Advertisement

The Distributed Generation as an Important Contribution to Energy Development in Angola and Other Developing African Countries

  • Joaquim Moreira Lima
  • José Barata
  • Miguel Fernandez
  • Angel Montiel
Part of the IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology book series (IFIPAICT, volume 423)

Abstract

Distributed generation (DG) is related to the use of small or medium size generating units close to the load centers. DG has great benefits for application in places distant from the major centers of production where the population needs a reliable and cheap supply of electric power. This is the case of Angola and the majority of other African countries. This paper discusses the potential that distributed generation may have in these countries highlighting four crucial aspects: the utilization of a realistic and simple optimal allocation method, the consideration of intentional islanding mode of operation, the utilization of all the existing sources of energy in the region, specially the renewable ones, and the demand side management of energy through the application of smart metering and communication techniques.

Keywords

Distributed Generation Intentional Islanding Energy Efficiency Demand Side Management Smart Metering 

References

  1. 1.
    Ackermann, T., Andersson, G., Soder, L.: Distributed generation: a definition. Electric Power Systems Research 57(3), 195–204 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pepermans, G., et al.: Distributed generation: definition, benefits and issues. Energy Policy 33(6), 787–798 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bessmertnykh, A., Zaichenko, V.: Development of distributed power generation. Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences 82(5), 398–402 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lopes, J., et al.: Integrating distributed generation into electric power systems: A review of drivers, challenges and opportunities. Electric Power Systems Research 77(9), 1189–1203 (2007)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    González-Longatt, F., Fortoul, C.: Review of the Distributed Generation Concept: Attempt of Unification. In: ICREPQ 2005 - International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality, Zaragoza - Spain (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chiradeja, P., Ramakumar, R.: An approach to quantify the technical benefits of distributed generation. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 19(4), 764–773 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Poullikkas, A.: Implementation of distributed generation technologies in isolated power systems. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 11(1), 30–56 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Castro, M.: Distributed Generation and Renewable Energy: The Cuban Experience. In: ACEEW 2013 - Angolan Conference on Energy Engineering and Water, Luanda - Angola (2013)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    MINEA, Ministry of Energy and Water of Angola - Plano de Desenvolvimento Energético (Energy development Plan). MINEA: Luanda - Angola (2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hadjsaid, N., Canard, J., Dumas, F.: Dispersed generation impact on distribution networks. IEEE Computer Applications in Power 12(2), 22–28 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang, C., Nehrir, M.: Analytical approaches for optimal placement of distributed generation sources in power systems. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 19(4), 2068–2076 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Griffin, T., et al.: Placement of Dispersed Generations Systems for Reduced Losses. In: 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. IEEE Xplore (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Celli, G., et al.: A multiobjective evolutionary algorithm for the sizing and siting of distributed generation. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 20(2), 750–757 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Borges, C., Falcao, D.: Optimal distributed generation allocation for reliability, losses, and voltage improvement. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 28(6), 413–420 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cano, E.B.: Utilizing Fuzzy Optimization for Distributed Generation Allocation. In: TENCON 2007 - 2007 IEEE Region 10 Conference. IEEE Xplore (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Varikuti, R., Reddy, M.D.: Optimal Placement of DG Units Using Fuzzy and Real Coded Genetic Algortihm. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology 7(2), 145–151 (2009)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abdi, S., Afshar, K.: Application of IPSO-Monte Carlo for optimal distributed generation allocation and sizing. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 44(1), 786–797 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Doagou-Mojarrad, H., et al.: Optimal placement and sizing of DG (distributed generation) units in distribution networks by novel hybrid evolutionary algorithm. Energy 54, 129–138 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nekooei, K., et al.: An Improved Multi-Objective Harmony Search for Optimal Placement of DGs in Distribution Systems. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 4(1), 557–567 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Viral, R., Khatod, D.: Optimal planning of distributed generation systems in distribution system: A review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 16(7), 5146–5165 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Porkar, S., et al.: Optimal allocation of distributed generation using a two-stage multi-objective mixed-integer-nonlinear programming. European Transactions on Electrical Power 21(1), 1072–1087 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Moradi, M., Abedini, M.: A combination of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization for optimal DG location and sizing in distribution systems. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 34(1), 66–74 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moravej, Z., Akhlaghi, A.: A novel approach based on cuckoo search for DG allocation in distribution network. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 44(1), 672–679 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    El-Zonkoly, A.: Optimal placement of multi-distributed generation units including different load models using particle swarm optimisation. IET Generation Transmission & Distribution 5(7), 760–771 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Niknam, T., et al.: A modified honey bee mating optimization algorithm for multiobjective placement of renewable energy resources. Applied Energy 88(12), 4817–4830 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Atwa, Y., et al.: Optimal Renewable Resources Mix for Distribution System Energy Loss Minimization. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 25(1), 360–370 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gomez, J., Morcos, M.: Letter to the Editor: On Islanding Operation in Systems with Distributed Generation. Electric Power Components and Systems 37(2), 234–237 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dash, P., Padhee, M., Barik, S.: Estimation of power quality indices in distributed generation systems during power islanding conditions. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 36(1), 18–30 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Best, R., et al.: Synchronous islanded operation of a diesel generator. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 22(4), 2170–2176 (2007)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wissner, M.: The Smart Grid - A saucerful of secrets? Applied Energy 88(7), 2509–2518 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kundar, P., et al.: Definition and classification of power system stability (vol. 18, pg 1387, 2004). IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 19(4), 2124 (2004)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kundur, P., et al.: Definition and classification of power system stability. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 19(3), 1387–1401 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Xyngi, I., et al.: Transient Stability Analysis of a Distribution Network With Distributed Generators. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 24(2), 1102–1104 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Alanne, K., Saari, A.: Distributed energy generation and sustainable development. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 10(6), 539–558 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bugaje, I.: Renewable energy for sustainable development in Africa: a review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 10(6), 603–612 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Huang, J., Jiang, C., Xu, R.: A review on distributed energy resources and MicroGrid. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 12(9), 2472–2483 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tan, W., et al.: Optimal distributed renewable generation planning: A review of different approaches. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 18, 626–645 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Loughran, D., Kulick, J.: Demand-side management and energy efficiency in the United States. Energy Journal 25(1), 19–43 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Albadi, M., El-Saadany, E.: A summary of demand response in electricity markets. Electric Power Systems Research 78(11), 1989–1996 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Torriti, J., Hassan, M., Leach, M.: Demand response experience in Europe: Policies, programmes and implementation. Energy 35(4), 1575–1583 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joaquim Moreira Lima
    • 1
    • 2
  • José Barata
    • 1
  • Miguel Fernandez
    • 3
  • Angel Montiel
    • 2
  1. 1.Universidade Nova de Lisboa / UNINOVACaparicaPortugal
  2. 2.INTEL LdaAngola
  3. 3.CIPELHavanaCuba

Personalised recommendations