Advertisement

Inflation and the False Vacuum

Chapter
  • 1.3k Downloads
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Physics book series (SpringerBriefs in Physics)

Abstract

Inflation is the idea that the very early universe may have been dominated by vacuum energy, giving rise to a brief period of vastly accelerated expansion. Its roots go back to the late 1960s and the quest for singularity avoidance in the wake of the discovery of the cosmic microwave background. A tentative connection to what would later be called the horizon problem within relativistic cosmology also goes back to this period. But inflation did not gain wide recognition until high-energy particle physicists became involved. Stimulated by the successes of electroweak unification, they began to explore the implications of spontaneous symmetry breaking for cosmology, with the attendant possibility of a false vacuum state. These models implied a universe dominated by massive relic particles from the early universe. This “monopole problem” was the trigger for the explosion of interest in inflation in the 1980s. A possible explanation for flatness was noted at about the same time. Only later was it appreciated that the most compelling argument for something like inflation is its potential to link the observed large-scale structure in the present-day universe to quantum fluctuations in the earliest moments after the big bang.

Keywords

Inflation Vacuum energy Spontaneous symmetry breaking Cosmological constant Large-scale structure 

References

  1. Adler, R.J., Overduin, J.M.: The nearly flat universe. Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 37, 1491–1503 (2005)Google Scholar
  2. Albrecht, A., Steinhardt, P.J.: Cosmology for grand unified theories with radiatively induced symmetry breaking. Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1220–1223 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blome, H.-J., Priester, W.: Big bounce in the very early universe. Astron. Astrophys. 250, 43–49 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Carroll, S.M.: Quintessence and the rest of the world: suppressing long-range interactions. Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3067–3070 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chernin, A.D.: Why does the universe expand? Zemlya i Vselennaya. Earth universe 3(2013), 50–57 (2013)Google Scholar
  6. Dreitlein, J.: Broken symmetry and the cosmological constant. Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1243–1244 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ellis, J., Olive, K.A.: Inflation can solve the rotation problem. Nature 303, 679–681 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gliner, É.B.: Algebraic properties of the energy-momentum tensor and vacuum-like states of matter. Sov. Phys. JETP 22, 378–382 (1966)ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Gliner, É.B.: The vacuum-like state of a medium and Friedman cosmology. Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 559561 (1970)Google Scholar
  10. Gliner, É.B., Dymnikova, I.G.: A nonsingular Friedmann cosmology. Sov. Astron. Lett. 1, 9394 (1975)Google Scholar
  11. Gliner, É.B.: Inflationary universe and the vacuumlike state of physical medium. Phys. Usp. 45, 213–220 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gurevich, L.E.: On the origin of the metagalaxy. Astrophys. Space Sci. 38, 6778 (1975)Google Scholar
  13. Guth, A.: Inationary universe: a possible solution for the horizon and flatness problems. Phys. Rev. D 23, 347356 (1981)Google Scholar
  14. Guth, A.: The Inflationary Universe. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1997)Google Scholar
  15. Israelit, M., Rosen, N.: A singularity-free cosmological model in general relativity. Astrophys. J. 342, 627–634 (1989)ADSCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  16. Kazanas, D.: Dynamics of the universe and spontaneous symmetry breaking. Astrophys. J. Lett. 241, L59L63 (1980)Google Scholar
  17. Kragh, H.: Cosmology and Controversy. Princeton University Press, Princeton (1996)Google Scholar
  18. Linde, A.D.: Is the cosmological constant a constant? JETP Lett. 19, 183–184 (1974) (The title stated in the journal, “Is the Lee constant a cosmological constant ?”, is a mistranslation, as Linde pointed out in an erratum.)Google Scholar
  19. Linde, A.D.: A new inflationary universe scenario: a possible solution of the horizon, flatness, homogeneity, isotropy and primordial monopole problems. Phys. Lett. B108, 389–393 (1982)ADSCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  20. Linde, A.D.: Chaotic inflation. Phys. Lett. B129, 177–181 (1983)Google Scholar
  21. Linde, A.D.: Inflationary cosmology. Lect. Notes Phys. 738, 1–54 (2008)ADSCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  22. Misner, C.W.: Mixmaster universe. Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 10711074 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mukhanov, V.F., Chibisov, G.V.: Quantum fluctuations and a nonsingular universe. Sov. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 33, 532–535 (1981)Google Scholar
  24. Overduin, J., Blome, H.-J., Hoell, J.: Wolfgang Priester: from the big bounce to the Lambda-dominated universe. Naturwissenschaften 94, 417–429 (2007)Google Scholar
  25. Overduin, J.M.: The experimental verdict on spacetime from Gravity Probe B. In: Petkov, V. (ed.) Space, Time and Spacetime, pp. 25–59. Springer, Berlin (2008)Google Scholar
  26. Page, D.N.: Inflation does not explain time asymmetry. Nature 304, 39–41 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Penrose, R.: Difficulties with inflationary cosmology. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 571, 249–264 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Preskill, J.P.: Cosmological production of superheavy magnetic monopoles. Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 13658 (1979)Google Scholar
  29. Rees, M.: Before the Beginning. Basic Books, New York (1998)Google Scholar
  30. Sahni, V., Krasiński, A.: Republication of: the cosmological constant and the theory of elementary particles (by Ya. B. Zeldovich). Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 40, 1557–1591 (2008)Google Scholar
  31. Sakharov, A.D.: The initial state of an expanding universe and the appearance of a nonuniform distribution of matter. Sov. Phys. JETP 22, 241249 (1966)Google Scholar
  32. Sato, K.: First-order phase transition of a vacuum and the expansion of the universe. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 195, 467479 (1981)Google Scholar
  33. Smeenk, C.: False vacuum: early universe cosmology and the development of inflation. In: Kox, A.J., Eisenstaedt, J. (eds.) The Universe of General Relativity, pp. 223–257. Birkhäuser, Boston (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Starobinsky, A.: Spectrum of relict gravitational radiation and the early state of the universe. JETP Lett. 30, 682685 (1979)Google Scholar
  35. Starobinsky, A.: A new type of isotropic cosmological models without singularity. Phys. Lett. B 91, 99102 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Streeruwitz, E.: Vacuum fluctuations of a quantized scalar field in a Robertson-Walker universe. Phys. Rev. D 11, 3378–3383 (1975a)Google Scholar
  37. Streeruwitz, E.: Vacuum fluctuations of a quantized scalar field in an Einstein universe. Phys. Lett. 55, 93–96 (1975b)Google Scholar
  38. Veltman, M., Martinus, J.G.: Cosmology and the Higgs mechanism. Rockefeller University Preprint, New York (1974)Google Scholar
  39. Weinberg, S.: An anthropic bound on the cosmological constant. Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2607–2610 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Weinberg, S.: The cosmological constant problem. Rev. Mod. Phys. 61, 1–23 (1989)ADSCrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  41. Zel’dovich, Ya.B.: The cosmological constant and the theory of elementary particles. Sov. Phys. Usp. 11, 381–393 (1968) (Republished, with editorial introduction by Sahni, V., Krasinski, A. in Gen. Relativ. Grav. 40 (2008): 1557–1591)Google Scholar
  42. Zel’dovich, Ya.B.: Cosmological constant and elementary particles. JETP Lett. 6, 316–317 (1967)Google Scholar
  43. Zel’dovich, Y.B., Khlopov, M.Y.: On the concentration of relic magnetic monopoles in the universe. Phys. Lett. B 79, 23941 (1978)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Science StudiesAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Physics, Astronomy and GeosciencesTowson UniversityTowsonUSA

Personalised recommendations