Advertisement

Kristallbau-Fehler und Versetzungen

  • P. B. Hirsch
  • A. Howie
  • M. J. Whelan
  • P. G. Partridge
  • H. Tomlinson
  • W. Bollmann
  • J. Silcox
  • E. Votava
  • A. Fourdeux
  • H. G. F. Wilsdorf
  • L. Cinquina
  • C. J. Varker
  • J. D. Meakin
  • R. Sun
  • H. Wilsdorf
  • D. W. Pashley
  • D. R. Brame
  • T. Evans
  • A. Berghezan
  • G. A. Geach
  • R. Phillips

Abstract

The contrast on transmission micrographs of crystals is mainly due to local differences in the intensities of the Bragg diffracted beams. Since the wavelength of the electrons in electron microscopes operating usually at 50–100 kV is very short (about 0.05 Å), and since the Bragg angles are only of the order of a few degrees, there is a high probability that for an arbitrary orientation of the crystal the incident beam will have a direction not very far away from that corresponding to the Bragg angle of a set of reflecting planes. Thus, in general, some electrons are diffracted by crystals in arbitrary orientation, although of course the electron beam is particularly strongly diffracted when the crystal is in such an orientation that a set of reflecting planes is exactly at the Bragg angle relative to the incident beam. In the latter case the electron beam can be reflected completely if the thickness of the specimen, in the case of a metal, is only of the order of a few 100 Å. Since usually the Bragg diffracted electrons are prevented from reaching the image by placing a suitable aperture in the microscope, large contrast effects can result from local differences in orientation. Thus different grains in a poly crystalline material, or subgrains in a crystal, can be distinguished clearly on transmission micrographs (2, 2, 3). If the crystals are bent, the loci of points on the specimen where the reflecting planes are at a reflecting position are called extinction contours due to bending (or bend contours) (1). Fig. 1 shows an example of a transmission micrograph from a polycrystalline specimen of annealed stainless steel; the different grains and extinction contours are clearly visible.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Heidenreich, R. D.: J. appl. Physics 20, 993 (1949).ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hirsch, P. B., R. W. Horne and M. J. Whelan: Philosophic. Mag. 1, 677 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Whelan, M. J., P. B. Hirsch, R. W. Horne and W. Bollmann: Proc. roy. Soc. 240, 524 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Whelan, M. J., P. B. Hirsch, R. W. Horne and W. Bollmann: Philosophic. Mag. 2, 1121 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Whelan, M. J., P. B. Hirsch, R. W. Horne and W. Bollmann: Philosophic. Mag. 2, 1303 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kato, N.: J. Physic. Soc. Japan 7, 397 (1952).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Read, W. T.: Dislocations in Crystal. New York: McGraw Hill 1953.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Whelan, M. J.: Thesis, University of Cambridge 1958.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bradley, D. E., and R. Phillips Proc. Physic. Soc. B 70, 533 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lang, A.: J. appl. Physics 29, 597 (1958).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Newkirk, J. B.: J. appl. Physics 29, 995 (1958).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bonse, XL, u. E. Kappler: Z. Naturforsch. 14a, 348 (1958).ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nicholson, R. B., and J. Nutting: Philosophic. Mag. 3, 531 (1958).ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 1.
    Hirsch, P. B., R. W. Horne and M. J. Whelan: Philosophic. Mag. 1, 677 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 2.
    Bollmann, W.: Physic. Rev. 103, 1588 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 3.
    Whelan, M. J., P. B. Hirsch, R. W. Horne and W. Bollmann: Proc. roy. Soc. 240, 524 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 4.
    Tomlinson, H.: Philosophic. Mag. 3, 867 (1958).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 5.
    Silcox, J., and P. B. Hirsch: Direct observations of defects in quenched Au. Philosophic. Mag. 4, 72 (1958).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 6.
    Whelan, M. J.: Dislocation interactions in face centred cubic metals, with particular reference to stainless steel. Proc. roy. Soc. 249, 114 (1958).ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 7.
    Seeger, A.: Report of Lake Placid conference on Dislocations and Mechanical Properties of Crystals. p. 243. New York: Wiley 1957.Google Scholar
  21. 8.
    Thornton, P. R., and P. B. Hirsch: Philosophic. Mag. 3, 738 (1958).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 9.
    Gay, P., P. B. Hirsch and A. Kelly: Acta crystallogr. (Copenh.) 7, 41 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 10.
    Paxton, H. W., M. A. Adams and T. B. Massalski: Philosophic. Mag. 43, 257 (1952).Google Scholar
  24. 1.
    Hirsch, P. B., R. W. Horne and M. J. Whelan: Philosophic. Mag. 1, 677 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 2.
    Bollmann, W.: Physic. Rev. 103, 1588 (1957); Report of First European Regional Conference on Electron Microscopy, p. 316. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 3.
    Whelan, M. J., P. B. Hirsch, R. W. Horne and W. Bollmann: Proc. roy. Soc. A 240, 524 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 4.
    Tomlinson, H. M.: Philosophic. Mag. 3, 867 (1958).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 5.
    Whelan, M. J.: Proc. roy. Soc. A 249, 114 (1959).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 6.
    Thompson, N.: Proc. physic. Soc. B 66, 481 (1953).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 7.
    Frank, F. C.: Report of Conference on Defects in Crystalline Solids, p. 159. London: Physic. Soc. 1955.Google Scholar
  31. 8.
    Whelan, M. J., and P. B. Hirsch: Philosophic. Mag. 2, 1121 (1957);ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 8a.
    Whelan, M. J., and P. B. Hirsch: Philosophic. Mag. 2, 1303 (1957)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 1.
    Beck, P. A.: Adv. in Physics 3, 245 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 2.
    Bollmann, W.: Proc. of the Stockholm Conf. on Electron Microscopy 1956, p. 316.Google Scholar
  35. 3.
    Hirsch, P. B., R. W. Horne and M. J. Whelan: Philosophic Mag. 1, 677 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 4.
    Halla, F.: Kristallchemie und Kristallphysik metallischer Werkstoffe. Leipzig 1957.Google Scholar
  37. 5.
    Clareborough, L. M., M. E. Hargreaves and G. W. West: Proc. roy. Soc. 232, 252 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 1.
    Maddin, R., and A. H. Cottrell: Philosophic. Mag. 46, 735 (1955).Google Scholar
  39. 2.
    Cottrell, A. H.: Institute of metals monograph and report series N. 23, 1 (1957).MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  40. 3.
    Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, D.: Philosophic. Mag. 3, 125 (1958).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 4.
    Kimtjra, H., R. Maddin and D. Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf: Acta metall (a) 7, 145 (b) 7, 154 (1958).Google Scholar
  42. 5.
    Coulomb, P., and J. Friedel: Report of Lake Placid Conference on Dislocations and Mechanical Properties of Crystals, p. 555. New York: Wiley 1957.Google Scholar
  43. 6.
    Batterle, J. E., and J. S. Koehler: Physic. Rev. 107, 1493 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 7.
    Hirsch, P. B., J. Silcox, R. E. Smallman and K. H. Westmacott: Philosophic. Mag. 3, 897 (1958)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 8.
    Whelan, M. J., and P. B. Hirsch: I. Philosophic. Mag. 2,1121 (1957);ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 8a.
    Whelan, M. J., and P. B. Hirsch: II. Philosophic. Mag. 2, 1303 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 9.
    Wintekberger, M.: C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 242, 128 (1956);Google Scholar
  48. 9a.
    Wintekberger, M.: Rev. Métall. 54, 942 (1957).Google Scholar
  49. 10.
    Bradshaw, F. J., and S. Pearson: Philosophic. Mag. 2, 570 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 11.
    Mfrphy-Tomlinson, H., reported by M. J. Whelan: Electron optical transmission studies of metals. p. 307. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Cambridge 1958.Google Scholar
  51. 12.
    Silcox, J., and P. B. Hirsch: Direct observation of defects in quenchedgold. Philosophic. Mag. 4, 72 (1958)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 13.
    Thompson, N.: Proc. phys. Soc. 66 B. 481 (1953).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 1.
    Whelan, M. J., P. B. Hirsch, R. W. Horne and W. Bollmann: Proc. roy. Soc. A 240, 524 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 2.
    Nicholson, R. B., and J. Nutting: Philosophic. Mag. 3, 531 (1958).ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. 3.
    Hirsch, P. B., R. W. Horne and M. J. Whelan: Philosophic. Mag. 1, 677 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 4.
    Hirsch, P. G. Partridge and H. Murphy-Tomlinson: This volume p. 536.Google Scholar
  57. 5.
    Mott, B. W., and H. R. Haines: J. Inst. Metals 80, 621 (1952).Google Scholar
  58. 6.
    Jacquet, P. A., and R. Caillât: C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 228, 1224 (1949).Google Scholar
  59. 7.
    Tegart, McG.: Electrolytic and chemical polishing of metals. London: Pergamon Press 1956.Google Scholar
  60. 8.
    Hirsch, P. B., A. Howie and M. J. Whelan: This volume p. 527.Google Scholar
  61. 9.
    Jacob, C. W., and B. E. Warren: J. Amer. chem. Soc. 49, 2588 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 10.
    Lukesh, J. S.: Acta crystallogr. (Lond.) 2, 420 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 11.
    Cahn, R. W.: Acta metall. 1, 49 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 12.
    Lloyd, L. T., and H. H. Chiswik: Reported by F. G. Foote; Proc. Int. Conf. on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva 9, 33, (1955).Google Scholar
  65. 1.
    Seeger, A.: Conf. Rep. on Defects in Crystalline Solids, London 1954.Google Scholar
  66. 2.
    Hirsch, P. B., R. W. Horne and M. J. Whelan: Lake Placid Conference 1956.Google Scholar
  67. 1.
    Hirsch, P. B., R. W. Horne and M. J. Whelan: Philosophic. Mag. 1, 677 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 2.
    Bollmann, W.: Physic. Rev. 103, 1588 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 3.
    Whelan, M. J., P. B. Hirsch, R. W. Horne and W. Bollmann: Proc. roy. Soc. A 240, 524 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 4.
    Wilsdorf, H. G. F.: ASTM Techn. Publ. No. 245, p. 43 (1958).Google Scholar
  71. 5.
    Wilsdorf, H. G. F.: Rev. Sci. Instrum.29, 323 (1958.)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 1.
    Heidenreich, R. D.: J. appl. Physics 20, 993 (1949).ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  73. 2.
    Hirsch, P. B., A. Kelly and J. W. Menter: Proc. Physic. Soc. B, 68, 1132 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 3.
    Hirsch, P. B., R. W. Horne and M. J. Whelan: Philosophic. Mag. 1, 677 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 4.
    Bollmann, W.: Physic. Rev. 103, 1588 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 5.
    Pashley, D. W.: Philosophic. Mag. 4, 324 (1959).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 6.
    Beams, J. W., J. B. Breazeale and W. L. Bart: Physic. Rev. 100, 1657 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 1.
    Head, A. K.: Philosophic. Mag. 44, 92 (1953).Google Scholar
  79. 2.
    Merwe, J. H. van der: Proc. physic. Soc. A 63, 616 (1950).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 1.
    Heidenreich, R. D.: J. appl. Physics 20, 993 (1949).ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  81. 2.
    Castaing, R., et P. Laborie: C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 237, 1330 (1953).Google Scholar
  82. 3.
    Bollmann, W.: Proc. Conf. Electron Microscopy: p. 316 Stockholm 1956.Google Scholar
  83. 4.
    Hirsch, P. B., R. W. Horne et M. J. Whelan: Proc. Conf. Electron Microscopy p. 312 Stockholm 1956Google Scholar
  84. 4a.
    Whelan, M. J., et P. B. Hirsch: Philosophie. Mag. 2, 1303 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 1.
    Hockings, E. F.: Chemistry and Structure of Some Semi-Conducting Solids, Ph. D. Thesis, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London October 1957.Google Scholar
  86. 2.
    Hirsch, P. B., R. W. Horne and M. J. Whelan: Philosophic. Mag. 1, 677 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 3.
    Cottrell, A. H.: Dislocations and Plastic Flow in Crystals. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1953.zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag OHG. Berlin · Göttingen · Heidelberg 1960

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. B. Hirsch
    • 1
  • A. Howie
    • 1
  • M. J. Whelan
    • 1
  • P. G. Partridge
    • 1
  • H. Tomlinson
    • 1
  • W. Bollmann
    • 2
  • J. Silcox
    • 1
  • E. Votava
    • 3
  • A. Fourdeux
    • 3
  • H. G. F. Wilsdorf
    • 4
  • L. Cinquina
    • 4
  • C. J. Varker
    • 4
  • J. D. Meakin
    • 5
  • R. Sun
    • 5
  • H. Wilsdorf
    • 5
  • D. W. Pashley
    • 6
  • D. R. Brame
    • 6
  • T. Evans
    • 6
  • A. Berghezan
    • 7
  • G. A. Geach
    • 8
  • R. Phillips
    • 8
  1. 1.Cavendish LaboratoryUniversity of CambridgeEngland
  2. 2.Battelle Memorial InstituteGenevaSwitzerland
  3. 3.European Research Associates s. a.BrusselsBelgium
  4. 4.The Franklin Institute LaboratoriesPhiladelphia 3USA
  5. 5.The Franklin Institute Laboratory for Research and DevelopmentPhiladelphiaUSA
  6. 6.Tube Investments Research LaboratoriesCambridgeEngland
  7. 7.European Research Associates, s. a.Uccle-BruxellesBelgium
  8. 8.Research LaboratoryAssociated Electrical Industries LtdAldermaston, BerkshireEngland

Personalised recommendations