The mammalian heart is a compact muscular organ consisting of four main chambers, a right and left atrium and a right and left ventricle (Fig. 1). The left and right sides of the heart pump blood respectively into the systemic and pulmonary circuits of the vascular system. Venous blood enters the right atrium through the superior and inferior venae cavae, passes to the right ventricle via the tricuspid orifice and is then pumped through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs where gaseous exchange occurs. This oxygenated blood returns to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins, then passes to the left ventricle through the mitral orifice for distribution throughout the body by the aorta and its branches.
KeywordsSuperior Vena Cava General Introduction Cardiac Muscle Cell Versus Bundle Capillary Plexus
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