A Multi-Step Multi-Order Numerical Difference Method for Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Detection

  • Long TangEmail author
  • Xiaohong Zhang
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 304)


In this paper, we developed a multi-step multi-order numerical difference method to detect the Traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID). This method can eliminate TEC trend effectively and has a wide span of detectable periods. In this study, the principle of the multi-step multi-order numerical difference method is presented firstly. Then, we execute three experiments with the simulated data and real data to test the feasibility of the method: the first experiment using the simulated TID signal without the TEC trend, the second one with real TEC observations but simulated TID signals and the last one having real TEC observations and TID waves. The experimental results demonstrate (1) detected TID wave has the same frequency compared to the true signal and the ratio of amplitude between them is also consistent with the theoretical result; (2) distinct to first-order method, the second-order difference process can eliminate trend term effectively even when TEC varies drastically; (3) this method can detrend TEC and extract TID signals simultaneously and can detect multiple disturbances with various periods.


GPS Total electron content Traveling ionospheric disturbance Multi-step multi-order numerical difference method 



This study was supported by National 973 Project China (Grant No. 2013CB733301) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41074024, No. 41204030).


  1. 1.
    Tsugawa T, Kotake N, Otsuka Y et al (2007) Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed by GPS receiver network in Japan: a short review. GPS Solutions 11(2):139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lejeune S, Wautelet G, Warnant R (2012) Ionospheric effects on relative positioning within GPS dense network. GPS Solutions 16(1):105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liu JY, Tsai HF, Lin CH et al (2010) Coseismic ionospheric disturbances triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake. J Geophys Res 115:A8303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Artru J, Ducic V, Kanamori H et al (2005) Ionospheric detection of gravity waves induced by tsunamis. Geophys J Int 160:840–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yang YM, Garrison JL, Lee SC (2012) Ionospheric disturbances observed coincident with the 2006 and 2009 North Korean underground nuclear tests. Geophys Res Lett 39:L02103 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beutler G, Rothacher M, Schaer S et al (1999) The international GPS service (IGS): an interdisciplinary service in support of earth sciences. Adv Space Res 23(4):631–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kotake N, Otsuka Y, Ogawa T et al (2007) Statistical study of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed with the GPS networks in Southern California. Earth Planets Space 59:95–102Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tsugawa T, Otsuka Y, Coster A et al (2007). Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances detected with dense and wide TEC maps over North America. Geophys Res Lett 34:L22101Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ding F, Wan W, Ning B et al (2012) Two-dimensional imaging of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances over China based on GPS data. J Geophys Res 117:A08318Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang M, Ding F, Wan W et al (2007) Monitoring global traveling ionospheric disturbances using the worldwide GPS network during the October 2003 storms. Earth Planets Space 59:407–419Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Katamzi Z, Smith N, Mitchell C et al (2011) Statistical analysis of travelling ionospheric disturbances using TEC observations from geostationary satellites. J Atmos Solar Terr Phys 74:64–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hernández-Pajares M, Juan M, Sanz J et al (2006). Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances affecting GPS measurements: spatial and temporal analysis. J Geophys Res 111:A07S11Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mannucci AJ, Wilson BD, Yuan DN et al (1998) A global mapping technique for GPS-derived ionospheric total electron content measurements. Radio Sci 33(3):565–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geodesy and GeomaticsWuhan UniversityWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations