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Water Under High Temperature and Pressure Conditions and Its Applications to Develop Green Technologies for Biomass Conversion

  • Fangming JinEmail author
  • Yuanqing Wang
  • Xu Zeng
  • Zheng Shen
  • Guodong Yao
Chapter
Part of the Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology book series (GCST)

Abstract

This chapter introduces the chemical and physical properties of water under high temperature and pressure, such as ion product, density, dielectric constant and hydrogen bonding, and the applications of these properties on biomass conversion. These properties that are adjustable by changing the reaction temperature and pressure or adding additives are central to the reactivity of the biomass feedstock to break the C–C or C–O bonds. For example, glucose will follow different reaction pathways under acidic or alkali environment which is related to the ion product of water. Presently, hundreds of strategies utilizing these properties to transform biomass into target products intentionally or unintentionally are proposed. In this chapter, the hydrothermal processes applied in the conversion of biomass including cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and glycerin into commodity chemicals such as organic acids are mainly reviewed. In addition, the production of CO2 as a byproduct from biomass conversion is sometimes inevitable. To achieve 100 % carbon yield, the process of reduction of CO2 is often neglected but required. In the last section, the one pot reaction of glycerin conversion and CO2 reduction is reviewed based on the hydrogen bonding property.

Keywords

Dielectric Constant Water Density Levulinic Acid Supercritical Water High Temperature Water 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fangming Jin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yuanqing Wang
    • 2
  • Xu Zeng
    • 1
  • Zheng Shen
    • 3
  • Guodong Yao
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Environmental Science and EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.RIKEN Research Cluster for Innovation Nakamura LaboratorySaitamaJapan
  3. 3.National Engineering Research Center for Facilities Agriculture, Institute of Modern Agricultural Science and EngineeringTongji UniversityShanghaiChina

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