Modelling Critical Node Attacks in MANETs

  • Dongsheng Zhang
  • James P. G. Sterbenz
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8221)

Abstract

MANETs (mobile ad hoc networks) operate in a self-organised and decentralised way. Attacks against nodes that are highly relied to relay traffic could result in a wide range of service outage. A comprehensive model that could enhance the understanding of network behaviour under attacks is important to the design and construction of resilient self-organising networks. Previously, we modelled MANETs as an aggregation of time-varying graphs into a static weighted graph, in which the weights represent link availability of pairwise nodes. Centrality metrics were used to measure node significance but might not always be optimal. In this paper, we define a new metric called criticality that can capture node significance more accurately than centrality metrics. We demonstrate that attacks based on criticality have greater impact on network performance than centrality-based attacks in real-time MANETs.

Keywords

graph theory MANET network resilience challenge modelling centrality criticality 

References

  1. 1.
    The ns-3 network simulator (July 2009), http://www.nsnam.org
  2. 2.
    Arulselvan, A., Commander, C.W., Elefteriadou, L., Pardalos, P.M.: Detecting critical nodes in sparse graphs. Computers and Operations Research 36(7), 2193–2200 (2009)CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Billinton, R., Allan, R.: Reliability Evaluation of Engineering Systems. Plenum Press London (1983)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Borgatti, S.P.: Identifying sets of key players in a social network. Comput. Math. Organ. Theory 12(1), 21–34 (2006)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Camp, T., Boleng, J., Davies, V.: A survey of mobility models for ad hoc network research. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing 2(5), 483–502 (2002), http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wcm.72 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Çetinkaya, E.K., Broyles, D., Dandekar, A., Srinivasan, S., Sterbenz, J.P.G.: Modelling Communication Network Challenges for Future Internet Resilience, Survivability, and Disruption Tolerance: A Simulation-Based Approach. Springer Telecommunication Systems, 1–16 (2011) (published online: September 21, 2011)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Di Summa, M., Grosso, A., Locatelli, M.: Branch and cut algorithms for detecting critical nodes in undirected graphs. Computational Optimization and Applications, 1–32 (2012)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dinh, T., Xuan, Y., Thai, M., Park, E., Znati, T.: On approximation of new optimization methods for assessing network vulnerability. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), pp. 1–9. IEEE (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Freeman, L.: Centrality in social networks conceptual clarification. Social Networks 1(3), 215–239 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kim, T.H., Tipper, D., Krishnamurthy, P., Swindlehurst, A.: Improving the topological resilience of mobile ad hoc networks. In: 7th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), pp. 191–197 (October 2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kim, T., Tipper, D., Krishnamurthy, P.: Connectivity and critical point behavior in mobile ad hoc and sensor networks. In: IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications, ISCC, pp. 153–158. IEEE (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kriesell, M.: Minimal connectivity. In: Beineke, L.W., Wilson, R.J. (eds.) Topics in Structural Graph Theory, pp. 71–99. Cambridge University Press (2012)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Newman, M.E.J.: Scientific collaboration networks. ii. shortest paths, weighted networks, and centrality. Phys. Rev. E 64(1), 16132 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nicol, D.M., Sanders, W.H., Trivedi, K.S.: Model-based evaluation: From dependability to security. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing 01(1), 48–65 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Opsahl, T., Agneessens, F., Skvoretz, J.: Node centrality in weighted networks: Generalizing degree and shortest paths. Social Networks 32(3), 245–251 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Scellato, S., Leontiadis, I., Mascolo, C., Basu, P., Zafer, M.: Evaluating temporal robustness of mobile networks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing 12(1), 105–117 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shen, S., Smith, J.C.: Polynomial-time algorithms for solving a class of critical node problems on trees and series-parallel graphs. Networks 60(2), 103–119 (2012)MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sterbenz, J.P.G., Hutchison, D., Çetinkaya, E.K., Jabbar, A., Rohrer, J.P., Schöller, M., Smith, P.: Resilience and survivability in communication networks: Strategies, principles, and survey of disciplines. Computer Networks 54(8), 1245–1265 (2010)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sterbenz, J.P.G., Krishnan, R., Hain, R.R., Jackson, A.W., Levin, D., Ramanathan, R., Zao, J.: Survivable mobile wireless networks: issues, challenges, and research directions. In: Proceedings of the 3rd ACM workshop on Wireless Security (WiSE), Atlanta, GA, pp. 31–40 (2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tang, J., Musolesi, M., Mascolo, C., Latora, V.: Temporal distance metrics for social network analysis. In: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Workshop on Online Social Networks, pp. 31–36 (2009)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang, D., Gogi, S.A., Broyles, D.S., Çetinkaya, E.K., Sterbenz, J.P.: Modelling Attacks and Challenges to Wireless Networks. In: Proceedings of the 4th IEEE/IFIP International Workshop on Reliable Networks Design and Modeling (RNDM), pp. 806–812. St. Petersburg (October 2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dongsheng Zhang
    • 1
  • James P. G. Sterbenz
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Information and Telecommunication Technology Center, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceThe University of KansasLawrenceUSA
  2. 2.School of Computing and Communications, InfoLab21Lancaster UniversityLancasterUK

Personalised recommendations