Advertisement

Literatur

  • Werner Jung
Chapter
  • 12 Downloads

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    A Task Force of the Working Group on Cardiac Arrhythmias and Cardiac Pacing of the European Society of Cardiology. Guidelines for the use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Eur Heart J 1992; 13: 1304–1310Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    ACC/AHA Task Force Report. Guidelines for implantation of cardiac pacemakers and anti-arrhythmia devices. Circulation 1991; 84: 455–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Accorti P, Brewer G, Livingston A, Callaghan F, Scott S, Luceri R, Saksena S (1992) Post-shock R-wave attenuation as a result of electrogram spectral shifts in non-thoracotomy defibrillation lead systems. Eur J C P E 2: 106 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahern TS, Nydegger C, McCormick DJ, Marinchak R, Kowey P, Horowitz LN, Worley S, Kutalek SP (1991) Device interaction-antitachycardia pacemakers and defibrillators for sustained ventricular tachycardia. PACE 14: 302–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alfieri O, Benedini G, Caradonna E, Sandrelli L (1992) The implantable cardioverter defibrillator and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting: special considerations. PACE 15: 642–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Almassi GH, Olinger GN, Troup PJ, Chapman PD, Goodman LR (1988) Delayed infection of the automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Current recognition and management. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 95: 908–911PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Almeida HF, Buckingham TA (1993) Inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks secondary to sensing lead failure: utility of stored electrograms. PACE 16: 407–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Almendral J, Arenal A, Villacastin JP, San Roman D, Bueno H, Alday JM, Pastor A, Delcan JL (1993) The importance of antitachycardia pacing for patients presenting with ventricular tachycardia. PACE 16: 535–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Amirana O, Klevan LR, Baker LD, Szentpetery S, Bernstein RC, Griffin JJ, Onufer JR, Herre JM (1992) Effect of long-term preoperative amiodarone on mortality of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement. PACE 15: 544 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Angermann CE, Bullinger M, Spes CH (1992) Quality of life in long-term survivors of orthotopic heart transplantation. Z Kardiol 81: 411–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Babbs CF (1985) Alteration of defibrillation threshold by antiarrhythmic drugs: a theoretical frame work. Crit Care Med 9: 362–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Badger JM, Morris PL (1989) Observations of a support group for automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator recipients and their spouses. Heart Lung 18: 238–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bakker PF, Hauer RN, Wever EF (1992) Infections involving implanted cardioverter defibrillator devices. PACE 15: 654–658PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bardou AL, Degonde J, Birkui PJ, Auger P, Chesnais JM, Duriez M (1988) Reduction of energy required for defibrillation by delivering shocks in orthogonal directions in the dog. PACE 11: 1990–1995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bardy GH, Ivey TD, Stewart R, Graham EL, Greene HL (1986) Failure of the automatic implantable defibrillator to detect ventricular fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 58: 1107–1108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bardy GH, Stewart RB, Ivey TD, Graham EL, Adhar GC, Greene HL (1987) Intraoperative comparison of sequential-pulse and single-pulse defibrillation in candidates for automatic implantable defibrillators. Am J Cardiol 60: 618–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bardy GH, Olson WH, Ivey TD, Johnson G, Grene L (1988) Does unsuccessful defibrillation adversely effect subsequent AICD sensing of ventricular fibrillation. PACE 11: 485 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bardy GH, Ivey TD, Allen MD, Johnson G, Mehra R, Greene L (1989) A prospective randomized evaluation of biphasic versus monophasic waveform pulses on defibrillation efficacy in humans. J Am Coll Cardiol 14: 728–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bardy GH, Allen MD, Mehra R, Johnson G (1990) An effective and adaptable transvenous defibrillation system using the coronary sinus in humans. J Am Coll Cardiol 16: 887–895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bardy GH, Allen MD, Mehra R, Johnson G, Feldman S, Greene HL, Ivey TD (1990) Transvenous defibrillation in humans via the coronary sinus. Circulation 81: 1252–1259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bardy GH, Troutman C, Johnson G, Mehra R, Poole JE, Dolack GL, Kudenchuk PJ, Gartman DM (1991) Electrode system influence on biphasic waveform defibrillation efficacy in humans. Circulation 84: 665–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bardy GH (1992) Ensuring automatic detection of ventricular fibrillation. Circulation 86: 1634–1635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bardy GH, Troutman C, Poole JE, Kudenchuk PJ, Dolack GL, Johnson G, Hofer B (1992) Clinical experience with a tiered-therapy, multiprogrammable antiarrhythmia device. Circulation 85: 1689–1698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bardy GH, Hofer B, Johnson G, Kudenchuk PJ, Poole JE, Dolack GL, Gleva M, Mitchell R, Kelso D (1993) Implantable transvenous cardioverter-defibrillators. Circulation 87: 1152–1168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bardy GH, Poole JE, Kudenchuk PJ, Dolack L, Kelso D, Mitchell R (1993) A prospective randomized repeat-crossover comparison of antitachycardia pacing with low-energy cardioversion. Circulation 87: 1889–1896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Beck CS, Pritchard WH, Feil HS (1947) Ventricular fibrillation of long duration abolished by electric shock. J Am Med Assoc 135: 985–986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Becker AE, Becker MJ, Claudon DG, Edwards JE (1972) Surface thrombosis and fibrous encapsulation of intravenous pacemaker catheter electrode. Circulation 46: 409–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bernstein V, Rotem CE, Perez DI (1971) Permanent pacemakers: 8-year follow-up study. Ann Intern Med 74: 361–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Blacher RS, Basch SH (1970) Psychological aspects of pacemaker implantation. Arch Gen Psych 22: 319–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Block M, Isbruch F, Clerc G, Dees H, Breithard G (1992) ECG’s of defibrillation electrodes yield more information than ECG’s of sensing electrodes. Eur J C P E 2: 122 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bonnet CA, Fogoros RN, Elson JJ, Fiedler SB, Burkholder JA (1991) Long-term efficacy of an antitachycardia pacemaker and implantable defibrillator combination. PACE 14: 814–822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bourland JD, Tacker WA, Wessale JL, Kallok MJ, Graf JE, Geddes ME (1986) Sequential pulse defibrillation for implantable defibrillators. Med Instrum 20: 138 (Abstract)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bouvrain Y, Zacouto F (1961) L’entrainement electrosystolique du coeur. Utilisation medicale. Presse Med 69: 525–528Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bunzel B, Wollenek G, Grundbock A, Laczkovics A, Teufelsbauer H (1991) Lebensqualität und Lebenszufriedenheit nach Herztransplantation. Ein Indikator des Behandlungseerfolgs. Herz 16: 257–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Calkins H, Brinker J, Veltri EP, Guarnieri T, Levine JH (1990) Clinical interactions between pacemakers and automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. J Am Coll Cardiol 16: 666–673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Calkins H, El-Atassi R, Kalbfleisch S, Langberg J, Morady F (1993) Comparison of fixed burst versus decremental burst pacing for termination of ventricular tachycardia. PACE 16: 26–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Callans DJ, Hook BG, Marchlinski FE (1991) Paced beats following single nonsensed complexes in a “codependent” cardioverter defibrillator and bradycardia pacing system: potential for ventricular tachycardia induction. PACE 14: 1281–1287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Callans DJ, Hook BG, Marchlinski FE (1991) Use of bipolar recordings from patch-patch and rate sensing leads to distinguish ventricular tachycardia from supraventricular rhythms in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. PACE 14: 1917–1922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chapman PD, Troup P (1986) The automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: evaluating suspected inappropriate shocks. J Am Coll Cardiol 7: 1075–1078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chapman PD, Vetter JW, Souza JJ, Troup PJ, Wetherbee JN, Hoffmann RG (1988) Comparative efficacy of monophasic and biphasic truncated exponential shocks for nonthoraco-tomy internal defibrillation in dogs. J Am Coll Cardiol 12: 739–745PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chapman PD, Wetherbee JM, Vetter JW, Troup PJ (1988) Comparison of monophasic, biphasic, and triphasic truncated pulses for non-thoracotomy internal defibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 11: 57 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chapman PD, Vetter JW, Souza JJ, Wetherbee JN, Troup PJ (1989) Comparison of mono-phasic with single and dual capacitor biphasic waveforms for nonthoracotomy canine internal defibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 14: 242–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ciccone JM, Saksena S, Shah Y, Pantopoulos D (1985) A prospective randomized study of the clinical efficacy and safety of transvenous cardioversion for termination of ventricular tachycardia. Circulation 71: 571–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cohen AI, Wish MH, Fletcher RD, Miller FC, McCormick D, Shuck J, Shapira N, Delnegro AA (1988) The use and interaction of permanent pacemakers and the automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator. PACE 11: 704–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cook JR, Kirchhoffer JB, Fitzgerald TF, Lajzer DA (1992) Comparison of decremental and burst overdrive pacing as treatment for ventricular tachycardia associated with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 70: 311–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cooper DK, Luceri RM, Thurer RJ, Myerburg RJ (1986) The impact of the automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator on quality of life. Clin Prog Electrophysiol Pacing 4: 306–309Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cooper RAS, Ideker RE, Feeser SA, Daubert JP, Wharton JM (1992) Optimal waveform morphology for defibrillation. In: Alt E, Klein H, Griffin JC (eds.): The Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo pp 97–116Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    DiCarlo LA, Jenkins JM, Chiang CM, Winston SA, Silka MJ (1992) Bipolar intraventricular electrogram analysis for ventricular tachycardia detection is site-specific. Eur J C P E 2: 109 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dixon EG, Tang AS, Wolf PD, Meador JT, Fine MJ, Calfee RV, Ideker RE (1987) Improved defibrillation thresholds with large contoured epicardial electrodes and biphasic waveforms. Circulation 76: 1176–1184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dorian P, Fain ES, Davy JM, Winkle RA (1986) Effect of quinidine and bretylium on defibrillation energy requirements. Am Heart J 112: 19–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Echt DS, Armstrong K, Schmidt P, Oyer PE, Stinson EB, Winkle RA (1985) Clinical experience, complications, and survival in 70 patients with the automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator. Circulation 71: 289–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Edel TB, Maloney JD, Moore SL, McAllister H, Gohn D, Shewchik JM, Alexander L, Firstenberg MS, Castle LW, Simmons TW, Wilkoff BL, Trohmann R (1992) Analysis of deaths in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. PACE 15: 60–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Elefteriades JA, Biblo LA, Batsford WP, Rosenfeld LE, Henthorn RW, Carlson MD, Waldo AL, Hsu J, Geha AS (1990) Evolving patterns in the surgical treatment of malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Ann Thorac Surg 49: 94–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ellenbogen KA, Wood MA, Stambler BS, Welch WJ, Damiano RJ (1992) Measurement of ventricular electrogram amplitude during intraoperative induction of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Am J Cardiol 70: 1017–1022PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Epstein AE, Kay GN, Plumb VJ, Shepard RB, Kirklin JK (1989) Combined automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and pacemaker systems: implantation techniques and follow-up. J Am Coll Cardiol 13: 121–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Epstein AE, Anderson PG, Kay GN, Dailey SM, Plumb VJ, Shepard RB (1992) Gross and microscopic changes associated with a nonthoracotomy implantable cardioverter defibrillator. PACE 15: 382–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Epstein AE, Shepard RB (1993) Failure of one conductor in a nonthoracotomy implantable defibrillator lead causing inappropriate sensing and potentially ineffective shock delivery. PACE 16: 796–800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ewy JA, Thomas E, Taren B (1978) Electrode system for permanent implantable defibrillator: transvenous catheter and subcutaneous plate electrode. Med Instruml2: 296 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fain ES, Dorian P, Davy JM, Kates RE, Winkle RA (1986) Effects of encainide and its metabolites on energy requirements for defibrillation. Circulation 73: 1334–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Fain ES, Billingham M, Winkle RA (1987) Internal cardiac defibrillation: histopathology and temporal stability of defibrillation energy requirements. J Am Coll Cardiol 9: 631–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Fain ES, Lee JT, Winkle RA (1987) Effects of acute intravenous and chronic oral amiodarone on defibrillation energy requirements. Am Heart J 114: 8–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fain ES, Sweeney MB, Franz MR (1989) Improved internal defibrillation efficacy with a biphasic waveform. Am Heart J 117: 358–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Flaker GC, Schuder JC, McDaniel WC, Stoeckle H, Dbeis M (1989) Superiority of biphasic shocks in the defibrillation of dogs by epicardial patches and catheter electrodes. Am Heart J 118:288–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fogoros RN (1984) Amiodarone-induced refractoriness to cardioversion. Ann Intern Med 100: 699–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fogoros RN, Elson JJ, Bonnet CA (1989) Actuarial incidence and pattern of occurrence of shocks following implantation of the automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator. PACE 12: 1465–1473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Fogoros RN, Elson JJ, Bonnet CA, Fiedler SB, Burkholder JA (1990) Efficacy of the automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in prolonging survival in patients with severe underlying cardiac disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 16: 381–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Friedman SA, Berger N, Cerniti MM, Kosmoki J (1973) Venous thrombosis and permanent cardiac pacing. Am Heart J 85: 531–533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Furman S, Kim SG (1992) The present status of implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 3: 603–625Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fuster V, Halperin JL (1989) Left ventricular thrombi and cerebral embolism. N Engl J Med 320: 392–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gabry MD, Brodman R, Johnston D, Frame R, Kim SG, Waspe LE, Fisher JD, Furman S (1987) Automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: patient survival, battery longevity and shock delivery analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 9: 1349–1356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gartman DM, Bardy GH, Allen MD, Misbach GA, Ivey TD (1990) Short-term morbidity and mortality of implantation of automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 100: 353–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Geddes L, Tacker WA, McFarlane JR (1973) Ventricular defibrillation with single and twin pulses with half-sinusoidal current. J Appi Physiol 34: 8–11Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Glicksman FL, Zaman L, Huikuri HV, Castellanos A, Myerburg RJ (1988) Reversible failure to sense ventricular tachycardia early after surgical implantation of the automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Am J Cardiol 62: 833–834PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Goodman LR, Almassi GH, Troup PJ, Gurney JW, Veseth Rogers J, Chapman PD, Wetherbee JN (1989) Complications of automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillators: radiographic, CT, and echocardiographic evaluation. Radiology 170: 447–452Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gottlieb CD, Horowitz LN (1991) Potential interactions between antiarrhythmic medication and the automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator. PACE 14: 898–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Green WA, Moss AJ (1969) Psychosocial factors in the adjustment of patients with permanently implanted cardiac pacemakers. Ann Intern Med 70: 897–902Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Grimm W, Flores BF, Marchlinski FE (1992) Electrocardiographically documented unnecessary, spontaneous shocks in 241 patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. PACE 15: 1667–1673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Grubb BP, Durzinsky D, Mancini MC, Temesy Armos P (1992) Serum creatine kinase activity and sensing characteristics after intraoperative arrhythmia induction using implantable defibrillator rate sensing leads. PACE 15: 9–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Guarnieri T, Levine JH, Veltri EP, Griffith LS, Watkins LJ, Juanteguy J, Mower MM, Mirowski M (1987) Success of chronic defibrillation and the role of antiarrhythmic drugs with the automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator. Am J Cardiol 60: 1061–1064PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gurvich NL, Markarychev VA (1967) Defibrillation of the heart with biphasic electrical impulses. Kardiologia 7: 109–112Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hess K (1975) Meeting of psychosocial needs of pacemaker patients. Int J Psychiatry Med 6: 359–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hook BG, Callans DJ, Kleiman RB, Flores BT, Marchlinski FE (1993) Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in the absence of significant symptoms:rhythm diagnosis and management aided by stored electrogram analysis. Circulation 87: 1897–1906PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hook BG, Marchlinski FE (1991) Value of ventricular electrogram recordings in the diagnosis of arrhythmias precipitating electrical device shock therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol 17: 985–990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hooker DR, Kouwenhoven WB, Langworthy OR (1933) The effect of alternating current on the heart. Am J Physiol 103: 449–454Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Horowitz LN (1992) The automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator: review of clinical results, 1980–1990. PACE 15: 604–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Huang SK, Tan de Guzman WL, Chenarides JG, Okike NO, Vander Salm TJ (1991) Effects of long-term amiodarone therapy on the defibrillation threshold and the rate of shocks of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Am Heart J 122: 720–727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Huang TJ, Babà N (1972) Cardiac pathology of transvenous pacemakers. Am Heart J 83: 469–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hurwitz JL, Hook BG, Flores BT, Marchlinski FE (1993) Importance of abortive shock capability with electrogram storage in cardioverter-defibrillator devices. J Am Coll Cardiol 21: 895–900PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Isbruch F, Block M, Wietholt D, Böcker D, Borggrefe M, Clerc G, Dees H, Breithard G (1992) Reduction of the endocardial sensing signal of an integrated sense/pace-defibrillation lead after application of defibrillation shocks. PACE 15: 562 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jackman WM, Zipes DP (1982) Low energy synchronous cardioversion of ventricular tachycardia using a catheter electrode in canine model of subacute myocardial infarction. Circulation 66: 187–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Johnson NJ, Marchlinski FE (1991) Arrhythmias induced by device antitachycardia therapy due to diagnostic nonspecificity. J Am Coll Cardiol 18: 1418–1425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Jones DL, Klein GJ, Kallok MJ (1985) Improved internal defibrillation with twin pulse sequential energy delivery to different lead orientation in pigs. Am J Cardiol 55: 821–825PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jones DL, Klein GJ, Guiraudon GM, Sharma AD, Kallok MJ, Bourland JD, Tacker WA (1986) Internal cardiac defibrillation in man: pronounced improvement with sequential pulse delivery to two different lead orientations. Circulation 73: 484–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Jones DL, Klein GJ, Guiraudon GM, Sharma AD, Yee R, Kallok MJ (1988) Prediction of defibrillation success from a single defibrillation threshold measurement with sequential pulses and two current pathways in humans. Circulation 78: 1144–1149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Jones DL, Klein GJ, Guiraudon GM, Sharma AD (1988) Sequential pulse defibrillation in humans: orthogonal sequential pulse defibrillation with epicardial electrodes. J Am Coll Cardiol 11:590–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Jones DL, Klein GJ, Rattes MF, Sohla A, Sharma AD (1988) Internal cardiac defibrillation: single and sequential pulses and a variety of lead orientations. PACE 11: 583–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Jones GK, Johnson G, Troutman C, Buono G, Gartman DM, Kudenchuk PJ, Poole JE, Dolack GL, Bardy GH (1992) Incidence of atrial fibrillation following ventricular defibrillation with transvenous lead systems in man. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 3: 411–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Jones JL, Jones RE (1984) Decreased defibrillator-induced dysfunction with biphasic rectangular waveforms. Am J Physiol 247: H792-H796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Jones JL, Jones RE, Balasky G (1985) Reduced excitation threshold in potassium depolarized myocardial cells with symmetrical biphasic waveforms. J Mol Cell Cardiol 17: 27 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Jones JL, Jones RE, Balasky G (1987) Improved cardiac cell excitation with symmetrical biphasic defibrillator waveforms. Am J Physiol 253: H1418-H1424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Jones JL, Jones RE (1989) Improved safety factor for triphasic defibrillator waveforms. Circ Res 64: 1172–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Jordaens L, Hamerlynck R, Clement DL (1985) Efficacy of an implantable automatic defibrillator which had induced atrial fibrillation. Br Heart J 54: 605–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Jung W, Mletzko R, Manz M, Mohr F, Lüderitz B (1990) Clinical experience with a new antibradycardia/antitachycardia pacemaker and implantable defibrillator. PACE 13:41 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Jung W, Mletzko R, Hügl B, Manz M, Lüderitz B (1991) Incidence of atrial tachyarrhythmias following shock delivery of implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Circulation 84- II: 612 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Jung W, Manz M, Lüderitz B (1994) The Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator: European clinical experience. In: Estes NAM, Wang P, Manolis AS (eds) The Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator: a comprehensive textbook. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp 811–844Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Jung W, Manz M, Lüderitz B (1995) The use of antiarrhythmic drugs in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients. In: Camm A J, Lindemanns FW (eds) Trans venous defibrillation and radiofrequency ablation. Futura Publishing Company Inc., Armonk, New York,pp 137–148Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Jung W, Manz M, Lüderitz B (1992) Effects of antiarrhythmic drugs on defibrillation threshold in patients with the implantable cardioverter defibrillator. PACE 15: 645–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Jung W, Manz M, Lüderitz B (1992) Increase in chronic defibrillation threshold in patients with implantable cardioverter/defibrillators and additional drug therapy. New Trends Arrhyt 7: 823–826Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Jung W, Manz M, Pizzulli L, Pfeiffer D, Lüderitz B (1992) Effects of chronic amiodarone therapy on defibrillation threshold. Am J Cardiol 70: 1023–1027PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Jung W, Manz M, Lüderitz B (1994) Der Einfluß der Impulsform des Defibrillationsschocks auf Effektivität und Gerätetechnik des ICD. Herz 19: 251–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Jung W, Manz M, Moosdorf R, Schneider C, Lüderitz B (1992) Defibrillation efficacy of simultaneous monophasic and biphasic waveforms in man. J Am Coll Cardiol 19: 163 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Jung W, Manz M, Moosdorf R, Spehl S, Wolpert C, Körte T, Lüderitz B (1994) Clinical efficacy of shock waveforms and lead configurations for defibrillation. Am Heart J 127: 985–993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Jung W, Manz M, Tebbenjohanns J, Hügl B, Moosdorf R, Lüderitz B (1992) Incidence of atrial fibrillation following shock delivery of an implantable defibrillator: comparison of two lead systems. PACE 15: 567 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Jung W, Manz M, Moosdorf R, Lüderitz B (1992) Failure of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator to redetect ventricular fibrillation in patients with a nonthoracotomy lead system. Circulation 86: 1217–1222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jung W, Manz M, Pfeiffer D, Tebbenjohanns J, Moosdorf R, Kirchhoff PG, Lüderitz B (1992) Substantial improvement in redetection of ventricular fibrillation with a new nonthoracotomy lead system. Circulation 86–1: 792 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Jung W, Manz M, Pfeiffer D, Tebbenjohanns J, Spehl S, Lewalter T, Moosdorf R, Lüderitz B (1993) Change in the amplitude of endocardial electrograms following defibrillator discharge: Comparison of two lead systems. J Am Coll Cardiol 21: 128 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Jung W, Manz M, Pfeiffer D, Tebbenjohanns J, Pizzulli L, Lüderitz B (1993) Effects of antiarrhythmic drugs on epicardial defibrillation energy requirements and the rate of defibrillator discharges. PACE 16: 198–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Jung W, Fehske W, Manz M, Pfeiffer D, Tebbenjohanns J, Lüderitz B (1993) Incidence of floating vegetations on transvenous defibrillation leads: Impact of anticoagulant therapy. PACE 16: 916 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Jung W, Manz M, Lüderitz B (1994) Myocardial ischemia, ventricular arrhythmias and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: Importance of stored electrograms. In: Zeh ender M, Meinertz T, Just H (eds): Myocardial ischemia and arrhythmia. Steinkopff Verlag, Darmstadt, pp 273–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kalbfleisch KR, Lehmann MH, Steinman RT, Jackson K, Axtell K, Schuger CD, Tchou PJ (1989) Reemployment following implantation of the automatic cardioverter defibrillator. Am J Cardiol 64: 199–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kallok MJ, Keimel JG, Almquist CK (1988) Comparison of three-patch sequential and simultaneous pulses and two-patch single pulse defibrillation threshold in canines. J Am Coll Cardiol 11: 145 (Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kavanagh KM, Tang AS, Rollins DL, Smith WM, Ideker RE (1989) Comparison of the internal defibrillation thresholds for monophasic and double and single capacitor biphasic waveforms. J Am Coll Cardiol 14: 1343–1349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kelly PA, Cannom DS, Garan H, Finkelstein D, McComb JM, Mirabai GS, Ilvento JP, Ruskin JN (1988) Predictors of automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator discharge for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Am J Cardiol 62: 83–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kelly PA, Cannom DS, Garan H, Mirabai GS, Harthorne JW, Hurvitz RJ, Vlahakes GJ, Jacobs ML, Ilvento JP, Buckley MJ, Ruskin JN (1988) The automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: efficacy, complications and survival in patients with malignant ventricular arrhythmias. J Am Coll Cardiol 11: 1278–1286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Kelly PA, Wallace S, Tucker B, Hurvitz RJ, Ilvento J, Mirabel GS, Cannom DS (1988) Postoperative infection with the automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator: clinical presentation and use of the gallium scan in diagnosis. PACE 11: 1220–1225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kim SG, Furman S, Waspe LE, Brodman R, Fisher JD (1986) Unipolar pacer artifacts induced failure of an automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator to detect ventricular fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 57: 880–881PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kim SG, Furman S, Gross J, Zilo P, Roth JA, Ferrick KJ, Brodman R (1991) Benefits of implantable defibrillators are overstimated by sudden cardiac death rates and better represented by the total arrhythmic death rate. J Am Coll Cardiol 18: 1587–1592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kim SG, Fisher JD, Choue CW, Gross J, Roth J, Ferrick KJ, Brodman R, Furman S (1992) Influence of left ventricular function on outcome of patients treated with implantable defibrillators. Circulation 85: 1304–1310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Kinney EL, Allen RP, Weidner WA, Pierce WS, Leaman DM, Zelis RF (1979) Recurrent pulmonary emboli secondary to right atrial thrombus around a permanent pacing catheter: a case report and review of the literature. PACE 2: 196–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Klein H, Tröster J, Trappe HJ, Becht I, Siclari F (1990) Der implantierbare automatische Kardioverter-Defibrillator (AICD). Herz 15: 111–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Körte T, Jung W, Spehl S, Wolpert C, Schneider C, Moosdorf R, Manz M, Lüderitz B (1993) Implantable cardioverter/defibrillator: lead fracture and lead dislodgement during long-term follow up. PACE 16: 1161 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Kou WH, Kirsh MM, Boiling SF, Stirling M, Kadish AH, De Buitleir M, Calkins H, Lewis RR, Morady F (1991) Effect of antiarrhythmic drug therapy on the incidence of shocks in patients who receive an implantable cardioverter defibrillator after a single episode of sustained ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation. PACE 14: 1586–1592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kugelberg G (1967) Ventricular defibrillation: a new aspect. Acta Chir Scand Suppl 372: 1–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kulbertus HE, Nisam S (1987) The implantable defibrillator AICD: European clinical experience. In: Brugada P, Wellens HJJ (eds.): Cardiac Arrhythmias: Where to go from here? Futura Publishing Company Inc., Mount Kisco New York pp 681–686Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kühlkamp V, Michel J, Hoffmeister HE, Seipel L (1991) Reduction of the sensing signal with the use of combined endocardial sensing and defibrillation electrodes. Eur Heart J 12: 363 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Langer A, Heilman MS, Mower MM, Mirowski M (1976) Considerations in the development of the automatic implantable defibrillator. Med Instrum 10: 163–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Lawrence JH, Fazio GP, DeBorde R, Tomaselli GF, Hummel J, Porterfield K, Guarnieri T (1992) Electrical but not mechanical stunning after endocardial defibrillation. Eur J C P E 2: 121 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Lehmann MH, Saksena S (1991) Implantable cardioverter defibrillators in cardiovascular practice: report of the Policy Conference of the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. NASPE Policy Conference Committee. PACE 14: 969–979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Leitch JW, Yee R, Klein GJ, Jones DL, Murdock CJ (1990) Correlation between the ventricular electrogram amplitude in sinus rhythm and in ventricular fibrillation. PACE 13: 1105–1109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Leitch JW, Gillis AM, Wyse DG, Yee R, Klein GJ, Guiraudon G, Sheldon RS, Duff HJ, Kieser TM, Mitchell LB (1991) Reduction in defibrillator shocks with an implantable device combining antitachycardia pacing and shock therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol 18: 145–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Levine JH, Mellits ED, Baumgardner RA, Veltri EP, Mower M, Grunwald L, Guarnieri T, Aarons D, Griffith LS (1991) Predictors of first discharge and subsequent survival in patients with automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Circulation 84: 558–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Lindsay BD, Saksena S, Rothbart ST, Wasty N, Pantopoulos D (1987) Prospective evaluation of a sequential pacing and high-energy bidirectional shock algorithm for transvenous cardioversion in patients with ventricular tachycardia. Circulation 76: 601–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    London AR, Runge PJ, Balsam RF, Bishop MB, Bousvaros G (1969) Large right atrial thrombi surrounding permanent transvenous pacemakers. Circulation 40: 661–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Lown B, Amarasingham R, Neumann J (1962) New method for terminating cardiac arrhythmias. Use of synchronized capacitor discharge. J Am Med Assoc 182: 548–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lown B, Newman J, Amarasingham R (1962) Comparison of alternating current with direct current electroshock across the closed chest. Am J Cardiol 10: 223–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Lown B, Wolf M (1971) Approaches to sudden cardiac death from coronary heart disease. Circulation 44: 130–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Lüderitz B, Gerckens U, Manz M (1986) Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) and antitachycardia pacemaker (Tachylog): Combined use in ventricular tachyarrhythmias. PACE 9: 1356–1360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Lüderitz B (1986) Herzschrittmacher: Therapie und Diagnostik kardialer Rhythmusstörungen. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Lüderitz B (1993) Therapie der Herzrhythmusstörungen 4. Aufl.. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Lüderitz B (1991) Historical aspects of device therapy for cardiac arrhythmias. In: Lüderitz B, Saksena S (eds.): Interventional Electrophysiology. Futura Publishing Company Inc., Mount Kisco New York pp 333–352Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Lüderitz B, Naumann d’Alnoncourt C, Steinbeck G, Beyer J (1982) Therapeutic pacing in tachyarrhythmias by implanted pacemakers. PACE 5: 366–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Lüderitz B, Jung W, Manz M (1994) Antitachycardia pacing. In: Singer I (ed): The Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator. Futura Publishing Company Inc., Armonk, New York, pp 271–302Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Lüderitz B. Geschichte der Herzrhythmusstörungen: Von der antiken Pulslehre bis zum implantierbaren Defibrillator. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo 1993Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Lüderitz B, Jung W, Deister A, Marneros A, Manz M (1993) Lebensqualität nach Implantation eines Kardioverters/Defibrillators bei malignen Herzrhythmusstörungen. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 118:285–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Lüderitz B, Jung W, Deister A, Marneros A, Manz M (1993) Patient acceptance of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in ventricular tachyarrhythmias. PACE 16: 1815–1821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Maloney J, Masterson M, Khoury D, Trohman R, Wilkoff B, Simmons T, Morant V, Castle L (1991) Clinical performance of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator: electrocardiographic documentation of 101 spontaneous discharges. PACE 14: 280–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Manolis AS, Tan DeGuzman W, Lee MA, Rastegar H, Haffajee CI, Huang SKS, Estes NAM (1989) Clinical experience in seventy-seven patients with the automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Am Heart J 118: 445–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Manz M, Gerckens U, Lüderitz B (1986) Erroneous discharges from an implanted automatic defibrillator during supraventricular tachyarrhythmia induced ventricular fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 57: 343–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Manz M, Gerckens U, Funke HD, Kirchhoff PG, Lüderitz B (1986) Combination of antitachycardia pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator for ventricular tachycardia. PACE 9: 676–684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Manz M, Jung W, Lüderitz B (1994) Implantierbare Kardioverter-Defibrillatoren: Vom klinischen Experiment zur Standardtherapie für maligne ventrikuläre Tachyarrhythmien. Dtsch Ärzteblatt 39: 2581–2589Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Marchena E, Chakko S, Fernandez P, Villa A, Cooper D, Wozniak P, Cruz R, Thurer RJ, Kessler KM, Myerburg RJ (1991) Usefulness of the automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator in improving survival of patients with severely depressed left ventricular function associated with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 67: 812–816PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Marchlinski FE, Flores BT, Buxton AE, Hargrove WC, Addonizio VP, Stephenson LW, Harken AH, Doherty JU, Grogan EWJ, Josephson ME (1986) The automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: efficacy, complications, and device failures. Ann Intern Med 104: 481–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Marchlinski FE, Gottlieb CD, Sarter B, Finkle J, Hook BG, Callans D, Schwartzmann D (1993) ICD data storage: value in arrhythmia management. PACE 16: 527–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Marinchak RA, Friehling TD, Kline RA, Stohler J, Kowey PR (1988) Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on defibrillation threshold: case report of an adverse effect of mexiletine and review of the literature. PACE 11: 7–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    McCallister MH, Lee LM, Ghedotte FM, Kou W, Armstrong WF (1991) Prevalence of pacemaker associated thrombus in the right heart as detected with transesophageal echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 4: 293 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    McCowan R, Maloney J, Wilkoff B, Simmons T, Khoury D, McAlister H, Morant V, Castle L (1991) Automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation without thoracotomy using an endocardial and submuscular patch system. J Am Coll Cardiol 17: 415–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Mehta D, Saksena S, Krol RB (1992) Survival of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator recipients: role of left ventricular function and its relationship to device use. Am Heart J 124: 1608–1614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Mirowski M, Mower MM, Staewen WS, Tabatznik B, Mendelhoff AI (1970) Standby automatic defibrillator: an approach to prevention of sudden coronary death. Arch Intern Med 126: 185–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Mirowski M, Mower M, Staewen WS (1971) Ventricular defibrillation through a single intravascular catheter electrode system. Clin Res 19: 328 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Mirowski M, Mower MM, Staewen WS, Denniston RH, Mendelhoff AI (1972) The development of the transvenous automatic defibrillator. Arch Intern Med 129: 773–779PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Mirowski M, Mower MM, Gott VL, Brawley RK (1973) Feasibility and effectiveness of low- energy catheter defibrillation in men. Circulation 47: 79–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Mirowski M, Mower MM, Langer A, Heilman MS, Schreibmann J (1978) A chronically implanted system for automatic defibrillation in active conscious dogs. Experimental model for treatment of sudden death from ventricular defibrillation. Circulation 58: 90–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Mirowski M, Reid PR, Mower MM, Watkins L, Gott VL, Schäuble JF, Langer A, Heilman MS, Kolenik SA, Fischell RE, Weisfeldt ML (1980) Termination of malignant ventricular arrhythmias with an implanted automatic defibrillator in human beings. N Engl J Med 303: 322–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Mirowski M, Mower MM, Reid PR, Watkins L, Langer A (1982) The automatic implantable defibrillator. New modality for treatment of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. PACE 5: 384–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Mirowski M, Reid PR, Winkle RA, Mower MM, Watkins LJ, Stinson EB, Griffith LS, Kallman CH, Weisfeldt ML (1983) Mortality in patients with implanted automatic defibrillators. Ann Intern Med 98: 585–588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Moore TW, Dimeo FN, Dubin SE (1978) The effect of shock separation time on multiple shock defibrillation. Med Instrum 12: 31–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Mosteller RD, Lehmann MH, Thomas AC, Jackson K (1991) Operative mortality with implantation of the automatic cardioverter-defibrillator. Am J Cardiol 68: 1340–1345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Myerburg RJ, Luceri RM, Thurer R, Cooper DK, Zaman L, Interian A, Fernandez P, Cox M, Glicksman F, Castellanos A (1989) Time to first shock and clinical outcome in patients receiving an automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. J Am Coll Cardiol 14: 508–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Naccarelli GV, Zipes DP, Rahilly GT, Heger JJ, Prystowsky EN (1983) Influence of tachycardia cycle length and antiarrhythmic drugs on pacing termination and acceleration of ventricular tachycardia. Am Heart J 105: 1–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Newman D, Sauve MJ, Herre J, Langberg JJ, Lee MA, Titus C, Franklin J, Scheinman MM, Griffin JC (1992) Survival after implantation of the cardioverter defibrillator. Am J Cardiol 69: 899–903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Newman D, Dorian P, Hardy J (1993) Randomized controlled comparison of antitachycardia pacing algorithms for termination of ventricular tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol 21: 1413–1419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Oates JA, Wood AJJ, Amiodarone (1987) N Engl J Med 316: 155–466Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Pasquariello JL, Hariman RJ, Yudelman IM, Feit A, Gomes JA, El Sherif N (1984) Recurrent pulmonary embolization following implantation of transvenous pacemaker. PACE 7: 790–793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Paul VE, Anderson M, Jones S, Shekan DJ, Camm AJ, Ward DE (1991) Cardiologist implanted cardioverter/defibrillators: Early experience of three systems. Eur J C P E 1: 21–26Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Phibbs B, Marriott HJ (1985) Complications of permanent transvenous pacing. N Engl J Med 312: 1428–1432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Pinski SL, Mick MJ, Arnold AZ, Golding L, McCarthy PM, Castle LW, Maloney JD, Trohman RG (1991) Retrospective analysis of patients undergoing one- or two-stage strategies for myocardial revascularization and implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation. PACE 14: 1138–1147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Porath A, Avnun L, Hirsch M, Ovsyshcher I (1987) Right atrial thrombus and recurrent pulmonary emboli secondary to permanent cardiac pacing~a case report and short review of literature. Angiology 38: 627–630PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Prevost JL, Battelli F (1899) La mort par les courants électriques courant alternatif a bas voltage. J Physiol Pathol Gen 1: 399–412Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Prozan GB, Shipley RE, Madding GF, Kennedy PA (1968) Pulmonary thromboembolism in the presence of an endocardiac pacing catheter. J Am Med Assoc 206: 1564–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Pycha C, Calabrese JR, Gulledge AD, Maloney JD (1990) Patient and spouse acceptance and adaptation to implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Cleve Clin J Med 57: 441–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Rajs J (1983) Postmortem findings and possible causes of unexpected deaths in patients treated with intraventricular pacing. PACE 6: 751–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Reid PR, Mirowski M, Mower MM, Platia EV, Griffith LS, Watkins LJ, Bach SMJ, Imran M, Thomas A (1983) Clinical evaluation of the internal automatic cardioverter-defibrillator in survivors of sudden cardiac death. Am J Cardiol 51: 1608–1613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Reiffei JA, Coromilas J, Zimmerman JM, Spotnitz HM (1985) Drug-device interactions: clinical considerations. PACE 8: 369–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Resnekov L, Norman J, Lord P, Sowton E (1968) Ventricular defibrillation by monophasic trapezoidal shaped double pulses of low electrical energy. Cardiovasc Res 2: 261–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Robboy SJ, Harthorne JW, Leinbach RC, Sanders C, Austen WG (1969) Autopsy findings with permanent pervenous pacemakers. Circulation 39: 495–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Saksena S, Chandran P, Shah Y, Boccadamo R, Pantopoulos D, Rothbart ST (1985) Comparative efficacy of transvenous cardioversion and pacing in patients with sustained ventricular tachycardia: A prospective, randomized, crossover study. Circulation 72: 153–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Saksena S, Calvo RA, Pantopoulos D, Gadhoke A, Rothbart ST (1987) A prospective evaluation of single and dual current pathways for transvenous cardioversion in rapid ventricular tachycardia. PACE 10: 1130–1141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Saksena S, Parsonnet V (1988) Implantation of a cardioverter/defibrillator without thoracotomy using a triple electrode system. J Am Med Assoc 259: 69–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Saksena S, Scott SE, Accord PR, Boveja BK, Abels D, Callaghan FJ (1990) Efficacy and safety of monophasic and biphasic waveform shocks using a braided endocardial defibrillation lead system. Am Heart J 120: 1342–1347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Saksena S, An H, Krol RB, Burkhardt E (1991) Simultaneous biphasic shocks enhance efficacy of endocardial cardioversion defibrillation in man. PACE 14: 1935–1942PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Saksena S, Mehta D, Krol RB, Tulio NG, Saxena A, Kaushik R, Neglia J (1991) Experience with a third-generation implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Am J Cardiol 67: 1375–1384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Saksena S, An H, Mehra R, DeGroot P, Krol RB, Burkhardt E, Mehta D, John T (1992) Prospective comparison of biphasic and monophasic shocks for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators using endocardial leads. Am J Cardiol 70: 304–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Saksena S, Poczobutt Johanos M, Castle LW, Fogoros RN, Alpert BL, Kron J, Pacifico A, Griffin J, Ruskin JN, Kehoe RF, Yee R, Dorian P, Kerr CR, Luceri RM, Poliseno M (1992) Long-term multicenter experience with a second-generation implantable pacemaker-defibril-lator in patients with malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The Guardian Multicenter Investigators Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 19: 490–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Saksena S, Luceri R, Krol RB, Brownstein S, Burkhardt E, Accorti P, Brewer G, Scott S, Callaghan F, Livingston A (1993) Endocardial pacing, cardioversion and defibrillation using a braided endocardial lead system. Am J Cardiol 71: 834–841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Sarter BH, Hook BG, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE (1992) Effect of bundle branch block on local electrogram morphology: potential cause of arrhythmia misdiagnosis. PACE 15: 562 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Schuder JC, Stoeckle H, Gold JH, West JA, Keskar PY (1970) Experimental ventricular defibrillation with an automatic and completely implanted system. Trans Am Soc Artif Organs 16: 207–212Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Schuder JC, Stoeckle H, Keskar PY (1970) Transthoracic ventricular defibrillation in the dog with unidirectional rectangular double pulses. Cardiovasc Res 4: 497–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Schuder JC, Stoeckle H, West JA, Keskar PY, Gold JH, Denniston R (1971) Ventricular defibrillation with catheter having distal electrode in the right ventricle and proximal electrode in superior vena cava. Circulation 43–44:11–99 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Schuder JC, Stoeckle H, West JA (1973) Ventricular defibrillation in the dog with a bielec-trode intravascular catheter. Arch Intern Med 132: 286–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Schuder JC, Stoeckle H, West JA (1973) Relationship between electrode geomety and effectiveness of ventricular defibrillation in the dog with a catheter having one electrode in the right ventricle and the other electrode in the superior vena cava or external jugular vein, or both. Cardiovasc Res 7: 629–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Schuder JC, McDaniel WC, Stoeckle H (1984) Defibrillation of 100 kg calves with asymmetrical, bidirectional, rectangular pulses. Cardiovasc Res 18: 419–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Seeger W, Scherer K (1986) Asymptomatic pulmonary embolism following pacemaker implantation. PACE 9: 196–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Sidd JJ, Stellar LI, Gry ska PF, O’Dea AE (1969) Thrombus formation on a transvenous pacemaker electrode. N Engl J Med 280: 877–878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Singer I, Hutchins GM, Mirowski M, Mower MM, Veltri EP, Guarnieri T, Griffith LS, Watkins L, Juanteguy J, Fisher S, Reid PR, Weisfeldt ML (1987) Pathologic findings related to the lead system and repeated defibrillations in patients with the automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. J Am Coll Cardiol 10: 382–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Singer I, Guarnieri T, Kupersmith J (1988) Implanted automatic defibrillators: effects of drugs and pacemakers. PACE 11: 2250–2262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Slepian M, Levine JH, Watkins LJ, Brinker J, Guarnieri T (1987) Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator/permanent pacemaker interaction: loss of pacemaker capture following AICD discharge. PACE 10: 1194–1197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Sperry RE, Ellenbogen KA, Wood MA, Stambler BS, DiMarco JP, Haines DE (1992) Failure of a second and third generation implantable cardioverter defibrillator to sense ventricular tachycardia: implications for fixed-gain sensing devices. PACE 15: 749–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Steinbeck G, Meinertz T, Andresen D, Borggrefe M, Brachmann J, Gonska BD, Klein H, Kuck KH, Manz M (1991) Empfehlungen zur Implantation von Defibrillatoren. Z Kardiol 80: 475–478Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Steinberg JS, Sugalski JS (1991) Cardiac rhythm precipitating automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator discharge in outpatients as detected from transtelephonic electrocardiographic recordings. Am J Cardiol 67: 95–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Stoney WS, Addlestone RB, Burrus GR, Frist RA, Thomas CS (1976) The incidence of venous thrombosis following long-term transvenous pacing. Ann Thorac Surg 22: 166–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Tang AS, Yabe S, Wharton JM, Dolker M, Smith WM, Ideker RE (1989) Ventricular defibrillation using biphasic waveforms: the importance of phasic duration. J Am Coll Cardiol 13: 207–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Taylor RL, Cohen DJ, Widman LE, Chilton RJ, O’Rourke RA (1990) Infection of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator: management without removal of the device in selected cases. PACE 13: 1352–1355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Tchou PJ, Kadri N, Anderson J, Caceres JA, Jazayeri M, Akhtar M (1988) Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillators and survival of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Ann Intern Med 109: 529–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Teplitz L, Egenes KJ, Brask L (1990) Life after sudden death: the development of a support group for automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients. J Cardiovasc Nurs 4: 20–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Thomas AC, Moser SA, Smutka ML, Wilson PA (1988) Implantable defibrillation: eight years clinical experience. PACE 11: 2053–2058PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Troup PJ, Chapman PD, Olinger GN, Kleinman LH (1985) The implanted defibrillator: relation of defibrillating lead configuration and clinical variables to defibrillation threshold. J Am Coll Cardiol 6: 1315–1321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Troup PJ (1989) Implantable cardioverters and defibrillators Curr Probi Cardiol 14: 673–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Troup PJ, Nisam S (1992) Complications associated with the automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator. In: Alt E, Klein H, Griffin JC (eds.): The Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo pp 253–272Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Tulio NG, Saksena S, Krol RB, Mauro AM, Kunecz D (1990) Management of complications associated with a first-generation endocardial defibrillation lead system for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Am J Cardiol 66: 411–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Tulio NG, Saksena S, Krol RB, Singh S, Burkhardt E, Hibbard D (1991) Sensing characteristics of first-and second-generation endocardial (non-thoracotomy) lead systems for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. J Am Coll Cardiol 17: 54 (Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Veltri EP, Mower MM, Mirowski M, Juanteguy J, Watkins L, Levine JH, Guanieri T, Reid PR, Griffith LSC (1989) Follow-up of patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmia treated with , the automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: Programmed electrical stimulation results do not predict clinical outcome. J Electrophysiol 3: 467–476Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Vlay SC, Olson LC, Fricchione GL, Friedman R (1989) Anxiety and anger in patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Responses after automatic internal cardioverter defibrillator implantation. PACE 12: 366–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Waldecker B, Brugada P, Zehender M, Stevenson W, Wellens HJJ (1986) Dysrhythmias after direct-current cardioversion. Am J Cardiol 57: 120–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Wang M, Dorian P (1989) DL and D Sotalol decrease defibrillation energy requirements. PACE 12: 1522–1529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Waspe LE, Kim SG, Matos JA, Fisher JD (1983) Role of a catheter lead system for transvenous countershock and pacing during electrophysiologic tests: an assessment of the usefulness of catheter shocks for terminating ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Am J Cardiol 52: 477–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Watkins LJ, Taylor EJ (1991) The surgical aspects of automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. PACE 14: 953–960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Wetherbee JN, Chapman PD, Klopfenstein HS, Bach SMJ, Troup PJ (1987) Nonthoraco-tomy internal defibrillation in dogs: threshold reduction using a subcutaneous chest wall electrode with a transvenous catheter electrode. J Am Coll Cardiol 10: 406–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Wetherbee JN, Chapman PD, Bach SMJ, Troup PJ (1988) Sequential shocks are comparable to single shocks employing two current pathways for internal defibrillation in dogs. PACE 11:696–703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Wetherbee JN, Chapman PD, Troup PJ, Veseth Rogers J, Thakur RK, Almassi GH, Olinger GN (1989) Long-term internal cardiac defibrillation threshold stability. PACE 12: 443–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Wietholt D, Block M, Isbruch F, Böcker D, Hammel D, Borggrefe M, Scheid HH, Breithard G (1993) Therapie ventrikulärer Tachyarrhythmien mit implantierbaren Kardioverter/Defibrillatoren - Sterblichkeit und Komplikationen bei der Verwendung epikardialer Elektroden. Z Kardiol 82: 150–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Wiggers JC (1940) The physiologic basis for cardiac resuscitation from ventricular fibrillation: method for serial defibrillation. Am Heart J 20: 413–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Williams ML, Woelfel A, Cascio WE, Simpson RJJ, Gettes LS, Foster JR (1989) Intravenous amiodarone during prolonged resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Ann Intern Med 110:839–842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Wilson JH, Rath R, Miller H (1989) Infection of an automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator pocket with Campylobacter jejuni. J Electrophysiol 3: 481–482Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Winkle RA, Bach SMJ, Echt DS, Swerdlow CD, Imran M, Mason JW, Oyer PE, Stinson EB (1983) The automatic implantable defibrillator: local ventricular bipolar sensing to detect ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 52: 265–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Winkle RA, Stinson EB, Bach SMJ, Echt DS, Oyer P, Armstrong K (1984) Measurement of cardioversion/defibrillation thresholds in man by a truncated exponential waveform and an apical patch-superior vena cavai spring electrode configuration. Circulation 69: 766–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Winkle RA, Bach SMJ, Mead RH, Gaudiani VA, Stinson EB, Fain ES, Schmidt P (1988) Comparison of defibrillation efficacy in humans using a new catheter and superior vena cava spring-left ventricular patch electrodes. J Am Coll Cardiol 11: 365–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Winkle RA, Mead RH, Ruder MA, Gaudiani V, Buch WS, Pless B, Sweeney M, Schmidt P (1989) Improved low energy defibrillation efficacy in man with the use of a biphasic truncated exponential waveform. Am Heart J 117: 122–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Winkle RA, Mead RH, Ruder MA, Gaudiani VA, Smith NA, Buch WS, Schmidt P, Ship-man T (1989) Long-term outcome with the automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. J Am Coll Cardiol 13: 1353–1361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Winkle RA, Mead RA, Ruder MA, Smith NA, Ellis TL, Shipman TC, Schmidt P, Buch WS, Gaudiani VA (1991) Ten year experience with implantable defibrillators. Circulation 84: 426 (Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Wunderly D, Maloney J, Edel T, McHenry M, McCarthy PM (1990) Infections in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients. PACE 13: 1360–1364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Wyse DG, Kavanagh KM, Gillis AM, Mitchell LB, Duff HJ, Sheldon RS, Kieser TM, Maitland A, Flanagan P, Rothschild J, Mehre R (1993) Comparison of biphasic and mono-phasic shocks for defibrillation using a nonthoracotomy system. Am J Cardiol 71: 197–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Yabe S, Smith WM, Daubert JP, Wolf PD, Rollins DL, Ideker RE (1990) Conduction disturbances caused by high current density electric fields. Circ Res 66: 1190–1203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Yee R, Zipes DP, Gulamhusein S, Kallok MJ, Klein GJ (1982) Low energy countershock using an intravascular catheter in an acute cardiac care setting. Am J Cardiol 50: 1124–1129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Yee R, Jones DL, Klein GJ (1984) Pacing threshold changes after transvenous catheter countershock. Am J Cardiol 53: 503–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Yee R, Jones DL, Jarvis E, Donner AP, Klein GJ (1984) Changes in pacing threshold and R wave amplitude after transvenous catheter countershock. J Am Coll Cardiol 4: 543–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Yee R, Klein GJ, Leitch JW, Guiraudon GM, Guiraudon CM, Jones DL, Norris C (1992) A permanent transvenous lead system for an implantable pacemaker cardioverter-defibrillator. Nonthoracotomy approach to implantation. Circulation 85: 196–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Ziemssen v H (1871) Studien über die BewegungsVorgänge am menschlichen Herzen sowie über die mechanische und elektrische Erregbarkeit des Herzens und des Nervus phrenicus, angestellt an dem freiliegenden Herzen der Catharina Serafin. Arch Klin Chir 12. 741Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Zipes DP, Jackman WM, Heger JJ, Chilson DA, Browne KF, Naccarelli GV, Rahilly GTJ, Prystowsky EN (1982) Clinical transvenous cardioversion of recurrent life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias: low energy synchronized cardioversion of ventricular tachycardia and termination of ventricular fibrillation in patients using a catheter electrode. Am Heart J 103: 789–794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Zipes DP, Heger JJ, Miles WM, Mahomed Y, Brown JW, Spielman SR, Prystowsky EN (1984) Early experience with an implantable cardioverter. N Engl J Med 311: 485–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Zoll PM, Linenthal AJ, Gibson W, Paul MH, Norman LR (1956) Termination of ventricular fibrillation in man by externally applied electric shock. N Engl J Med 254: 727–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Werner Jung
    • 1
  1. 1.Innere Medizin / KardiologieMedizinische UniversitätsklinikBonnDeutschland

Personalised recommendations