HallCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Smith JR, Brooks-Gunn J, Klebanov PK (1997) Consequences of Living in Poverty for Young Children’s Cognitive and Verbal Ability and Early School Achievement. In: Duncan J, Brooks-Gunn J (eds)Consequences of Growing up Poor.Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 132–189Google Scholar
  42. Sugland B, Zaslow M, Smith J, Brooks-Gunn J, Coates D, Blumenthal C, Moore K, Griffin T, Bradley R (1995) The Early Childhood HOME Inventory and HOME Short Form in differing Racial/Ethnic Groups: Are there Differences in Underlying Structure, Internal Consistency of Subscales, and Patterns of Prediction.Journal of Family Issues16(5):632–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wechsler D (1974)Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised.Psychological Corporation, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew McCulloch
    • 1
  • Heather E. Joshi
    • 2
  1. 1.Kings FundLondonUK
  2. 2.Institute of EducationCentre for Longitudinal StudiesLondonUK

Personalised recommendations