Advertisement

Usefulness of Electron Microscopy

  • H. Fujita
  • N. Sumida
Chapter
  • 238 Downloads
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 27)

Abstract

Electron microscopy is the most effective technique to obtain directly and dynamically topographic information in the atomic scale, and results in the sensation of both “seeing is believing” and “the materials are living”. In the present paper, usefulness and applications of electron microscopy to materials science are discussed from the following two viewpoints, i.e., high-resolution electron microscopy and high-voltage electron microscopy.

Keywords

Stack Fault Energy Electron Irradiation Bright Field Image Diffract Beam Transmitted Beam 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 8.1
    H. Fujita: Materials Trans. JIM 31, 523–537 (1990)Google Scholar
  2. 8.2
    R.D. Heidenreich: Fundamentals of Transmission Electron Microscopy ( Interscience, New York 1964 )Google Scholar
  3. 8.3
    P.B. Hirsch, A. Howie, R.B. Nicholson, D.W. Pashley, M.J. Whelan (eds.): Electron Microscopy of Thin Crystals, 2nd edn. ( Krieger, New York 1977 )Google Scholar
  4. 8.4
    S. Amelinckx, R. Gevers, G. Remaut, J. Van Landuyt (eds.): Modern Diffraction and Imaging Techniques in Material Science, 2nd edn. ( North-Holland, Amsterdam 1979 )Google Scholar
  5. 8.5
    U. Valdré (ed.): Electron Microscopy in Material Science ( Academic, New York 1971 )Google Scholar
  6. 8.6
    U. Valdré, E. Ruedl (eds.): Electron Microscopy in Materials Science, Part I-IV (The European Communities, Luxembourg 1975 )Google Scholar
  7. 8.7
    G. Thomas, M.J. Goringe: Transmission Electron Microscopy of Materials ( Wiley, New York 1979 )Google Scholar
  8. 8.8
    J.M. Cowley: Diffraction Physics, 2nd edn. ( North-Holland, Amsterdam 1981 )Google Scholar
  9. 8.9
    R. Uyeda: Acta Cryst. A24, 175–181 (1968)Google Scholar
  10. 8.10
    A. Howie: The theory of high energy electron diffraction, in Modern Diffraction and Imaging Techniques in Material Science, ed. by Amelinckx, 2nd edn. ( North-Holland, Amsterdam 1979 ) pp. 295–339Google Scholar
  11. 8.11
    A. Howie, M.J. Whelan: Proc. Roy. Soc. London A263, 217–235 (1961)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 8.
    N. Kato: Acta Cryst. 16 276–281 (1963); ibid 282–290Google Scholar
  13. 8.13
    H.A. Bethe: Ann. Phys. 87, 55–129 (1928)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 8.14
    C.H. MacGillavry: Physica 7, 329–343 (1940)ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 8.15
    R.D. Heidenreich: J. Appl. Phys. 20, 993–1010 (1949)ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 8.
    N. Kato: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 7 397–406 (1952); ibid 406–414Google Scholar
  17. 8.17
    H. Hashimoto, A. Howie, M.J. Whelan: Proc. Roy. Soc. London A269, 80–103 (1962)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 8.18
    A. Howie, M.J. Whelan: Proc. Roy. Soc. London A267, 206–230 (1962)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 8.19
    M.F. Ashby, L.M. Brown: Phil. Mag. 8, 1083–1103 (1963)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 8.20
    F. Nagata, A. Fukuhara: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 1233–1235 (1967)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 8.21
    J.S. Lally, C.J. Humphreys, A.J.F. Metherell, R.M. Fisher: Phil. Mag. 25, 321–343 (1972)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 8.22
    C.J. Humphreys, L.E. Thomas, J.S. Lally, R.M. Fisher: Phil. Mag. 23, 87–114 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 8.23
    F. Fujimoto, N. Sumida, H. Fujita: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 42, 1274–1281 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 8.24
    H. Hashimoto: Jernkont Ann. 155, 480–490 (1971)Google Scholar
  25. 8.25
    H. Hashimoto, R. Uyeda: Acta Cryst. 10, 143 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 8.26
    G.A. Bassett, J.W. Menter, D.W. Pashley: Proc. Roy. Soc. London A246, 345–368 (1958)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 8.27
    H. Hashimoto, M. Mannami, T. Naiki: Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A253, 490–516 (1961)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 8.28
    H. Hashimoto, M. Mannami, T. Naiki: Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A253, 459–489 (1961)ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 8.29
    S. Miyake, K. Fujiwara, M. Tokonami, F. Fujimoto: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 3, 276–285 (1964)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 8.30
    J.C.H. Spence: Experimental High-Resolution Electron Microscopy ( Clarendon, Oxford 1981 )Google Scholar
  31. 8.31
    S. Horiuchi: High-Resolution Electron Microscopy -Principle and Application ( Kyoritsu, Tokyo 1987 ) (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  32. 8.32
    J.W. Cowley, A.F. Moodie: Acta Cryst. 10, 609–619 (1957)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  33. 8.33
    K. Ishizuka, N. Uyeda: Acta Cryst. A33, 740–749 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 8.34
    D. Van Dyck, W. Coene: Ultramicroscopy 15, 29–40, 41–50, 287–300 (1984)Google Scholar
  35. 8.35
    D.J.H. Cockayne, I.L.F. Ray, M.J. Whelan: Phil. Mag. 20, 1265–1270 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 8.36
    D.J.H. Cockayne: Z. Naturforsch. 27a, 452–460 (1972)ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 8.37
    D.J.H. Cockayne: J. Microsc. 98, 116–134 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 8.38
    K. Lonsdale: Proc. Roy. Soc. London A179, 315–320 (1942)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 8.39
    T. Evans, C. Phaal: Proc. Roy. Soc. London A270, 538–552 (1962)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 8.40
    G.S. Woods: Phil. Mag. 34, 993–1012 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 8.41
    A.R. Lang: Phil. Mag. 36, 495–500 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 8.42
    N. Sumida, A.R. Lang: Proc. Roy. Soc. London A419, 235–257 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 8.43
    N. Sumida, A.R. Lang: J. Appl. Cryst. 15, 266–274 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 8.44
    I.L.F. Ray, D.J.H. Cockayne: Proc. Roy. Soc. London A325, 543–554 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 8.45
    I.L.F. Ray, R.C. Crawford, D.J.H. Cockayne: Phil. Mag. 21, 1027–1032 (1970)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 8.46
    R.C. Crawford, I.L.F. Ray, D.J.H. Cockayne: Phil. Mag. 27, 1–7 (1973);ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. R.C. Crawford, I.L.F. Ray, D.J.H. Cockayne: J. Micros. 98, 196–199 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 8.47
    A.T. Winter, S. Mahajan, D. Brasen: Phil. Mag. A37, 315–326 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 8.48
    P. Pirouz, D.J.H. Cockayne, N. Sumida, P.B. Hirsch, A.R. Lang: Proc. Roy. Soc. London A386, 241–249 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 8.49
    D.W. Pashley, J.W. Menter, G.A. Bassett: Nature 179, 752–755 (1957)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 8.50
    A.R. Lang: Nature 220, 652–657 (1968)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 8.51
    L.A. Bursill, J.L. Hutchison, N. Sumida, A.R. Lang: Nature 292, 518–520 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 8.52
    J.C. Barry, L.A. Bursill, J.L. Hutchison: Phil. Mag. A51, 15–49 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 8.53
    P. Humble, J.K. Mackenzie, A. Olsen: Phil. Mag. A52, 605–621 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. P. Humble, D.F. Lynch, A. Olsen: Phil. Mag. A52, 623–641 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 8.54
    R.F. Stephenson: The Partial Dissociation of Nitrogen Aggregates in Diamond by High Temperature-High Pressure Treatments. Ph.D.Thesis, University of Reading (1978)Google Scholar
  57. 8.55
    J. Maguire: Platelets and Voidites in Diamond. Ph.D.Thesis, University of Reading (1983)Google Scholar
  58. 8.56
    J.C. Barry, L.A. Bursill, J.L. Hutchison, A.R. Lang, G.M. Rackham, N. Sumida: Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A321, 361–401 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 8.57
    P.B. Hirsch, P. Pirouz, J.C. Barry: Proc. Roy. Soc. London A407, 239–258 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 8.58
    P.B. Hirsch, J.L. Hutchison, J. Titchmarsh: Phil. Mag. AM, L49 - L54 (1986)Google Scholar
  61. 8.59
    J.L. Hutchison, L.A. Bursill: J. Micros. 131, 63–66 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 8.60
    J.C. Barry: Ultramicroscopy 20, 169–176 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 8.61
    N. Sumida, J.L. Hutchison, P.B. Hirsch: Proc. Diamond Conf. ( Oxford 1987 ) pp. 79–81Google Scholar
  64. 8.62
    G.S. Woods: Proc. Roy. Soc. London A407, 219–238 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 8.63
    T. Evans, G.S. Woods: Phil. Mag. 55, 295–299 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 8.64
    T. Mishima, N. Sumida, H. Fujita: Proc. 11th Int’l. Cong. on EM (Kyoto 1986 ) pp. 995–996Google Scholar
  67. N. Sumida, T. Mishima, H. Fujita: J. Jpn. Inst. Metals 54, 1302–1307 (1990) (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  68. 8.65
    E. Taguchi, N. Sumida, H. Fujita: J. Elect. Microsc. 39, 164–167 (1990)Google Scholar
  69. 8.66
    F. Thon: Phase contrast electron microscopy, in Electron Microscopy in Materials Science, ed. by U. Valdré ( Academic, New York 1971 ) pp. 571–625Google Scholar
  70. 8.67
    Y. Hirotsu, R. Akada: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, L479 - L481 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 8.68
    T. Hamada, F. E. Fujita: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 318–327 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 8.
    T. Sakata, H. Fujita, N. Sumida: Proc. 11th Int’l Congr. on EM (Kyoto 1986) pp. 15451546Google Scholar
  73. T. Sakata, N. Sumida, H. Fujita: Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., No. 90 ( IOP, Bristol 1987 ) pp. 171–174Google Scholar
  74. T. Sakata, N. Sumida, H. Fujita: J. Jpn. Inst. Metals 54, 495–501 (1990) (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  75. 8.70
    G. Thomas, H. Mori, H. Fujita, R. Sinclair: Scr. Metall. 16, 589–592 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 8.71
    S. Iijima, T. Ichihashi: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L125 - L128 (1985)ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. 8.72
    M. Mitome, Y. Tanishiro, K. Takayanagi: Z. Phys. D 12, 45–51 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 8.
    T. Sakata, N. Sumida: to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  79. 8.74
    C. Lu, H. Fujita: J. Electr. Microsc. 39, 412–416 (1990)Google Scholar
  80. 8.75
    N. Sumida, H. Fujita: to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  81. 8.76
    H. Fujita, T. Taoka and NRIM 500 kV EM Group: J. Electr. Microsc. 14, 307–308 (1965)Google Scholar
  82. 8.77
    H. Fujita: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 729 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 8.78
    H. Fujita: J. Phys. Soc. Japan 21, 1605 (1966)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 8.79
    H. Fujita, Y. Kawasaki, E. Furubayashi, S. Kajiwara: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 11, 214–230 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 8.80
    H. Fujita, T. Tabata, K. Yoshida, N. Sumida, K. Katagiri: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 11, 1522–1536 (1972)Google Scholar
  86. 8.81
    H. Fujita: J. Electr. Microsc. Techn. 3, 243–304 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 8.82
    H. Fujita: J. Electr. Microsc. Techn. 12, 201–218 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 8.83
    T. Tabata, H. Mori, H. Fujita: J. Phys. Soc. Japan 40, 1103–1111 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 8.
    H. Fujita: Proc. 11th Intl Congr. on EM (Kyoto 1986) pp. 1025–1030Google Scholar
  90. 8.85
    H. Fujita: ISU, International 30, 70–81 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 8.86
    H. Fujita: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 26, 331–338 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 8.87
    H. Fujita: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 26, 1437–1445 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 8.88
    H. Fujita: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 16, 396–406 (1961)ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. 8.89
    H. Fujita: J. Electr. Microsc. Techn. 3, 45–56 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 8.90
    H. Fujita, S. Kimura: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 52, 157–167 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 8.91
    H. Fujita, H. Mori: Trans. JIM. 29 (suppl.) 37–40 (1988)Google Scholar
  97. 8.92
    H. Mori, H. Fujita: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, L494 - L496 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 8.93
    H. Fujita: Advanced Materials-II (The Joint Committee for Advanced Materials Research under the Auspices of the Jpn. Soc. of Appl. Phys., the Ceramics Soc. Jpn. and Jpn. Inst. of Metals, 1990 ) pp. 113–122Google Scholar
  99. 8.94
    H. Fujita: Ultramicroscopy 39, 369–381 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 8.95
    H. Fujita: Trans. Materials Research Soc. Jpn. 2, 38–50 (1992)Google Scholar
  101. 8.96
    L. Reimer (ed.): Energy-filtering Transmission Electron Microscopy, Springer Ser. Opt. Sci., Vol. 71 ( Springer, Berlin Heidelberg 1995 )Google Scholar
  102. 8.97
    S.J. Pennycook: Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 22, 171–195 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 8.98
    H. Mori, M. Komatsu, H. Fujita: Ultramicroscopy 51, 31–40 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 8.99
    H. Mori, H. Yasuda, N. Sumida, H. Fujita: New Functional Materials, Vol. C, ed. by T. Isuruta, M. Doyama, M. Seno ( Elsevier, Amsterdam 1993 ) pp. 221–226Google Scholar
  105. 8.100
    H. Yasuda, H. Mori, K. Takeda, H. Fujita: Proc. of Int’l Symp. on Diffusion in Materials (DIMAT-92, 1993 ) pp. 697–702Google Scholar
  106. 8.101
    H. Fujita: Materials Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. 35, 563–575 (1994)Google Scholar
  107. 8.102
    H. Fujita: Science and Technology No. 7 (Kinki University, 1995) pp. 9–20Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Fujita
  • N. Sumida

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations