Convergent Business Environments: Debating the Need for New Business Models, Organizational Structures and Management respectively Employee Competencies

  • Matthias KarmasinEmail author
  • Sandra Diehl
  • Isabell Koinig
Part of the Media Business and Innovation book series (MEDIA)


Convergence is a trend that has gained an enormous amount of attention within the last years, especially within the media industry. The term is used to describe the growing together of formerly distinct functions, markets and fields of application, further changing the way companies operate. Due to those extensive changes, proven business models and organizational structures are undergoing some significant changes (e.g., resilient structures or learning organizations are gaining in importance) and require companies to adapt accordingly in order to remain competitive. Hence, the present paper briefly discusses the changes of business models and does not miss out to mention trends triggering those alterations. At the same time, organizational structures are affected by those alterations and require a redefinition of existing concepts. This can only be achieved by means of new competencies and management roles (like the change manager, media literacy practitioner or technological scout) that need to be developed, acquired and/or adopted respectively by managers and staff. By means of these new skills, present as well as future challenges can be tackled successfully, enabling businesses to have their fingers at the pulse of the time.


Convergence Business models Organizational structures New competencies for management and staff Trends 


  1. Andriole, S. J. (2010). Business impact of web 2.0 technologies. Communications of the ACM, 53(12), 67–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appelgren, E. (2004). Convergence and divergence in media: Different perspectives. Paper presented at the 8th ICCC International Conference on Electronic Publishing. Brazil, June 2004.Google Scholar
  3. Belbin, R. M. (1993). Team roles at work. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  4. Belbin, R. M. (2000). Beyond the team. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  5. Bettis, R. A., Bradley, S. P., & Hamel, G. (1992). Outsourcing and industrial decline. Academy of Management Executive, 6(1), 7–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bröring, S., Coultier, L. M., & Leker, J. (2006). The front end of innovation in an era of industry convergence: Evidence from neutraceuticals and functional foods. R&D Management, 36(5), 487–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, E. (1999, May 24). 9 ways to win on the web. Fortune, 139, 112–125.Google Scholar
  8. Chesborough, H., & Rosenbloom, R. S. (2002). The role of the business model in capturing value from innovation: Evidence from Xerox corporation’s technology spin-off companies. Industrial and Corporate Change, 11(3), 529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cheskin Research. (2002). Designing digital experiences for youth. Market insights series, Fall 8–9.Google Scholar
  10. Clegg, S., Kornberger, M., & Pitsis, T. (2008). Managing and organizations: An introduction to theory and practice. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  11. Cronin, M. J. (1997, August 18). Intranets reach the factory floor. Fortune, 208.Google Scholar
  12. Daft, R. L. (2001). Organization theory and design (7th ed.). Cincinnati: South Western College Publishing.Google Scholar
  13. Davis, S. M., & Lawrence, P. R. (1977). Matrix. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  14. Diehl, S., Karmasin, M., Leopold, A., & Koinig, I. (2013). New competencies for the future: How changes and trends in media convergence demand new skills from the workforce. In S. Diehl & M. Karmasin (Eds.), Media and convergence management (pp. 353–376). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dubrin, A. J. (2005). Coaching and mentoring skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  16. Duncan, R. (1979). What is the right organization structure? Organizational Dynamics, 7(3), 59–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dwyer, T. (2010). Media convergence. Maidenhead: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  18. Fulk, J., & Desanctis, G. (1995). Electronic communication and changing organizational forms. Organizational Science, 6, 337–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Galbraith, J. R. (1973). Designing complex organizations. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  20. Galbraith, J. R. (1977). Organization design. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  21. Hacklin, F. (2007). Management of convergence in innovation. Wiesbaden: Springer.Google Scholar
  22. Hacklin, F., Klang, D., & Baschera, P. (2013). Managing the convergence of industries: Archetypes for successful business models. In S. Diehl & M. Karmasin (Eds.), Media and convergence management. Berlin: Springer. in press.Google Scholar
  23. Hacklin, F., Marxt, C., & Fahrni, F. (2010). An evolutionary perspective on convergence: Inducing a stage model of inter-industry innovation. International Journal of Technology Management, 49(1–3), 220–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hernstein Institute for Management and Leadership. (2012a). Rolle von Führungskräften in Unternehmen. Retrieved July 24, 2012, from
  25. Hernstein Institute for Management and Leadership. (2012b). Organisationsstrukturen. Retrieved July 24, 2012, from
  26. International Delphi Study. (2009). Zukunft und Zukunftsfähigkeit der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien und Medien. Retrieved May 5, 2012, from
  27. Isaacs, S., & McAllister, J. (2005). Management skills. Retrieved February 10, 2013, from
  28. Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence culture. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Johnson, M., Christensen, C., & Kagermann, H. (2008, December). Reinventing your business model. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 10, 2013, from
  30. Jones, G. R. (2004). Organizational theory, design and change: Text and cases (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  31. Karmasin, M., & Winter, C. (Eds.). (2000). Grundlagen des Medienmanagements. Munich: UTB.Google Scholar
  32. Koontz, H., & O’Donnell, C. (1955). Principles of management: An analysis of management functions. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  33. KPMG International. (2008). The global skills convergence: Issues and ideas for the management of an international workforce. Retrieved August 20, 2013, from
  34. Kutschker, M., & Schmid, S. (2008). Internationales management. München: Oldenbourg.Google Scholar
  35. Lei, D. T. (2000). Industry evolution and competence development: The imperatives of technological convergence. International Journal of Technology Management, 19(7–8), 699–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McPhillips, S., & Merlo, O. (2008). Media convergence and the evolving media business model: An overview and strategic opportunities. The Marketing Review, 8(3), 237–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Micó, J., Masip, P., & Barbosa, S. (2009). Models of business convergence in the information industry: A mapping of cases in Brazil and Spain. Brazilian Journalism Research, 5(1), 123–140.Google Scholar
  38. Miles, R. E., & Snow, C. C. (1992). Causes of failure in network organizations. California Management Review, 34, 53–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mintzberg, H. (1980). The nature of managerial work. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  40. Ofcom. (2008, December). The international communications market 2008: Convergence. London: Ofcom.Google Scholar
  41. Quality Management Department. (2011). Quality management system manual: Office for harmonization in the internal market. Retrieved May 03, 2012, from
  42. Randolph, W. A., & Dess, G. G. (1984). The congruence perspective of organization design: A conceptual model and multivariate research approach. Academy of Management Review, 9, 114–127.Google Scholar
  43. Rohrbeck, R., Heuer, J., & Arnold, H. (2006). The technology radar. A tool of technology intelligence and innovation strategy. Retrieved May 03, 2012, from
  44. Roth-Ebner, C. (2012). Medienkompetenz und Genderkompetenz. Retrieved July 14, 2012, from
  45. Salaverría, R., García Avilés, J. A., & Masip, P. (2008). Media convergence as a research concept: A proposal for its theoretical and operational definition. In Second ECREA Conference, Barcelona.Google Scholar
  46. Schachtner, C. (2010). Thesen zum Thema Feminismus im Web 2.0. Im Spannungsverhältnis zwischen Öffentlichkeit und Privatheit. Retrieved June 14, 2012, from
  47. Schelhowe, H. (2007). Technologie, Imagination und Lernen: Grundlagen für Bildungsprozesse mit Digitalen Medien. Münster: Waxmann.Google Scholar
  48. Schmutzer, T. (2010). Security in unified communications umgebungen. Retrieved February 13, 2013, from
  49. Schneider, S. C., & Barsoux, J.-L. (2003). Managing across cultures (2nd ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  50. Schreyögg, G., & Koch, J. (2007). Grundlagen des Managements: Basiswissen für Studium und Praxis. Wiesbaden: Gabler.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schwarz, E., & Gustafsson, V. (2013). Business modelling and convergence. In S. Diehl & M. Karmasin (Eds.), Media and convergence management (pp. 9–23). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  52. Snow, C. C., Miles, R. E., & Coleman, H. J., Jr. (1992). Managing 21st century network organizations. Organizational Dynamics, Winter, 5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Weihrich, H., & Koontz, H. (1993). Management: A global perspective. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  54. West, M. A. (2008). Team performance. In S. R. Clegg & J. Bailey (Eds.), The sage international encyclopedia of organizational studies. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  55. Wirtz, B. (2011). Media and internet management. Wiesbaden: Gabler.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zorn, I. (2011). Medienkompetenz und Medienbildung mit Fokus auf Digitale Medien. In H. Moser, P. Grell, & H. Niesyto (Eds.), Medienbildung und Medienkompetenz (pp. 175–209). München: Kopaed.Google Scholar
  57. Zukunftsinstitut .(2012). Work: Design. Die Zukunft der Arbeit gestalten. Kelkheim: Zukunftsinstitut GmbH.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthias Karmasin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sandra Diehl
    • 1
  • Isabell Koinig
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Media and CommunicationsAlpen-Adria-UniversitaetKlagenfurtAustria

Personalised recommendations