Mitigation of Ionospheric Delay in GPS/BDS Single Frequency PPP: Assessment and Application

  • Zishen LiEmail author
  • Lei Fan
  • Yunbin Yuan
  • Sandra Verhagen
  • Peter de Bakker
  • Hong Yuan
  • Shiming Zhong
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 304)


Single-frequency (SF) Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a promising technique for real-time positioning and navigation at sub-meter (about 0.5 m) accuracy level because of its convenience and low cost. With satellite orbit and clock error being greatly mitigated by the precise products from the International GNSS Service (IGS), ionospheric delay becomes the bottleneck of SF PPP users. There are five commonly used approaches to mitigate ionospheric delay in SF PPP: (1) broadcast ionospheric model in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) navigation message; (2) global ionospheric map released by the IGS; (3) local ionospheric model generated using GNSS data from surrounding reference stations; (4) satellite based ionospheric model; (5) the parameter estimation method. Those approaches are briefly reviewed in our contribution and the performances of some classical ionospheric approaches for SF PPP are validated and compared using GPS data from two networks in China and the Netherlands respectively. Validation results show that a set of reference stations is critical for SF PPP with sub-meter positioning accuracy, especially in China. It is better to model the ionospheric delay in a satellite by satellite mode rather than an integral mode under the assumption of a thin-layer ionosphere. Comparing to GIM, the suggested approach, satellite based ionospheric model (SIM), can improve the horizontal positioning accuracy of SF PPP from 0.40 to 0.10 m in China and from 0.20 to 0.05 m in the Netherlands, while it can improve the vertical accuracy from 0.70 to 0.15 m (China) and from 0.20 to 0.10 m (the Netherlands). Furthermore, the recommended ionospheric model has been applied to GPS/BDS data for SF PPP as well. The experiment in Beijing shows that the positioning of about 0.5 m accuracy can be achieved by single epoch SF PPP based on a reference network of about 40 km inter-station distance. The accuracy of SF PPP based on an accumulation of 10–15 min of observations in dynamic mode is about 0.04 m (horizontal) and 0.04–0.08 m (vertical) using only GPS data, while it is about 0.03 m (horizontal) and 0.03–0.06 m (vertical) by combining GPS and BDS data.


Ionospheric delay mitigation SIM Single frequency precise point positioning GPS BDS 



This research was partially supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No: 2012CB825604), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No: 41304034, 41231064), Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No: 4144094), Scientific Cooperation between China and the Netherlands programme ‘Compass, Galileo and GPS for improved ionosphere modeling’ and the State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s Dynamics (Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, CAS) (Grant No:SKLGED2014-3-1-E). The GPS data used in the Netherlands was kindly provided by the NETPOS (the Netherlands Positioning Service) of the Dutch Kadaster. The GPS related products used in our experiment were downloaded from the IGS Global Data Center CDDIS (Crustal Dynamics Data Information System, Greenbelt, MD, USA, and the ftp servers of CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe, Switzerland, Prof. Junhuan Peng and Dr. Yanli Zheng from China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Prof. Keliang Ding from Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture provided the helps on GPS/BDS data collection in China. Thanks for valuable suggestions from Lei Wang, Yanqing Hou and Dr. Wei Yan.


  1. 1.
    Allain D, Mitchell C (2009) Ionospheric delay corrections for single-frequency GPS receivers over Europe using tomographic mapping. GPS Solut 13(2):141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    BD-SIS-ICD (2012) BeiDou navigation satellite system signal in space interface control document, China Satellite Navigation Office, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bisnath S, Gao Y (2008) Current state of precise point positioning and future prospects and limitations. In: Sideris MG (ed) Observing our changing earth, vol 133, pp 615–623Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bree RP, Tiberius CJM (2012) Real-time single-frequency precise point positioning: accuracy assessment. GPS Solut 16(2):259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen K, Gao Y (2005) Real-time precise point positioning using single frequency data. Paper presented at proceedings of ION GNSS 2005, Long Beach, CAGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Coco DS et al (1991) Variability of GPS satellite differential group delay biases. IEEE Trans Aerosp Electron Syst 27(6):931–938CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Conte J et al (2011) Accuracy assessment of the GPS-TEC calibration constants by means of a simulation technique. J Geodesy 85(10):707–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Feess WA, Stephens SG (1987) Evaluation of GPS ionospheric time-delay model. IEEE Trans Aerosp Electron Syst AES-23(3):332–338Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Feltens J et al (1998) Routine production of ionosphere TEC maps at ESOC-first results (IGS presentation). Paper presented at proceedings of the 1998 IGS AC workshop, ESOC, Darmstadt, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Feltens J (2007) Development of a new three-dimensional mathematical ionosphere model at European Space Agency/European Space Operations Centre. Space Weather 5(S12002):1–17Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Geng J et al (2010) Rapid re-convergences to ambiguity-fixed solutions in precise point positioning. J Geodesy 84(12):705–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Georgiadiou Y (1994) Modeling the ionosphere for an active control network of GPS stations. LGR-Series-Publications of the Delft Geodetic Computing Centre, vol 7Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hernández-Pajares M et al (1999) New approaches in global ionospheric determination using ground GPS data. J Atmos Solar Terr Phys 61(16):1237–1247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hernández-Pajares M (2004) IGS ionosphere WG status report: performance of IGS ionosphere TEC maps (Position paper)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hernández-Pajares M (2006) Summary and current status of IGS ionosphere WG activities—a potential future product: global maps of effective ionospheric height. In: IGS technical workshopGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hernández-Pajares M et al (2009) The IGS VTEC maps: a reliable source of ionospheric information since 1998. J Geodesy 83(3):263–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    IS-GPS (2004) Navstar GPS space segment/navigation user interfaces (ICD-GPS-200D), Revision D. ARINC Engineering Services, LLC, El Segundo, CAGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Klobuchar JA (1987) Ionospheric time-delay algorithm for single-frequency GPS users. IEEE Trans Aerosp Electron Syst AES-23(3):325–331Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Komjathy A et al (2005) Automated daily processing of more than 1000 ground-based GPS receivers for studying intense ionospheric storms. Radio Sci 40(6):S6006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kouba J, Héroux P (2001) Precise point positioning using IGS orbit and clock products. GPS Solut 5(2):12–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kouba J (2009) A guide to using International GNSS Service (IGS) products.
  22. 22.
    Lanyi G et al (1988) A comparison of mapped and measured total ionospheric electron content using global positioning system and beacon satellite observations. Radio Sci 23(4):483–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Le AQ et al (2008) Use of global and regional ionosphere maps for single-frequency precise point positioning. In: Sideris MG (ed) Observing our changing Earth international association of Geodesy symposiaGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li X et al (2013) A method for improving uncalibrated phase delay estimation and ambiguity-fixing in real-time precise point positioning. J Geodesy 87(5):405–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li Z et al (2012) Two-step method for the determination of the differential code biases of COMPASS satellites. J Geodesy 86(11):1059–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liu J et al (2010) Spherical cap harmonic model for mapping and predicting regional TEC. GPS Solut 15(2):109–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mannucci AJ et al (1999) GPS and ionosphere: review of radio science 1996–1999. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Odijk D et al (2014) Single-frequency PPP-RTK: theory and experimental results. In: Proceedings of the IAG general assembly, Melbourne, Australia, pp 571–578Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Orús R et al (2002) Performance of different TEC models to provide GPS ionospheric corrections. J Atmos Solar Terr Phys 64(18):2055–2062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Orús R et al (2005) Improvement of global ionospheric VTEC maps by using kriging interpolation technique. J Atmos Solar Terr Phys 67(16):1598–1609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schaer S et al (1998) IONEX: the IONosphere map EXchange format version 1. Paper presented at proceedings of the IGS AC Workshop, Darmstadt, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schaer S (1999) Mapping and predicting the earth’s ionosphere using the global positioning system. Ph D thesis, Astronomical Institutes, University of Bern, Berne, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schüler T et al (2011) Precise ionosphere-free single-frequency GNSS positioning. GPS Solut 15(2):139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shi C et al (2012) An improved approach to model ionospheric delays for single-frequency precise point positioning. Adv Space Res 49(12):1698–1708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Takasu T, Yasuda A (2009) Development of the low-cost RTK-GPS receiver with an open source program package RTKLIB. In: International symposium on GPS/GNSS, International Convention Center Jeju, Korea November 4–6 Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Takasu T (2009) RTKLIB: open source program package for RTK-GPS. In: FOSS4G 2009, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tiberius C et al (2011) Staying in lane: real-time single-frequency PPP on the road. In: Proceedings of inside GNSS(November/December), pp 48–53Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wu X et al (2012) Evaluation of COMPASS ionospheric model in GNSS positioning. Adv Space Res 51(6):959–968 Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yuan Y, Ou J (2004) A generalized trigonometric series function model for determining ionospheric delay. Prog Nat Sci 14(11):1010–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yuan Y et al (2008) Refining the Klobuchar ionospheric coefficients based on GPS observations. IEEE Trans Aerosp Electron Syst 44(4):1498–1510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhang B (2013) Study on the theoretical methodology and applications of precise point positioning using un-differenced and uncombined GNSS data. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhang H et al (2013) On the convergence of ionospheric constrained precise point positioning based on undifferential uncombined raw observation. Sensors 13:15708–15725Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zou X et al (2012) A new ambiguity resolution method for PPP using CORS network and its real-time realization. Paper presented at China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2012. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, Guangzhou, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zumberge JF et al (1997) Precise point positioning for the efficient and robust analysis of GPS data from large networks. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 102(B3):5005–5017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ding W (2012) Research on key technologies of real time precise point positioning system. Ph D thesis, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Li Z (2012) Study on the mitigation of ionospheric delay and the monitoring of global ionospheric TEC based on GNSS/Compass. Ph D thesis, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wen J et al (2010) Experimental observation and statistical analysis of the vertical TEC mapping function. Chin J Geophys 53(1):22–29 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zhang B et al (2011) Determination of ionospheric observables with precise point positioning. Chin J Geophys 54(4):950–957 (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zishen Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Lei Fan
    • 2
  • Yunbin Yuan
    • 2
  • Sandra Verhagen
    • 3
  • Peter de Bakker
    • 3
  • Hong Yuan
    • 1
  • Shiming Zhong
    • 2
  1. 1.Academy of Opto-ElectronicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s DynamicsInstitute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina
  3. 3.Delft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations