Advertisement

Schwachstellen der Nitrat- und Ammoniumassimilation — eine Chance für die Gentechnik?

  • Hans Mohr
  • Armin Neininger
Conference paper
Part of the Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften book series (HD AKAD, volume 1993/94 / 6)

Zusammenfassung

Der Stickstoff, wesentlicher Bestandteil der Bausteine von Proteinen, Nukleinsäuren und Porphyrinen, ist eines der wichtigsten Elemente der Biosphäre. Die Verfügbarkeit von Stickstoff war nach dem heutigen Kenntnisstand ein entscheidend begrenzender Faktor der biologischen Evolution (White 1993). Im Zuge der Höherentwicklung von Mikroorganismen, Pflanzen und Tieren, verbunden mit der Ausbildung obligater nutritiver Abhängigkeiten, hat sich für Stickstoff ein sehr effizienter Stoffkreislauf etabliert.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Al-Mallah M K, Davey M R, Cocking E C (1990) Nodulation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) by rhizobia. J. Exp. Bot. 41:1567–1572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aslam M, Huffaker R C (1989) Role of nitrate and nitrite in the induction of nitrite reductase in leaves of barley seedlings. Plant Physiol. 91:1152–1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aslam M, Travis, R L, Huffaker R C (1992) Comparative kinetics and reciprocal inhibition ofGoogle Scholar
  4. nitrate and nitrite uptake in roots of uninduced and induced barley (Hordewn vulgare L.) seedlings. Plant Physiol. 99: 1124–1133Google Scholar
  5. Atkinson D (1990) Influence of root system morphology and development on the need for fertilizers and the efficiency of use. In: Baligar V C, Duncan R R (eds.), Crops as Enhancers of Nutrient Use. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  6. Back E, Burkhart W, Moyer M, Privalle L, Rothstein S (1988) Isolation of cDNA clones coding for spinach nitrite reductase: Complete sequence and nitrate induction. Mol. Gen. Genet. 212:20–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Becker T W, Nefcampa C, Zehnacker C, Hirel B (1993) Implication of the phytochrome in light regulation of the tomato gene(s) encoding ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 31:725–729Google Scholar
  8. Bobbink R, Heil G W, Raessen M B A G (1992) Atmospheric deposition and canopy exchange processes in heathland ecosystems. Environmental Pollution 75: 29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowsher C G, Hucklesby D P, Ernes M J (1993) Induction of ferredoxin-NADP+ oxido-reductase and ferredoxin synthesis in pea root plastids during nitrate assimilation. Plant J. 3:463–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boxman A W, Krabbendam H, Bellemakers M J S, Roelofs G M (1991) Effects of ammonium and aluminium on the development and nutrition of Pinus nigra in hydroculture. Environmental Pollution 73:119–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brears T, Walker E L, Coruzzi G M (1991) A promotor sequence involved in cell-specific expression of the pea glutamine synthetase GS3 A gene in organs of transgenic tobacco and alfalfa. Plant J. 1:235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Breteler H, Nissen P (1982) Effect of exogenous and endogenous nitrate concentration on nitrate utilization by dwarf bean. Plant Physiol. 70: 754–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bush D R (1993) Proton-coupled sugar and aminoacid transporters in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 44:513–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chaillou S, Rideout J W, Raper C D, Morot-Gaudry J-F (1994) Responses of soybean to ammonium and nitrate supplied in combination to the whole root system or separately in a split-root system. Physiol. Plant. 90:259–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Champigny M-L, Foyer C (1992) Nitrate activation of cytosolic protein kinases divert photosynthetic carbon from sucrose to aminoacid biosynthesis. Plant Physiol. 100:7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chapin F S, Walter CHS, Clarkson, D. T. (1988) Growth response of barley and tomato to nitrogen stress and its control by abscisic acid, water relations and photosynthesis. Planta 173:352–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cheng C-L, Acedo G N, Cristinsin M, Conkling M A (1992) Sucrose mimics the light induction of Arabidopsis nitrate reductase gene transcription. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei 89:1861–1864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Christiansenweniger C, Vanderleyden J (1994) Ammonium excreting Azospirillum sp. become intracellularly established in maize (Zea mays) para-nodules. Biol. Fert. Soils 17: 1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cramer M D, Lewis OAM (1993) The influence of NO3“ and NH4 + nutrition on carbon nitrogen partitioning characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants. Plant and Soil 154:287–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crawford N M, Arst H N (1993) The molecular genetics of nitrate assimilation in fungi and plants. Annu. Rev. Genet. 27:115–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cresswell C F, Watt M P, Amory A M, Whittaker A (1990) The regulation of the reduction of inorganic nitrogen in chlorophyllous tissue: Uptake and reduction of nitrite by intact chloroplasts. In: Ullrich W R, Rigano C, Fuggi A, Aparicio P J (eds): Inorganic Nitrogen in Plants and Microorganisms. Uptake and Metabolism. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  22. Daniel-Veédele F, Caboche M (1993) A tobacco cDNA clone encoding a GATA-1 zinc finger protein homologous to regulators of nitrogen metabolism in fungi. Mol. Gen. Genet. 240:365–373Google Scholar
  23. DeLa Torre A, Delgado B, Lara C (1991) Nitrate dependent O2 evolution in intact leaves. Plant Physiol. 96:898–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Deng M D, Moureaux T, Chérel I, Boutin J P, Caboche M (1991) Effects of nitrogen metabolites on the regulation and circadian expression of tobacco nitrate reductase. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 29:239–247Google Scholar
  25. Duncan R R, Baligar V C (1990) Genetics, breeding and physiological mechanisms of nutrient uptake and use efficiency: An overview. In: Baligar V C, Duncan R R (eds.), Crops as Enhancers of Nutrient Use. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  26. Duncanson E, Gilkes A F, Kirk D W, Sherman A, Wray J L (1993) nirl, a conditional-lethal mutation in barley causing a defekt in nitrite reduction. Mol. Gen. Genet. 236:275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eckes P, Schmitt P, Daub W, Wengenmayer F (1989) Overproduction of alfalfa glutamine synthetase in transgenic tobacco plants. Mol. Gen. Genet. 217:263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Elmlinger M W, Bolle C, Batschauer A, Oelmüller R, Mohr H (1994) Coaction of blue light and light absorbed by phytochrome in control of glutamine synthetase gene expression in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings. Planta 192:189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Elmlinger M W, Mohr H (1991) Coaction of blue/ultraviolet-A light and light absorbed by phytochrome in controlling the appearance of ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling. Planta 183:374–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Elmlinger M W, Mohr H (1992) Glutamine synthetase in Scots pine seedlings and its control by blue light and light absorbed by phytochrome. Planta 188:396–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Elmlinger M W, Mohr H (1994) Regulation of glutamine synthethase gene expression in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings. Nova Acta Leopoldina, Vol. 70, Nr. 288, The Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycle as Influenced by Man; Barth Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Leipzig, Berlin Heidelberg, in pressGoogle Scholar
  32. Flaig H, Mohr, H (1992) Assimilation of nitrate and ammonium by the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedling under conditions of high nitrogen supply. Physiol. Plant. 84:568–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Foyer C H, Lescure J-C, Lefebvre C, Morot-Gaudry J-F, Vincentz, M, Vaucheret H (1994a) Adaptions of photosynthetic electron transport, carbon assimilation, and carbon partioning in transgenic Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants to changes in nitrate reductase activity. Plant. Physiol. 104:171–178Google Scholar
  34. Foyer C H, Noctor G, Lelandais M, Lescure J C, Valadier M H, Boutin J P, Horton P (1994b) Short-term effects of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium assimilation on photosynthesis, carbon partitioning and protein phosphorylation in maize. Planta 192:211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Friemann A, Brinkmann K, Hachtel W (1991) Sequence of a cDNA encoding the bi-specific NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase from the tree Betula pendula and identification of conserved protein regions. Mol. Gen. Genet. 227:97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Friemann A, Brinkmann K, Hachtel W (1992) Sequence of a cDNA encoding nitrite reductase from the tree Betula pendula and identification of conserved protein regions. Mol. Gen. Genet. 231:411–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Frommer W B, Hummel S, Riesmeier J W (1993) Expression cloning in yeast of a cDNA encoding a broad specific aminoacid permease from Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:5944–5948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gadal P, Cretin C, Vidal J, Galvez S, Bismuth E, Lepiniec L, Paquit V, Santi S (1994) Interaction of nitrogen and carbon metabolism: Implication of PEP-carboxylase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Nova Acta Leopoldina 70, Nr. 288, The Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycle as Influenced by Man; Barth Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Leipzig, Berlin Heidelberg, in pressGoogle Scholar
  39. Glass, A. D. M. (1990) Ion absorption and utilization: The cellular level. In: Baligar, V. C, Duncan, R. R. (eds.), Crops as Enhancers of Nutrient Use. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  40. Hahlbrock K (1991) Kann unsere Erde die Menschen noch ernähren? Bevölkerungsexplosion — Umwelt — Gentechnik. Piper, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  41. Hecht U, Mohr H (1990) Factors controlling nitrate and ammonium accumulation in mustard (Sinapis alba) seedlings. Physiol. Plant. 78:379–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hecht U, Oelmüller R, Schmidt S, Mohr H (1988) Action of light, nitrate and ammonium on the levels of NADH- and ferredoxin dependent glutamate synthases in the cotyledons of mustard seedlings. Planta 175:130–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hepp R, Hildebrand E E (1993) Stoffdeposition in Waldbeständen Baden-Württembergs. Allg. Forstzeitschrift 22:1139–1142Google Scholar
  44. Hirsch A M (1992) Developmental biology of legume nodulation. New Phytol. 122:211–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hochstein E, Hildebrand E E (1992) Stand und Entwicklung der Stoffeinträge in Waldbestände von Baden-Württemberg. Allg. Forst Jagdztg. 163:21–26Google Scholar
  46. Hudspeth R L, Grula J W, Dai Z, Edwards G E, Ku M S B (1992) Expression of maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in transgenic tobacco. Plant Physiol. 98:458–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Isermann K (1990) Die Stickstoff- und Phosphor-Einträge in die Oberflächengewässer der Bundesrepublik Deutschland durch verschiedene Wirtschaftsbereiche unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Stickstoff- und Phosphor-Bilanz der Landwirtschaft und Humanernährung. In: Akademie für Tiergesundheit e.V. (Hrsg.): Schriftenreihe der Akademie für Tiergesundheit, 1:358–413, Verlag der Ferber’schen UniversitätsbuchhandlungGoogle Scholar
  48. Isermann K (1993) Anteile der Landwirtschaft an der Emission klimarelevanter Spurengase — ursachenorientierte und hinreichende Lösungsansätze. Mitt. Dt. Bodenkundl. Ges. 69:231–238Google Scholar
  49. Jing Y, Zhang B T, Shan X Q (1990) Pseudonodule formation on barley roots induced by Rhizobia astragali. FEMS Microbiology Letters 69:123–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. John M, Schmidt J (1992) Fixierung von atmosphärischem Stickstoff durch symbiontische Bakterien. In: Pflanzenproduktion und Biotechnologie, Max-Planck-Institut für Züchtungsforschung, Druck und Verlags GmbH Becker, BrühlGoogle Scholar
  51. Joy K (1988) Ammonia, glutamine and asparagin: a carbon nitrogen interface. Can. J. Plant Physiol. 66:2103–2109Google Scholar
  52. Joy K W, Blackwell R D, Lea P J (1992) Assimilation of nitrogen in mutants lacking enzymes of the glutamate synthase cycle. J. Exp. Bot. 43:139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kaiser W M, Huber S. (1994) Modulation of nitrate reductase in vivo and in vitro: Effects of phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitors, free Mg2+ and 5’-AMP. Planta 193:358–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaiser W M, Spill D, Glaab J (1993) Rapid modulation of nitrate reductase in leaves and roots: indirect evidence for the involvement of protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. Physiol. Plant. 89:557–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kamachi K, Yamaya T, Hayakawa T, Mae T, Ojima K (1992) Changes in cytosolic glutamine synthetase polypeptide and its mRNA in a leaf blade of rice plants during natural senescence. Plant Physiol. 98:1323–1329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kim J, Rees D C (1994) Nitrogenase and biological nitrogen fixation. Biochemistry 33: 389–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kimou A, Obaton M, Drevon J J (1993) Measurement of nitrate reductase activity during the soybean (Glycine max L., Merr) growth cycle — Distribution in the plant and relation with nitrogenase in soybean. Agronomy 13:845–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. King J (1991) The genetic basis of plant-physiological processes. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  59. Kondorosi A (1992) Regulation of nodulation genes in rhizobia. In: Varma DPS (ed.), Molecular Signals in Plant-Microbe Communications. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  60. Kwart M, Hirner B, Hummel S, Frommer W B. (1993) Differential expression of two related aminoacid transporters with differing substrate specifity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 4:993–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lainé P, Ourry A, Macduff J, Boucaud J, Salette J (1993) Kinetic parameters of nitrate uptake by different catch crop species: Effects of low temperatures or previous nitrate starvation. Physiol. Plant. 88:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Leason M, Cunliffe D, Parkin D, Lea P J, Miflin B J (1982) Inhibition of pea leaf glutamine synthetase by methionine sulphoximine, phosphinotricine and other glutamate analogues. Phytochem. 21:855–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lepiniec L, Keryer E, Philippe H, Gadal P, Cretin C (1993) Sorghum phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene family: structure, function and molecular evolution. Plant Mol. Biol. 21:487–502Google Scholar
  64. Lillo C (1994) Light regulation of nitrate reductase in green leaves of higher plants. Physiol. Plant. 90:616–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Manh C T, Bismuth E, Boutin J-P, Provot M, Champigny M-L (1993) Metabolite effectors for short-term nitrogen-dependent enhancement of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity and decrease of net sucrose synthesis in wheat leaves. Physiol. Plant. 89:460–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Marschner H (1986) Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  67. Mehrer I, Mohr H (1989) Ammonium toxicity: description of the syndrom in Sinapis alba L. and the research for its causation. Physiol. Plant. 77:545–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Melzer E, O’Leary M (1987) Anapleurotic fixation by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in C3 plants. Plant Physiol. 84:58–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mengel K (1991) Ernährung und Stoffwechsel der Pflanze. Gustav Fischer Verlag, JenaGoogle Scholar
  70. Mohr H (1990) Der Stickstoff — ein kritisches Element der Biosphäre. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Jahrgang 1990, 5. Abhandlung, Springer Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  71. Mohr H (1993) Waldschäden in Mitteleuropa — Wo liegen die Ursachen? In: Wilke G, Freund H-J, Gierer A, Kippenhahn K, Reetz M T, Nöth H, Truscheit E (eds.) Horizonte — Wie weit reicht unsere Erkenntnis heute? Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  72. Mohr H, Lehn H (1994) Present views of the nitrogen cycle. Nova Acta Leopoldina, Vol. 70, Nr. 288, The Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycle as Influenced by Man; Barth Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Leipzig, Berlin Heidelberg, in pressGoogle Scholar
  73. Mohr H, Neininger A, Seith B (1992) Control of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase gene expression by light, nitrate and a plastidic factor. Bot. Acta 105:81–89Google Scholar
  74. Mohr H, Schöpfer P (1992) Pflanzenphysiologie, Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  75. Neininger A, Back E, Bichler J, Schneiderbauer A, Mohr H (1994a) Deletion analysis of a nitrite-reductase promoter from spinach in transgenic tobacco. Planta, in pressGoogle Scholar
  76. Neininger A, Bichler J, Schneiderbauer A, Mohr H (1993) Response of a nitrite-reductase 3.1-kilobase upstream regulatory sequence from spinach to nitrate and light in transgenic tobacco. Planta 189:440–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Neininger A, Kronenberger J, Mohr H (1992) Coaction of light, nitrate and a plastidic factor in controlling nitrite-reductase gene expression in tobacco. Planta 187:381–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Neininger A, Seith B, Hoch B, Mohr (1994b) Gene expression of nitrite reductase in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as affected by light and nitrate. Plant Mol. Biol., in pressGoogle Scholar
  79. Oelmüller R (1989) Photooxidative destruction of chloroplasts and its effect on nuclear gene expression and extraplastidic enzyme levels. Photochem. Photobiol. 49:229–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Otter T, Penther J M, Mohr H (1992) Control of appearance of alanine aminotransferase in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling. Planta 188:376–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Paul E A, Clark F E (1988) Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  82. Pelsy F, Caboche M (1992) Molecular genetics of nitrate reductase in higher plants. Adv. Genet. 30:1–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Penther J M (1991) Analysis of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase isoforms in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) cotyledons. J. Chrom. 587:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Penther J M, Mohr H (1994) Plant aminotransferases. Nova Acta Leopoldina, Vol. 70, Nr. 288, The Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycle as Influenced by Man; Barth Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Leipzig, Berlin Heidelberg, in pressGoogle Scholar
  85. Pepper I L, Bezdicek D F, (1990) Root microbial interactions and rhizosphere nutrient dynamics. In. Baligar V C, Duncan R R. (eds.), Crops as Enhancers of Nutrient Use. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  86. Pfefferkorn V (1993) Ein leicht abbaubares Unkrautbekämpfungsmittel. Spektrum der Wissenschaft 7:100–101Google Scholar
  87. Plachter H (1991) Naturschutz, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  88. Quesada A, Galván A, Fernández E (1994) Identification of nitrate transporter genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant J. 5:407–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Quick W P, Fichtner K, Schulze E D, Wendler R, Leegood R C, Mooney H, Rodermel S R, Bogorad L, Stitt M (1992) Decreased ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase in transgenic tobacco transformed with „antisense“ rbcS. IV. Impact on photosynthesis and conditions of altered nitrogen supply. Planta 188:522–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Quick W P, Schurr U, Scheibe R, Schulze E-D, Rodermel S R, Bogorad L, Stitt M (1991) Decreased ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase in transgenic tobacco transformed with „antisense“ rbcS. I. Impact on photosynthesis in ambient growth conditions. Planta 183:542–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rajagopalan M, Tirumala D, Raghavendra A S (1994) Molecular biology of C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: Structure, regulation, and genetic engeneering. Photosynth. Res. 39:115–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rastogi R, Back E, Schneiderbauer A, Bowsher C G, Moffatt B, Rothstein S (1993) A 330bp region of the spinach nitrite reductase gene promoter directs nitrate-inducible tissue-specific expression in transgenic tobacco. Plant J. 4:317–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ratet P, Esnault R, Zuanazzi J, Sallaud C, Husson P, Coronado C, Dusha J, Savouré A, Dudits P, Schultze M, Bauer P, Crespi M, Jurkevitch E, Kondorosi E, Kondorosi A (1994) Molecular control of the development of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Nova Acta Leopoldina 70, Nr. 288, The Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycle as Influenced by Man; Barth Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Leipzig, Berlin Heidelberg, in pressGoogle Scholar
  94. Redinbaugh M-G, Campbell W H (1991) Higher plants responses to evironmental nitrate. Physiol. Plant. 82:640–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Riens B, Heldt H W (1992) Decrease of nitrate reductase activity in spinach leaves during a light-dark transition. Plant Physiol. 98:573–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Robinson J M (1988) Spinach leaf chloroplast CO2 and NO2“ photoassimilations do not compete for photoregenerated reductant. Plant Physiol. 88:1373–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rommel K (1992) Stillegung von Trinkwassergewinnungsanlagen. Baden-Württemberg in Wort und Zahl 7:312–315Google Scholar
  98. Scheele M, Isermeyer F, Schmitt G (1992) Umweltpolitische Strategien zur Lösung der Stickstoffproblematik in der Landwirtschaft. Arbeitsberichte des Institutes für Betriebswirtschaft der Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft, BraunschweigGoogle Scholar
  99. Schuster C, Mohr H (1990a) Appearance of nitrite-reductase mRNA in mustard seedling cotyledons is regulated by phytochrome. Planta 181:327–334Google Scholar
  100. Schuster C, Mohr H (1990b) Photooxidative damage to plastids affects the abundance of nitrate-reductase mRNA in mustard cotyledons. Planta 181:125–128Google Scholar
  101. Seith B, Neininger A, Mohr H (1994a) Regulation of nitrite reductase gene expression. Nova Acta Leopoldina 70, Nr. 288, The Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycle as Influenced by Man; Barth Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Leipzig, Berlin Heidelberg, in pressGoogle Scholar
  102. Seith B, Schuster C, Mohr H (1991) Coaction of light, nitrate and a plastidic factor in controlling nitrite-reductase gene expression in spinach. Planta 184:74–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Seith B, Setzer B, Flaig H, Mohr H (1994b) Appearance of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase and glutamine synthetase in different organs of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling as affected by light, nitrate and ammonium. Physiol. Plant., in pressGoogle Scholar
  104. Seith B, Sherman A, Wray J L, Mohr, H. (1994c) Photocontrol of nitrite reductase gene expression in the barley seedling (Hordeum vulgare L.). Planta 192:110–117Google Scholar
  105. Smirnoff, N., Stewart, G. R. (1985) Nitrate assimilation and translocation by higher plants: Comparative physiology and ecological consequences. Physiol. Plant. 64: 133–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Smirnoff N, Todd P, Stewart G R (1984) The occurrence of nitrate reduction in the leaves of woody plants. Ann Bot 54: 363–374Google Scholar
  107. Solomonson LP, Barber, M. J. (1990) Assimilatory nitrate reductase: functional properties and regulation. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 41:225–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Son D, Kobe A, Sugiyama T (1992) Nitrogen-dependent regulation of the gene for alanine aminotransferase which is involved in the C4 pathway of Panicum miliaceum. Plant Cell Physiol. 33:507–509Google Scholar
  109. Son D, Sugiyama T (1992) Molecular cloning of an alanine aminotransferase from NAD-malic enzyme type C4 plant Panicum miliaceum. Plant Mol. Biol. 20: 701–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Spill D, Kaiser W M (1994) Partial purification of two proteins (lOOkDa and 67 kDa) cooperating in the ATP-dependent inactivation of spinach leaf nitrate reductase. Planta 192:183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Stewart G R (1993) The comparative ecophysiology of plant nitrogen metabolism. In: Porter J R, Lawler D W (eds.), Plant Growth: Interactions with Nutrition and Environment. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  112. Stitt M, Schulze D (1994) Does Rubisco control the rate of photosynthesis and plant growth? An exercise in molecular ecophysiology. Plant, Cell Environment 17:465–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Stulen I (1986) Interactions between nitrogen and carbon metabolism in a whole plant context. In: Lambers, H., Neetson, J. J., Stulen, I. (eds.), Fundamental, Ecological and Agricultural Aspects of Nitrogen in Higher Plants. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  114. Ta C T (1991) Nitrogen metabolism in the stalk tissue of maize. Plant Physiol. 97:1375–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Tabeka G (1983) Phytochrome-mediated increase in glutamine synthetase activity in photosensitive New York lettuce seeds. Plant Cell Physiol. 24:1477–1483Google Scholar
  116. Temple S J, Knight T J, Unkefer P J, Sengupta-Gopalan C (1993) Modulation of glutamine synthetase gene expression in tobacco by the introduction of an alfalfa glutamine synthetase gene in sense and antisense orientation: molecular and biochemical analysis. Mol. Gen. Genet. 236:315–325Google Scholar
  117. Tsay Y-F, Schroeder J I, Feldmann K A, Crawford N M (1993) The herbicide sensitive gene CHL1 of Arabidopsis encodes a nitrate-inducible nitrate transporter. Cell 72: 705–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Udvardi M K, McDermott T R, Kahn M L (1993) Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding NADP+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase from soybean (Glycine max.). Plant Mol.Biol.21;739–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ueda T, Messing J (1993) Manipulation of amino acid balance in maize seeds. In: Setlow J K (ed.) Genetic Engeneering Vol. 15. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  120. Ullrich W R, Larsson M, Larsson C-M, Lesch S, Novacky A. (1984) Ammonium uptake in Lemna gibba Gl, related membrane potential changes, and inhibition of anion uptake. Physiol. Plant. 61:369–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Vaucheret H, Chabaud M, Kronenberger J, Caboche M (1990) Functional complementation of tobacco and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia nitrate reductase deficient mutants by transformation with wild-type alleles of the tobacco structural genes. Mol. Gen. Genet. 220: 468–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Vaucheret H, Kronenberger J, Lepingle A, Vilaine F, Boutin J-P, Caboche M (1992) Inhibition of tobacco nitrite reductase activity by expression of antisense RNA. Plant J. 2:559–569Google Scholar
  123. Verma D P S, Hu C-A, Zhang M (1992) Root nodule development: origin, function and regulation of nodulin genes. Physiol. Plant. 85:253–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Vincentz M, Moureaux T, Leydecker M-T, Vaucheret H, Caboche M (1993) Regulation of nitrate and nitrite reductase expression in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia leaves by nitrogen and carbon metabolites. Plant J. 3:315–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Wang M Y, Glass ADM, Shaff J E, Kochian L (1994) Ammonium uptake by rice roots. III. Electrophysiology. Plant physiol. 104:899–906Google Scholar
  126. Warner R L, Kleinhofs A (1992) Genetics and molecular biology of nitrate metabolisms in higher plants. Physiol. Plant. 85:245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Watt D A, Amory A M, Cresswell C F (1993) Constitutive and inducible aspects of nitratenitrogen uptake by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Physiol. Plant. 89:507–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Weber M, Schmidt S, Schuster C, Mohr, H. (1990) Factors involved in the coordinate appearance of nitrite reductase and glutamine synthetase in the mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedling. Planta 180:429–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. White T C R (1993) The Inadequate Environment. Nitrogen and the Abundance of Animals. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  130. Wray J L (1993) Molecular biology, genetics and regulation of nitrite reduction in higher plants. Physiol. Plant. 89:607–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zhen R-L, Koyro, H-W, Leigh R A, Tomos A. D, Miller A J (1991) Compartmental nitrate concentrations in barley root cells measured with nitrate-selective microelectrodes and by single-cell sap sampling. Planta 185:356–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Mohr
  • Armin Neininger

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations