Advertisement

Moving Toward Energy Security and Sustainability in 2050 by Reconfiguring Biofuel Production

  • Stephen R. HughesEmail author
  • Bryan R. Moser
  • William R. Gibbons
Chapter
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 67)

Abstract

To achieve energy security and sustainability by 2050 requires reconfiguring biofuel production both by building on current infrastructure and existing technology and also by making substantial improvements and changes in the feedstocks used, the process technologies applied, and the fuels produced. This chapter describes a biofuel production system that would combine proven processes with promising technologies that are currently under development and that has the potential to provide energy security by 2050. This system is envisioned as a self-contained, community-based system with integrated crossover bioprocessing units to convert biomass into third generation drop-in biofuels and bio-derived chemicals. These systems could be developed on sites near new feedstocks or built onto existing first- or second generation biofuel facilities. The system would not only produce biofuels from both biomass and CO2 but also produce high-value coproducts and transform wastewater effluent into acceptable irrigation water. The design would produce energy in an environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable manner.

Keywords

Biofuel Production Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Cellulosic Ethanol Renewable Fuel Corn Ethanol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Arizona State University (2014) Cyanobacterial diesel: tubes in the desert. http://biofuels.asu.edu/tubes.shtml. Cited 3 Mar 2014
  2. Carlson TR, Vispute TP, Huber GW (2008) Green gasoline by catalytic fast pyrolysis of solid biomass derived compounds. ChemSusChem 1(5):397–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chheda JN, Huber GW, Dumesic JA (2007) Liquid-phase catalytic processing of biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons to fuels and chemicals. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 46(38):7164–7183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chisti Y (2007) Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnol Adv 25(3):294–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dauenhauer PJ, Dreyer BJ, Degenstein NJ, Schmidt LD (2007) Millisecond reforming of solid biomass for sustainable fuels. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 46(31):5864–5867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. den Boer E, Aarnink S, Kleiner F, Pagenkopf J (2013) Zero emissions tru13.4841.21cks. CE Delft. Commissioned by: The International Council for Clean Transportation (ICCT). Publication code: 13.4841.21Google Scholar
  7. Ethanol Producer Magazine (2014) Ethanol plants. http://ethanolproducer.com/plants/map/. Cited 9 Mar 2014.
  8. Federal Register (2010) Regulation of fuels and fuel additives: changes to renewable fuels program, Final Rule 40 CFR 80; 75 FR 14670. pp 14670–14904. http://federalregister.gov/a/2010-3851. Cited 9 Mar 2014
  9. Gallagher BJ (2011) The economics of producing biodiesel from algae. Renew Energ 36:158–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Halfmann C, Gu L, Zhou R (2014) Engineering cyanobacteria for production of a cyclic hydrocarbon fuel from CO2 and H2O. Green Chem 16(6):3175–3185Google Scholar
  11. Hill J, Nelson E, Tilman D, Polasky S, Tiffany D (2006) Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:11206–11210PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Huber GW, Dale BE (2009) Grassoline at the pump. Sci Am 301(1):52–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hughes SR, Sterner DE, Bischoff KM, Hector RE, Dowd PF, Qureshi N, Bang SS, Grynaviski N, Chakrabarty T, Johnson ET, Dien BS, Mertens JA, Caughey RJ, Liu S, Butt TR, LaBaer J, Cotta MA, Rich JO (2008) Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for improved xylose utilization with a three-plasmid SUMO yeast expression system. Plasmid 61(1):22–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hughes SR, Moser BR, Harmsen AJ, Robinson S, Bischoff KM, Jones MA, Pinkelman R, Bang SS, Tasaki K, Doll KM, Qureshi N, Liu S, Saha BC, Jackson JS, Cotta MA, Rich JO, Caimi P (2011) Production of Candida antarctica lipase B gene open reading frame using automated PCR gene assembly protocol on robotic workcell and expression in an ethanologenic yeast for use as resin-bound biocatalyst in biodiesel production. J Lab Autom 16(1):17–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Knothe G (2010) Biodiesel and renewable diesel: a comparison. Progr Energ Combust Sci 36:364–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kumar D, Murthy GS (2011) Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production. Biotechnol Biofuels 4:27. doi: 10.1186/1754-6834-4-27 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kunkes EL, Simonetti DA, West RM, Serrano-Ruiz JC, Gärtner CA, Dumesic JA (2008) Catalytic conversion of biomass to monofunctional hydrocarbons and targeted liquid-fuel classes. Science 322(5900):417–421. doi: 10.1126/science.1159210 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Laluce C, Schenberg ACG, Gallardo JCM, Coradello LFC, Pombeiro-Sponchiado SR (2012) Advances and developments in strategies to improve strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and processes to obtain the lignocellulosic ethanol − a review. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 166(8):1908–1926. doi: 10.1007/s12010-012-9619-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee SK, Chou H, Ham TS, Lee TS, Keasling JD (2008) Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels. Curr Opin Biotechnol 19(6):556–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lestari S, Mäki-Arvela P, Beltramini J, Lu GQ, Murzin DY (2009) Transforming triglycerides and fatty acids into biofuels. ChemSusChem 2(12):1109–1119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lynd LR, de Brito Cruz CH (2010) Make way for ethanol. Science 330(6008):1176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Machado IM, Atsumi S (2012) Cyanobacterial biofuel production. J Biotechnol 162(1):50–6. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2012.03.005. Epub 2012 Mar 16 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. National Biodiesel Board (2014) America’s advanced biofuel. Production, production statistics. http://www.biodiesel.org/production/production-statistics. Cited 9 Mar 2014
  24. National Science Foundation (2008) Breaking the chemical and engineering barriers to lignocellulosic biofuels: next generation hydrocarbon, biorefineries. http://www.ecs.umass.edu/biofuels/Images/RoadmapFinal.pdf. Cited 9 Mar 2014
  25. Parmara A, Singh NK, Pandey A, Gnansounou E, Madamwar D (2011) Cyanobacteria and microalgae: a positive prospect for biofuels. Bioresour Technol 102(22):10163–10172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Perlack RD, Stokes BJ (2011) Biomass supply for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry. ORNL/TM-2011/224. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 227pGoogle Scholar
  27. Perlack RD, Wright LL, Turhollow AF, Graham RL, Stokes BJ, Erbach DC, A joint study sponsored by US Department of Energy and US Department of Agriculture (2005) Biomass as a feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: the technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TNGoogle Scholar
  28. Radakovits R, Jinkerson RE, Darzins A, Posewitz MC (2010) Genetic engineering of algae for enhanced biofuel production. Eukaryot Cell 9(4):486–501, doi:  10.1128/EC.00364-09. PMCID: PMC2863401PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Regalbuto JR (2009) Cellulosic biofuels – got gasoline? Science 325(5942):822–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Renewable Fuels Association (2014a) The industry, biorefinery locations. http://www.ethanolrfa.org/bio-refinery-locations/. Cited 8 Mar 2014
  31. Renewable Fuels Association (2014b) The Industry, Industry statistics http://www.ethanolrfa.org/pages/statistics. Cited 8 Mar 2014
  32. Renewable Fuels Association (2014c) World fuel ethanol production. http://ethanolrfa.org/pages/World-Fuel-Ethanol-Production. Cited 8 Mar 2014
  33. Schirmer A, Rude MA, Li X, Popova E, del Cardayre SB (2010) Microbial biosynthesis of alkanes. Science 329(5991):559–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tilman D, Socolow R, Foley JA, Hill J, Larson E, Lynd L, Pacala S, Reilly J, Searchinger T, Somerville C, Williams R (2009) Beneficial biofuels—the food, energy, and environment trilemma. Science 325(5938):270–271. doi: 10.1126/science.1177970 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. United States Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (2012) Replacing the whole barrel. DOE/EE-0762Google Scholar
  36. United States Energy Information Administration (2014) Biofuels production, internal energy statistics – biorenewables: biodiesel. http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/iedindex3.cfm?tid=79&pid=81&aid=1&cid=regions&syid=2006&eyid=2010&unit=TBPD. Cited 9 Mar 2014
  37. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2014) Fuel and fuel additives, E15 (a blend of gasoline and ethanol). http://www.epa.gov/otaq/regs/fuels/additive/e15/. Cited 9 Mar 2014
  38. Wijffels RH, Barbosa MJ (2010) An outlook on microalgal biofuels. Science 329(5993):796–799PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wilson J (2011) U.S. corn-surplus cut as ethanol use climbs; smaller global crop projected. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-09/u-s-corn-surplus-cut-on-higher-ethanol-output-smaller- world-crop-is-seen.html. Cited 9 Mar 2014
  40. Zhou J, Li Y (2010) Engineering cyanobacteria for fuels and chemicals production. Protein Cell 1(3):207–210. doi: 10.1007/s13238-010-0043-9 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen R. Hughes
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bryan R. Moser
    • 1
  • William R. Gibbons
    • 2
  1. 1.NTL Center for Agricultural Utilization ResearchPeoriaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biology and MicrobiologySouth Dakota State UniversityBrookingsUSA

Personalised recommendations