Sustainable Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

  • Jay Whelan
  • Ronald Hardy
  • Richard S. Wilkes
  • Henry E. ValentinEmail author
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 67)


Omega-3 fatty acids represent essential nutrients for animals and humans. The most common plant-derived precursor for the bioactive long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). ALA is the only omega-3 fatty acid available in vegetable oils that are produced in substantial volumes. However, conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is inefficient in humans due to a metabolic bottleneck represented by the Δ6-desaturase enzyme that converts ALA to stearidonic acid (SDA), the first intermediate in the metabolic pathway that converts ALA to EPA and DHA. SDA is present in small amounts in the oil of some herbs such as borage oil or hemp oil; however, these oils are not available in large quantities. Compared to the main vegetable oils that contain ALA, a more efficient source for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids is provided by marine cold water fish that contain substantial amounts of EPA and DHA in membrane and storage lipids. These fish do not have the metabolic capacity to synthesize omega-3 fatty acids from central intermediates of their metabolism themselves. Instead they acquire EPA and DHA through their food chain that is founded on marine algae as primary producers. Unfortunately the human consumption of fish is limited by an increasingly finite supply of marine stocks, by encumbrance of some marine fish with environmental toxins, and by dietary preferences in the Western cultures that tend to avoid fish as food source. This chapter reviews the discovery and relevance of omega-3 fatty acids as an essential human nutrient, the limitations of the marine ecosystem in providing the bioactive omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA in sufficient quantities for human consumption, and the development of SDA soybeans that are soybeans with substantially improved omega-3 profile. SDA soybeans contain 20 % of their total fatty acids as SDA. As such, they represent a much more efficient source of omega-3 fatty acids than traditional vegetable oils that contain ALA only. SDA soybean oil has been shown to perform similar as conventional soybean when incorporated into human foods. In contrast to specialty oils, production of SDA soybean oil is more economical and can easily be ramped up to produce large quantities. In contrast to marine omega-3 sources SDA soybean oil is free of environmental toxins and not tied to the volume limitations of the marine ecosystem. This positions SDA soybean oil as an environmentally friendly sustainable source of essential omega-3 fatty acids for the increasing demand of a growing human population.


Fish Meal Pacific Salmon Stearidonic Acid Industrial Fish Peruvian Anchovy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aarsetoey H, Aarsetoey R, Lindner T, Staines H, Harris WS, Nilsen DW (2011) Low levels of the omega-3 index are associated with sudden cardiac arrest and remain stable in survivors in the subacute phase. Lipids 46:151–161PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Agren JJ, Hanninen O, Laitinen M, Seppanen K, Bernhardt I, Fogelholm L et al (1988) Boreal freshwater fish diet modifies the plasma lipids and prostanoids and membrane fatty acids in man. Lipids 23:924–929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Agren JJ, Pekkarinen H, Litmanen H, Hanninen O (1991) Fish diet and physical fitness in relation to membrane and serum lipids, prostanoid metabolism and platelet aggregation in female students. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 63:393–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aliani M, Ryland D, Pierce GN (2011) Effect of flax addition on the flavor profile of muffins and snack bars. Food Res Int 44:2489–2496Google Scholar
  5. Aliani M, Ryaland D, Pierce GN (2012) Effect of flax addition on the flavor profile and acceptability of bagels. J Food Sci 71:S62–S70Google Scholar
  6. Alvarez B, Ruiz C, Chacon P, Alvarez-Sabin J, Matas M (2004) Serum values of metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 as related to unstable plaque and inflammatory cells in patients with greater than 70% carotid artery stenosis. J Vasc 40:469–475Google Scholar
  7. American Dietetics Association (2007) Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: dietary fatty acids. J Am Diet Assoc 107:1599–1611Google Scholar
  8. Arterburn LM, Hall EB, Oken H (2006) Distribution, interconversion, and dose response of n-3 fatty acids in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 83:1467S–1476SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Astorg P, Arnault N, Czernichow S, Noisette N, Galan P, Hercberg S (2004) Dietary intakes and food sources of n-6 and n-3 PUFA in French adult men and women. Lipids 39:527–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Balk EM, Lichtenstein AH, Chung M, Kupelnick B, Chew P, Lau J (2006) Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review. Atherosclerosis 189:19–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Beitz J, Mest HJ, Forster W (1981) Influence of linseed oil diet on the pattern of serum phospholipids in man. Acta Biol Med Ger 40:K31–K35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bell JG, McGhee F, Campbell PJ, Sargent JR (2003) Rapeseed oil as an alternative to marine fish oil in diets of post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): changes in flesh fatty acid composition and effectiveness of subsequent fish oil “wash out”. Aquaculture 218:515–528Google Scholar
  13. Bharadwaj AS, Hart SD, Brown BJ, Li Y, Watkins BA, Brown PB (2010) Dietary source of stearidonic acid promotes higher muscle DHA concentrations than linolenic acid in hybrid striped bass. Lipids 45:21–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bimbo AP (2008) Alaska seafood byproducts: update on potential products, markets and competing products. In: Bechtel PJ, Smiley S (eds) A sustainable future: fish processing byproducts. Alaska Sea Grant University of Alaska, Fairbanks, pp 9–25Google Scholar
  15. Blonk MC, Bilo HJ, Nauta JJ, Popp-Snijders C, Mulder C, Donker AJ (1990) Dose-response effects of fish-oil supplementation in healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 52:120–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brenna JT (2002) Efficiency of conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to long chain n-3 fatty acids in man. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 5:127–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brenna JT, Salem N Jr, Sinclair AJ, Cunnane SC (2009) alpha-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 80:85–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Breslow JL (2006) n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 83:1477S–1482SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Brunner EJ, Jones PJ, Friel S, Bartley M (2009) Fish, human health and marine ecosystem health: policies in collision. Int J Epidemiol 38:93–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Buckley R, Shewring B, Turner R, Yaqoob P, Minihane AM (2004) Circulating triacylglycerol and apoE levels in response to EPA and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in adult human subjects. Br J Nutr 92:477–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Burdge GC, Wootton SA (2002) Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in young women. Br J Nutr 88:411–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Burdge GC, Jones AE, Wootton SA (2002) Eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids are the principal products of alpha-linolenic acid metabolism in young men*. Br J Nutr 88:355–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Burdge GC, Finnegan YE, Minihane AM, Williams CM, Wootton SA (2003) Effect of altered dietary n-3 fatty acid intake upon plasma lipid fatty acid composition, conversion of [13C]alpha-linolenic acid to longer-chain fatty acids and partitioning towards beta-oxidation in older men. Br J Nutr 90:311–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Burr G, Burr M (1929) A new deficiency disease produced by the rigid exclusion of fat from the diet. J Biol Chem 82:345–367Google Scholar
  25. Burr G, Burr M (1930) The nature and role of the fatty acids essential in nutrition. J Biol Chem 86:587–621Google Scholar
  26. Calder PC (2006) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 83:1505S–1519SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Calder PC (2010) The American Heart Association advisory on n-6 fatty acids: evidence based or biased evidence? Br J Nutr 104:1575–1576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cawood AL, Ding R, Napper FL, Young RH, Williams JA, Ward MJ et al (2010) Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from highly concentrated n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters is incorporated into advanced atherosclerotic plaques and higher plaque EPA is associated with decreased plaque inflammation and increased stability. Atherosclerosis 212:252–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cerbone AM, Cirillo F, Coppola A, Rise P, Stragliotto E, Galli C et al (1999) Persistent impairment of platelet aggregation following cessation of a short-course dietary supplementation of moderate amounts of N-3 fatty acid ethyl esters. Thromb Haemost 82:128–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Christensen JH (2003) n-3 fatty acids and the risk of sudden cardiac death. Emphasis on heart rate variability. Dan Med Bull 50:347–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Clemente T, Xing A, Ye X, Sato S, Schweiger B, Kinney A (2003) Production of gamma linolenic acid in seeds of transgenic soybean. In: Vasil LK (ed) Plant biotechonology 2002 and Beyond. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 421–424Google Scholar
  32. Cunnane SC, Ganguli S, Menard C, Liede AC, Hamadeh MJ, Chen ZY et al (1993) High alpha-linolenic acid flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum): some nutritional properties in humans. Br J Nutr 69:443–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cuthbertson WF (1976) Essential fatty acid requirements in infancy. Am J Clin Nutr 29:559–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. De Silva SS, Francis DS, Tacon AGJ (2011) From fish oil replacement and alternative lipid sources in aquaculture feeds. In: Turchini GM, Ng WK, Tocher DR (eds) Fish oils in aquaculture in retrospect. CRC, Boca Raton, FL, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  35. Decker EA, Akoh CC, Wilkes RS (2012) Incorporation of (n-3) fatty acids in foods: challenges and opportunities. J Nutr 142:610S–613SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Driss F, Vericel E, Lagarde M, Dechavanne M, Darcet P (1984) Inhibition of platelet aggregation and thromboxane synthesis after intake of small amount of icosapentaenoic acid. Thromb Res 36:389–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Duarte CM, Homer M, Olsen Y, Soto D, Marba N, Guiu J, Black K, Karakassis I (2009) Will the oceans feed humanity? Bioscience 59:967–976Google Scholar
  38. Eckert H, LaVallee B, Schweiger BJ, Kinney AJ, Cahoon AB, Clemente T (2006) Co-expression of the borage Δ6 desaturase and the Arabidopsis Δ15 desaturase results in high accumulation of stearidonic acid in the seeds of transgenic soybean. Planta 224(5):1050–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Engler MM, Engler MB (2006) Omega-3 fatty acids: role in cardiovascular health and disease. J Cardiovasc Nurs 21:17–24, quizPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Engstrom K, Luostarinen R, Saldeen T (1996) Whole blood production of thromboxane, prostacyclin and leukotriene B4 after dietary fish oil supplementation in man: effect of vitamin E. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 54:419–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Engstrom K, Wallin R, Saldeen T (2003) Effects of Scandinavian caviar paste enriched with a stable fish oil on plasma phospholipid fatty acids and lipid peroxidation. Eur J Clin Nutr 57:1052–1059PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Environmental Protection Agency/Food and Drug Adminsitration (2004) What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish: 2004 EPA and FDA advice For: women who might become pregnant; women who are pregnant; nursing mothers; young children. Accessed 12 November 2012
  43. Ezaki O, Takahashi M, Shigematsu T, Shimamura K, Kimura J, Ezaki H et al (1999) Long-term effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid from perilla oil on serum fatty acids composition and on the risk factors of coronary heart disease in Japanese elderly subjects. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 45:759–772Google Scholar
  44. Farzaneh-Far R, Harris WS, Garg S, Na B, Whooley MA (2009) Inverse association of erythrocyte n-3 fatty acid levels with inflammatory biomarkers in patients with stable coronary artery disease: the heart and soul study. Atherosclerosis 205:538–543PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Ferrucci L, Cherubini A, Bandinelli S, Bartali B, Corsi A, Lauretani F et al (2006) Relationship of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids to circulating inflammatory markers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:439–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Finnegan YE, Minihane AM, Leigh-Firbank EC, Kew S, Meijer GW, Muggli R et al (2003) Plant- and marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have differential effects on fasting and postprandial blood lipid concentrations and on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification in moderately hyperlipidemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 77:783–795PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2010) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, pp 1–197Google Scholar
  48. Food and Nutrition Board IoM (2005) Dietary reference intakes: energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids, Parts 1 and 2. National Academies Press, Washington, DC. Available at The National Academic Press
  49. Fountoulaki D, Vasilaki A, Hurtado R, Grigorakis K, Karacostas I, Nengas I, Rigos G, Kotzamanis Y, Venou B, Alexis MN (2009) Fish oil substitution by vegetable oils in commercial diets for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L); effects on growth performance, flesh quality and fillet fatty acid profile. Aquaculture 288:317–326Google Scholar
  50. Fraeye I, Bruneel C, Lemahiu C, Buyse J, Miulaert K, Foubert I (2012) Dietary enrichment of eggs with omega-3 fatty acids: a review. Food Res Int 48:961–969Google Scholar
  51. Frankel EN (2005) Chapter 8: Control of oxidation. In: Frankel EN (ed) Lipid oxidation, 2nd edn. The Oily Press, Bridgewater, pp 187–208Google Scholar
  52. Froman B, Duong C, Listello J (2009) Soybean plant and seed corresponding to transgenic event MON87769 and methods for detection thereof. PCT Int Appl WO 2009/102873 A1Google Scholar
  53. Gebauer SK, Psota TL, Harris WS, Kris-Etherton PM (2006) n-3 fatty acid dietary recommendations and food sources to achieve essentiality and cardiovascular benefits. Am J Clin Nutr 83:1526S–1535SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. George C, Rogan GJ (2010) Petition for determination of nonregulated status for soybean MON 87769. USDA/APHIS Petition #09-183-01p.
  55. Ghafoorunissa, Vani A, Laxmi R, Sesikeran B (2002) Effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid from blended oils on biochemical indices of coronary heart disease in Indians. Lipids 37:1077–1086Google Scholar
  56. Gibney MJ, Hunter B (1993) The effects of short- and long-term supplementation with fish oil on the incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids into cells of the immune system in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 47:255–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gomes T, Delcuratolo D, Pardiso VM, Summo C, Caponio F (2011) Pro-oxidant activity of oxidized triglycerols in olive oil and comparison with pro-oxidant action of polar triacylglycerol oligopolymers. LWT Food Sci Technol 112:741–749Google Scholar
  58. Gray DA, Payne G, McClements DJ, Decker EA, Lad M (2010) Oxidative stability of Echium plantagineum seed oil bodies. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 112:741–749Google Scholar
  59. Grimsgaard S, Bonaa KH, Hansen JB, Nordoy A (1997) Highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in humans have similar triacylglycerol-lowering effects but divergent effects on serum fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 66:649–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Gronn M, Gorbitz C, Christensen E, Levorsen A, Ose L, Hagve TA et al (1991) Dietary n-6 fatty acids inhibit the incorporation of dietary n-3 fatty acids in thrombocyte and serum phospholipids in humans: a controlled dietetic study. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 51:255–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Groot C, Margolis L (1991) Pacific Salmon life histories. UBC Press, Vancouver, BC, pp 1–564Google Scholar
  62. Gunstone FD (2006) Minor specialty oils. In: Shahidi F (ed) Nutraceutical and specialty lipids and their co-products. CRC, Boca Raton, FL, pp 91–126Google Scholar
  63. Hagve TA, Lie O, Gronn M (1993) The effect of dietary N-3 fatty acids on osmotic fragility and membrane fluidity of human erythrocytes. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl 215:75–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Harchaoui KE, Visser ME, Kastelein JJ, Stroes ES, Dallinga-Thie GM (2009) Triglycerides and cardiovascular risk. Curr Cardiol Rev 5:216–222PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hardy RW, Barrows FT (2002) Diet formulation and manufacturing. In: Halver JE, Hardy RW (eds) Fish nutrition, 3rd edn. Academic, New York, pp 505–600Google Scholar
  66. Hardy RW, King IB (1989) Variation in n-3 fatty acid content of fresh and frozen Salmon. Omega-3 News: 1–4Google Scholar
  67. Hardy RW, Shephard J (2009) Sustainable marine resources for organic feeds. World Aquacult 40:59–64Google Scholar
  68. Harris WS (2008) The omega-3 index as a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr 87:1997S–2002SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Harris WS (2010) The omega-3 index: clinical utility for therapeutic intervention. Curr Cardiol Rep 12:503–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Harris WS, Von SC (2004) The omega-3 index: a new risk factor for death from coronary heart disease? Prev Med 39:212–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Harris WS, Dirienzo MA, Sands SA, George C, Jones PG, Eapen AK (2007) Stearidonic acid increases the red blood cell and heart eicosapentaenoic acid content in dogs. Lipids 42:325–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Harris WS, Kris-Etherton PM, Harris KA (2008a) Intakes of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid associated with reduced risk for death from coronary heart disease in healthy adults. Curr Atheroscler Rep 10:503–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Harris WS, Lemke SL, Hansen SN, Goldstein DA, Dirienzo MA, Su H, Nemeth MA, Taylor ML, Ahmed G, George C (2008b) Stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil increased the omega-3 index, an emerging cardiovascular risk marker. Lipids 43(9):805–811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Higgs DA, Macdonald JS, Levings CD, Dosanjh BS (1995) Nutrition and feeding habits in relation to life history. In: Groot C, Margolis L, Clark WC (eds) Physiological ecology of pacific salmon. UBC Press, Vancouver, BC, pp 159–315Google Scholar
  75. Hodge J, Sanders K, Sinclair AJ (1993) Differential utilization of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in human plasma. Lipids 28:525–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Holman RT, Johnson SB, Hatch TF (1982) A case of human linolenic acid deficiency involving neurological abnormalities. Am J Clin Nutr 35:617–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Howe P, Meyer B, Record S, Baghurst K (2006) Dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: contribution of meat sources. Nutrition 22:47–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Hunter JE (1990) n-3 fatty acids from vegetable oils. Am J Clin Nutr 51:809–814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Izquierdo MS, Montero D, Robiana L, Cabellero MJ, Rosenlund G, Gines R (2005) Alterations in fillet fatty acid profile and flesh quality in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fed vegetable oils for a long term period. Recovery of fatty acid profiles by fish oil feeding. Aqauculture 250:431–444Google Scholar
  80. James MJ, Gibson RA, D’Angelo M, Neumann MA, Cleland LG (1993) Simple relationships exist between dietary linoleate and the n-6 fatty acids of human neutrophils and plasma. Am J Clin Nutr 58:497–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. James MJ, Ursin VM, Cleland LG (2003) Metabolism of stearidonic acid in human subjects: comparison with the metabolism of other n-3 fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 77:1140–1145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Jensen CL, Maude M, Anderson RE, Heird WC (2000) Effect of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation of lactating women on the fatty acid composition of breast milk lipids and maternal and infant plasma phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr 71:292S–299SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Jobling M (2003) Do changes in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L, fillet fatty acids following a dietary switch represent wash-out or dilution? Test of a dilution model and its application. Aquac Res 34:1215–1221Google Scholar
  84. Kang JX, Leaf A (2000) Prevention of fatal cardiac arrhythmias by polyunsaturated fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 71:202S–207SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Kannel WB, Wilson P, Blair SN (1985) Epidemiological assessment of the role of physical activity and fitness in development of cardiovascular disease. Am Heart J 109:876–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Katan MB, Deslypere JP, Van Birgelen AP, Penders M, Zegwaard M (1997) Kinetics of the incorporation of dietary fatty acids into serum cholesteryl esters, erythrocyte membranes, and adipose tissue: an 18-month controlled study. J Lipid Res 38:2012–2022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kelley DS, Nelson GJ, Love JE, Branch LB, Taylor PC, Schmidt PC et al (1993) Dietary alpha-linolenic acid alters tissue fatty acid composition, but not blood lipids, lipoproteins or coagulation status in humans. Lipids 28:533–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Kelly ML, Berry JR, Dwyer DA, Griinari JM, Chouinard PY, Van Amburgh ME et al (1998) Dietary fatty acid sources affect conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in milk from lactating dairy cows. J Nutr 128:881–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kew S, Mesa MD, Tricon S, Buckley R, Minihane AM, Yaqoob P (2004) Effects of oils rich in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on immune cell composition and function in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr 79:674–681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ (2002) Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 106:2747–2757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Krkosek M, Ford JS, Morton A, Lele S, Myers RA, Lewis MA (2007) Declining wild salmon populations in relation to parasites from farm salmon. Science 318:1772–1775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Krul ES, Lemke SL, Mukherjea R, Taylor ML, Goldstein DA, Su H, Liu P, Lawless A, Harris WS, Maki KC (2012) Effects of duration of treatment and dosage of eicosapentaenoic acid and stearidonic acid on red blood cell eicosapentaenoic acid content. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 86:51–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Laidlaw M, Holub BJ (2003) Effects of supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids and gamma-linolenic acid on circulating plasma lipids and fatty acid profiles in women. Am J Clin Nutr 77:37–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Landete JM (2012) Plant and mammalian lignans; a review of source, intake, metabolism, intestinal bacteria and health. Food Res Int 46:410–424Google Scholar
  95. Layne KS, Goh YK, Jumpsen JA, Ryan EA, Chow P, Clandinin MT (1996) Normal subjects consuming physiological levels of 18:3(n-3) and 20:5(n-3) from flaxseed or fish oils have characteristic differences in plasma lipid and lipoprotein fatty acid levels. J Nutr 126:2130–2140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Leaf A, Kang JX, Xiao YF, Billman GE (2003a) Clinical prevention of sudden cardiac death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and mechanism of prevention of arrhythmias by n-3 fish oils. Circulation 107:2646–2652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Leaf A, Xiao YF, Kang JX, Billman GE (2003b) Prevention of sudden cardiac death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Pharmacol Ther 98:355–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Lemke SL, Vicini JL, Su H, Goldstein DA, Nemeth MA, Krul ES et al (2010) Dietary intake of stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil increases the omega-3 index: randomized, double-blind clinical study of efficacy and safety. Am J Clin Nutr 92:766–775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Leonard AE, Pereira SL, Sprecher H, Huang YS (2004) Elongation of long-chain fatty acids. Prog Lipid Res 43:36–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Li D, Sinclair A, Wilson A, Nakkote S, Kelly F, Abedin L et al (1999) Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid on thrombotic risk factors in vegetarian men. Am J Clin Nutr 69:872–882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Libby P (2008a) Role of inflammation in atherosclerosis associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Med 121:S21–S31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Libby P (2008b) The molecular mechanisms of the thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. J Intern Med 263:517–527PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Libby P, Theroux P (2005) Pathophysiology of coronary artery disease. Circulation 111:3481–3488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Brands M, Carnethon M, Daniels S, Franch HA et al (2006) Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation 114:82–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Linseisen J, Schulze MB, Saadatian-Elahi M, Kroke A, Miller AB, Boeing H (2003) Quantity and quality of dietary fat, carbohydrate, and fiber intake in the German EPIC cohorts. Ann Nutr Metab 47:37–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Mantzioris E, James MJ, Gibson RA, Cleland LG (1994) Dietary substitution with an alpha-linolenic acid-rich vegetable oil increases eicosapentaenoic acid concentrations in tissues. Am J Clin Nutr 59:1304–1309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Marty GD, Saksida SM, Quinn TJ (2010) Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:22599–22604PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Massaro M, Scoditti E, Carluccio MA, Campana MC, De CR (2010) Omega-3 fatty acids, inflammation and angiogenesis: basic mechanisms behind the cardioprotective effects of fish and fish oils. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 56:59–82Google Scholar
  109. McIntyre PB, Jones LE, Flecker AS, Vanni MJ (2007) Fish extinctions alter nutrient recycling in tropical freshwaters. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:4461–4466PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Mest HJ, Beitz J, Heinroth I, Block HU, Forster W (1983) The influence of linseed oil diet on fatty acid pattern in phospholipids and thromboxane formation in platelets in man. Klin Wochenschr 61:187–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Metz JG, Roessler P, Facciotti D, Levering C, Dittrich F, Lassner M, Valentine R, Lardizabal K, Domergue F, Yamada A, Yazawa K, Knauf V, Browse J (2001) Production of polyunsaturated fatty acids by polyketide synthases in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Science 293:290–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Metz JG, Flatt JH, Kuner J (2006) The genes for the enzymes of the polyunsaturated fatty acid polyketide synthase of Schizochytrium and their use in the manufacture of polyunsaturated fatty acids. PCT Int Appl WO 2006135866Google Scholar
  113. Miles EA, Banerjee T, Calder PC (2004) The influence of different combinations of gamma-linolenic, stearidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids on the fatty acid composition of blood lipids and mononuclear cells in human volunteers. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 70:529–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Miller MR, Bridle AR, Nichols PDCCG (2008) Increased elongase and desaturase gene expression with stearidonic acid-enriched diet does not enhance long-chain (n-3) content of seawater Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). J Nutr 138:2179–2185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Mori TA, Bao DQ, Burke V, Puddey IB, Beilin LJ (1999) Docosahexaenoic acid but not eicosapentaenoic acid lowers ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate in humans. Hypertension 34:253–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, Watts GF, O’Neal DN, Best JD et al (2000) Purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have differential effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins, LDL particle size, glucose, and insulin in mildly hyperlipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 71:1085–1094PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Mozaffarian D, Psaty BM, Rimm EB, Lemaitre RN, Burke GL, Lyles MF et al (2004) Fish intake and risk of incident atrial fibrillation. Circulation 110:368–373PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Naylor RL, Goldberg RJ, Primavera JH, Kautsky N, Beveridge MCM, Clay J, Folke C, Lubchenco J, Mooney H, Troell M (2000) Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature 405:1017–1024PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Naylor RL, Hardy RW, Bureau D, Chiu A, Elliott M, Farrell A, Forster I, Gatlin D, Goldberg R, Hua K, Nichols P (2009) Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:15103–15110PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. NRC (2011) Nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  121. Oliveira ACM, Stone DAJ, Plante S, Smiley S, Bechtel PJ, Hardy RW (2008) Fish oils from Alaska seafood processing by-product: an un-exploited sustainable resource for aquaculture. World Aquacult 51:50–69Google Scholar
  122. Oozeki Y (2000) Mechanisms causing the variability of the Japanese sardine population: achievements of the Bio-Cosmos Project in Japan. Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, BC, Canada. p 81Google Scholar
  123. Otten JJ, Pitzi Hellwig J, Meyers LD (2006) Dietary DRI reference intakes: the essential guide to nutrient requirements. The National Academies Press: Washington, DC. Available at The National Academic Press
  124. Ozola S, Straumite E, Kruma Z, Galoburda R (2010) Sensory evaluation of flax oil flavoured by cinnamon or caraway oils. In: Fito P, Toldra F (eds) Proceedings of international conference on food innovation “FoodInnova 2010”, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain, 25–29 Oct 2010, 4 p. [Electronic resource]. – 1 CDGoogle Scholar
  125. Palozza P, Sgarlata E, Luberto C, Piccioni E, Anti M, Marra G et al (1996) n-3 fatty acids induce oxidative modifications in human erythrocytes depending on dose and duration of dietary supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 64:297–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Paulsrud JR, Pensler L, Whitten CF, Stewart S, Holman RT (1972) Essential fatty acid deficiency in infants induced by fat-free intravenous feeding. Am J Clin Nutr 25:897–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Plourde M, Chouinard-Watkins R, Vandal M, Zhang Y, Lawrence P, Brenna JT et al (2011) Plasma incorporation, apparent retroconversion and beta-oxidation of 13C-docosahexaenoic acid in the elderly. Nutr Metab (Lond) 8:5Google Scholar
  128. Polar Foods 2012.
  129. Racine RA, Deckelbaum RJ (2007) Sources of the very-long-chain unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 10:123–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Rambjor GS, Walen AI, Windsor SL, Harris WS (1996) Eicosapentaenoic acid is primarily responsible for hypotriglyceridemic effect of fish oil in humans. Lipids 31(Suppl):S45–S49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Rosenlund G, Corraze G, Izquierdo MS, Torstensen B (2010) The effects of fish oil replacement on nutritional and organoleptic qualities of farmed fish. In: Turchini GM, Ng WK, Tocher DR (eds) Fish oil replacement and alternative lipid sources in aquaculture feeds. CRC, Boca Raton, FL, pp 487–522Google Scholar
  132. Ruiz-Lopez N, Sayanova O, Napier JA, Haslam RP (2012) Metabolic engineering of the omega-3 long chain polyunsatureated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway into transgenic plants. J Exp Bot 63(7):2397–2410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Sanders TA, Hinds A (1992) The influence of a fish oil high in docosahexaenoic acid on plasma lipoprotein and vitamin E concentrations and haemostatic function in healthy male volunteers. Br J Nutr 68:163–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Sands SA, Reid KJ, Windsor SL, Harris WS (2005) The impact of age, body mass index, and fish intake on the EPA and DHA content of human erythrocytes. Lipids 40:343–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Seppanen-Laakso T, Vanhanen H, Laakso I, Kohtamaki H, Viikari J (1992) Replacement of butter on bread by rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil-containing margarine: effects on plasma fatty acid composition and serum cholesterol. Br J Nutr 68:639–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Seppanen-Laakso T, Vanhanen H, Laakso I, Kohtamaki H, Viikari J (1993) Replacement of margarine on bread by rapeseed and olive oils: effects on plasma fatty acid composition and serum cholesterol. Ann Nutr Metab 37:161–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Sidwell VD, Foncannon PR, Moore NS, Bonnett JC (1974) Composition of the edible portions of raw (fresh or frozen) crustaceans, finfish and mollusks. I Protein, fat, moisture, ash, carbohydrate, energy value and cholesterol. Mar Fish Rev 36(3):21–35Google Scholar
  138. Sinclair AJ, Mann NJ (1996) Short-term diets rich in arachidonic acid influence plasma phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and prostacyclin and thromboxane production in humans. J Nutr 126(Suppl):1110S–1114SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Sinclair AJ, O’Dea K, Dunstan G, Ireland PD, Niall M (1987) Effects on plasma lipids and fatty acid composition of very low fat diets enriched with fish or kangaroo meat. Lipids 22:523–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Singer P, Berger I, Wirth M, Godicke W, Jaeger W, Voigt S (1986) Slow desaturation and elongation of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids as a rationale of eicosapentaenoic acid-rich diet to lower blood pressure and serum lipids in normal, hypertensive and hyperlipemic subjects. Prostaglandins Leukot Med 24:173–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Singh KK, Mridula D, Rehal J, Barnwal P (2011) Flaxseed: a potential source of food, feed and fiber. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 51:210–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Sprecher H (1999) An update on the pathways of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2:135–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Stark KD, Park EJ, Maines VA, Holub BJ (2000) Effect of a fish-oil concentrate on serum lipids in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving hormone replacement therapy in a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am J Clin Nutr 72:389–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Steinberg D, Witztum JL (2010) Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 30:2311–2316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Stone DAJ, Oliveira ACM, Ross CF, Plante S, Smiley S, Bechtel PJ, Hardy RW (2011) The effects of phase-feeding rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with canola oil and Alaskan pollock oil on fillet fatty acid composition and sensory attributes. Aquacult Nutr 17:e521–e529Google Scholar
  146. Surette ME, Edens M, Chilton FH, Tramposch KM (2004) Dietary echium oil increases plasma and neutrophil long-chain (n-3) fatty acids and lowers serum triacylglycerols in hypertriglyceridemic humans. J Nutr 134:1406–1411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Tacon AGJ, Metian M (2008) Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: trends and future prospects. Aquaculture 285:146–158Google Scholar
  148. Taylor BW, Flecker AS, Hall RO Jr (2006) Loss of a harvested fish species disrupts carbon flow in a diverse tropical river. Science 313:833–836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Thies F, Nebe-von-Caron G, Powell JR, Yaqoob P, Newsholme EA, Calder PC (2001) Dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid, but not with other long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases natural killer cell activity in healthy subjects aged >55 y. Am J Clin Nutr 73:539–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Tocher DR (2003) Lipid metabolism in teleost fishes. Rev Fish Sci 12:107–184Google Scholar
  151. Tocher DR, Francis DS, Coupland K (2010) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid fich vegetable oils and blends. In: Turchini GM, Ng WK, Tocher DR (eds) Fish oil replacement and alternative lipid sources in aquaculture feeds. CRC, Boca Raton, FL, pp 209–244Google Scholar
  152. United States Department of Agriculture and Department of Health and Human Services. (2010) Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Deitary Guidelines for Americans. Available from
  153. Ursin VM (2003) Modification of plant lipids for human health: development of functional land-based omega-3 fatty acids. J Nutr 133:4271–4274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Ursin V, Froman B, Gonzales J, Screen SE, Dong F, La Roasa TJ (2005) Fatty acid desaturases from Primula. PCT Int Appl WO 2005/021761 A1Google Scholar
  155. Ursin VM, Voelker T, Froman B (2006) Fatty acid desaturases from fungi. PCT Int Appl WO 2006/0156435 A1Google Scholar
  156. Valsta LM, Salminen I, Aro A, Mutanen M (1996) Alpha-linolenic acid in rapeseed oil partly compensates for the effect of fish restriction on plasma long chain n-3 fatty acids. Eur J Clin Nutr 50:229–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Vazquez L, Kleiner L, Akoh CC (2012) Concentration of stearidonic acid in free fatty acids form from modified soybean oil by selective esterification with dodecanol. J Am Oil Chem Soc 89:1655–1662Google Scholar
  158. Vidgren HM, Agren JJ, Schwab U, Rissanen T, Hanninen O, Uusitupa MI (1997) Incorporation of n-3 fatty acids into plasma lipid fractions, and erythrocyte membranes and platelets during dietary supplementation with fish, fish oil, and docosahexaenoic acid-rich oil among healthy young men. Lipids 32:697–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Voelker T, Wilkes RS (2011) Vistive Gold and Soymega: a one-two punch for trait-enhanced oils. Inform 22(10):638–664Google Scholar
  160. Vognild E, Elvevoll EO, Brox J, Olsen RL, Barstad H, Aursand M et al (1998) Effects of dietary marine oils and olive oil on fatty acid composition, platelet membrane fluidity, platelet responses, and serum lipids in healthy humans. Lipids 33:427–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Von SC, Fischer S, Weber PC (1985) Long-term effects of dietary marine omega-3 fatty acids upon plasma and cellular lipids, platelet function, and eicosanoid formation in humans. J Clin Invest 76:1626–1631Google Scholar
  162. Voss A, Reinhart M, Sankarappa S, Sprecher H (1991) The metabolism of 7,10,13,16,19-docosapentaenoic acid to 4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid in rat liver is independent of a 4-desaturase. J Biol Chem 266:19995–20000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Wallace FA, Miles EA, Calder PC (2003) Comparison of the effects of linseed oil and different doses of fish oil on mononuclear cell function in healthy human subjects. Br J Nutr 89:679–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Wensing AG, Mensink RP, Hornstra G (1999) Effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant and marine origin on platelet aggregation in healthy elderly subjects. Br J Nutr 82:183–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Whelan J (2009) Dietary stearidonic acid is a long chain (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid with potential health benefits. J Nutr 139:5–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Whelan J, McEntee MF (2004) Dietary (n-6) PUFA and intestinal tumorigenesis. J Nutr 134:3421S–3426SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Whelan J, Rust C (2006) Innovative dietary sources of n-3 fatty acids. Annu Rev Nutr 26:75–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Whelan J, Jahns L, Kavanagh K (2009) Docosahexaenoic acid: measurements in food and dietary exposure. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 81:133–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Whittinghill J, Welsby D (2010) Use of SDA soybean oil in bakery applications. Lipid Technol 22:203–205Google Scholar
  170. Wirth M, Steffens W, Meiske JC, Steinberg C (1997) Signficance of docosahexaenoic acid for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 99:251–253Google Scholar
  171. Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, Matsuzawa Y, Saito Y, Ishikawa Y et al (2007) Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet 369:1090–1098PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jay Whelan
    • 1
  • Ronald Hardy
    • 2
  • Richard S. Wilkes
    • 3
    • 4
  • Henry E. Valentin
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition, Tennessee Agricultural Experiment StationUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  2. 2.Animal Veterinary Science Department, Hagerman Fish Experimental StationUniversity of IdahoHagermanUSA
  3. 3.Monsanto CompanySt. LouisUSA
  4. 4.Wilkes Food Technology ConsultingTownship of WashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations