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Mitigation of Ionospheric Delay in GPS/BDS Single Frequency PPP: Assessment and Application

  • Zishen LiEmail author
  • Lei Fan
  • Yunbin Yuan
  • Sandra Verhagen
  • Peter de Bakker
  • Hong Yuan
  • Shiming Zhong
Conference paper
  • 1.7k Downloads
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 304)

Abstract

Single-frequency (SF) Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a promising technique for real-time positioning and navigation at sub-meter (about 0.5 m) accuracy level because of its convenience and low cost. With satellite orbit and clock error being greatly mitigated by the precise products from the International GNSS Service (IGS), ionospheric delay becomes the bottleneck of SF PPP users. There are five commonly used approaches to mitigate ionospheric delay in SF PPP: (1) broadcast ionospheric model in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) navigation message; (2) global ionospheric map released by the IGS; (3) local ionospheric model generated using GNSS data from surrounding reference stations; (4) satellite based ionospheric model; (5) the parameter estimation method. Those approaches are briefly reviewed in our contribution and the performances of some classical ionospheric approaches for SF PPP are validated and compared using GPS data from two networks in China and the Netherlands respectively. Validation results show that a set of reference stations is critical for SF PPP with sub-meter positioning accuracy, especially in China. It is better to model the ionospheric delay in a satellite by satellite mode rather than an integral mode under the assumption of a thin-layer ionosphere. Comparing to GIM, the suggested approach, satellite based ionospheric model (SIM), can improve the horizontal positioning accuracy of SF PPP from 0.40 to 0.10 m in China and from 0.20 to 0.05 m in the Netherlands, while it can improve the vertical accuracy from 0.70 to 0.15 m (China) and from 0.20 to 0.10 m (the Netherlands). Furthermore, the recommended ionospheric model has been applied to GPS/BDS data for SF PPP as well. The experiment in Beijing shows that the positioning of about 0.5 m accuracy can be achieved by single epoch SF PPP based on a reference network of about 40 km inter-station distance. The accuracy of SF PPP based on an accumulation of 10–15 min of observations in dynamic mode is about 0.04 m (horizontal) and 0.04–0.08 m (vertical) using only GPS data, while it is about 0.03 m (horizontal) and 0.03–0.06 m (vertical) by combining GPS and BDS data.

Keywords

Ionospheric delay mitigation SIM Single frequency precise point positioning GPS BDS 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was partially supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No: 2012CB825604), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No: 41304034, 41231064), Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No: 4144094), Scientific Cooperation between China and the Netherlands programme ‘Compass, Galileo and GPS for improved ionosphere modeling’ and the State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s Dynamics (Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, CAS) (Grant No:SKLGED2014-3-1-E). The GPS data used in the Netherlands was kindly provided by the NETPOS (the Netherlands Positioning Service) of the Dutch Kadaster. The GPS related products used in our experiment were downloaded from the IGS Global Data Center CDDIS (Crustal Dynamics Data Information System, Greenbelt, MD, USA, www.cddis.gsfc.nasa.gov) and the ftp servers of CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe, Switzerland, ftp.unibe.ch). Prof. Junhuan Peng and Dr. Yanli Zheng from China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Prof. Keliang Ding from Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture provided the helps on GPS/BDS data collection in China. Thanks for valuable suggestions from Lei Wang, Yanqing Hou and Dr. Wei Yan.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zishen Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Lei Fan
    • 2
  • Yunbin Yuan
    • 2
  • Sandra Verhagen
    • 3
  • Peter de Bakker
    • 3
  • Hong Yuan
    • 1
  • Shiming Zhong
    • 2
  1. 1.Academy of Opto-ElectronicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s DynamicsInstitute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina
  3. 3.Delft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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